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but much practised on the continent of Europe, and in the U. S., where the distances traversed are very considerable. Here is the sec. :

IX. Ins. on goods, wares, and merchandizes, moneys, gold, silver, jewels, pearls, and other precious stones, going or coming by land, or over fresh waters (whereof hereafter, under No. V. a form of pol. is found), may be regulated by the parties in manner as they amongst them can agree, provided it be not contrary to this ordinance. [TRANSPORT INS.]


or whom else it may concern,


The form of pol. here referred to is the following: TRANSPORT INS. POLICY.-We the underwritten do ins. you, wholly or partly, friend or foe, none excepted, viz., each for the sum by us here underwritten, from already sent or to be sent, with the riding post, or embaled, or packed in such packet, case, sack, or box, marked and numbered as follows: already laden, or yet to be laden, in the ship navigating from embaled or packed in such pack, case, or cask, marked and numbered as follows: whereof we by these take the risk for our account, to run from the hour and day that the said ins. goods shall be delivered and brought to the post office, waggon, ship, or other places where it is usual to receive the said goods for the insured design, and that be made to appear to us; and shall continue till what is insured shall be as above arrived at and freely and peaceably, without any loss or damage, delivered in the possession of the insured, his factor, or to whom it is consigned. And the ins. shall need to exhibit no further nor other proof of property or value than only this bare pol., with which we, in case of average, or damage, entirely shall be satisfied, although the wares ins. might be worth, or had cost less or more, as the same were by agreement, and to the satisfaction of both sides, particularly taxed and valued at the sum of which, in case of any accident, shall serve as a rule; and in all events or accidents, such other roads, vehicles, and vessels may be used and employed to forward the voyage, as, according to circumstances of time, by the ins. or any others, shall be judged proper, for the greater benefit and security of the goods ins. authorizing them thereto specially by these presents; as also to lend a hand to the saving and benefiting of the said goods, to sell them and to distribute the moneys in case of necessity without asking our consent; we shall also pay the charges incurred on that account, moreover the damage fallen thereon, whether anything be saved or not; and belief shall be given to the account of charges on the oath of him who shall have taken the same, without alleging anything against it; the said risk consisting of all the perils by water, and by land, tempests, fire and wind, arrests by friends and enemies, detentions by kings, queens, princes, fords, and republics, letters of mart and contramart, villanies, and negligence of the postillions, servants of the office, writers, sailors, waggoners, innkeepers, billets of lodging, parties, robbers and thieves, and all other perils and adventures, which anyways might befall the said goods, heard of and unheard of, usual and unusual, none excepted; putting us, in all such cases, in the place of the ins., to indemnify him for all loss and damage, which he shall have suffered, each in proportion to his sum underwritten, the first as well as the last insurer, to pay within three months after we shall have received the notice of the loss or damage to the insured, or to his attorney, without any deduction; provided in ready cash be paid us for the consideration of this ins. per hundred, under obligation and submission of our persons and goods present and to come; renouncing as persons of honour all cavils and exceptions contrary to these presents: reciprocally submitting all differences which might arise concerning the damages and prems. to the decision of the Chamber of Ins. and averages of this city; choosing in case of our dwelling out of the jurisdiction of the same, for Domicilium citandi et executandi, the house of the sec. of the said Chamber for the time being. Done at Amsterdam, etc.

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It was under this form of pol. that the large consignments of diamonds to and from England, and to and from other parts of the world, all going by the "Mail," were ins. ; and "valued pol." were used, in this case properly enough, because it would be impossible to agree upon any value atter actual loss. By valued pol. is meant that a valuation of the actual sum to be paid, in the event of loss, was agreed upon at the time of ins.

Then we arrive at the following somewhat remarkable sections :

XI. It shall also be lawful to make ins. on ships, goods, wares, and merchandizes, which are sunk, spoiled, robbed, taken, or arrested, even after such misfortune has happened, if no knowledge thereof is come to the principal, who causes the same to be ins. at the time of giving of the last order, or to him who gives order for making the ins. or to the correspondent, broker, or others who have procured the said ins. at the time of making it.

XII. But when the ship or goods have been so long sunk, robbed, spoiled, taken, or arrested, that the knowledge thereof could have come to the person who maketh the ins, either by sea or by land, reckoning three miles to two hours, in such the ins. shall be held of no value, except the insured, and also those who procured the ins. for him, declared upon oath that they were ignorant of the damage and loss at the making of the ins. [GOOD OR BAD NEWS.]


XIII. The masters, pilots, sailors, warlike people, and all others who navigate the said ships, shall not cause their hire or wages to be ins., but their ransom from pirates, and the merchandizes they take along with them they may ins. No ins. shall be made on wagers of voyages, and other such like inventions; and no judgment shall be given on them [by the Chamber of Ins.]

XIV. In ins. on the bodies of masters, mariners, and passengers, against infidels and other pirates, the underwriters shall be obliged to pay the sum they have underwritten, as soon as the bills of exchange drawn for the payment of the ransom are accepted; or sooner if it appears that the person ransomed has arrived on Christian ground: but with this proviso, that the full sum ins, for the ransom be laid out, and in case the person was ransomed for less, that the overplus be returned. [CAPTIVITY, INS. AGAINST.]

The form of policy appended to the ordinance for the last-named class of insurance is as follows:

RANSOM ON CAPTIVITY POLICY.-We, the underwritten, do ins. you, or whom it else may concern, viz., each for the sum by us here underwritten, from to touch everywhere, and all round, and at all places and lands, during the whole voyage, to sail and resail forwards and backwards, also to lie, lade, and relade, at the master's and factor's pleasure, either with or without the knowledge of the insured, or factor, on the body of the person of navigating as on the ship (which God preserve) called whereof the master is And if the said ship happen to be lost, or shall not proceed on the voyage, then we shall continue to run the risk on such other ship or

ships as the said
shall be embarked on, to accomplish the aforesaid voyage, either by water or
by land; and we shall run the risk of being taken by any nation whatsoever, either Turkish, Moorish
Barbarian, or other infidel pirates, by which the said
may be taken, made captive, carried
away, or ransomed: that in case this happen we will pay each punctually our full underwritten sum
for his redemption, or ransom-money, with the further charges accrued thereon, to the insured or the
bearer of these presents, without any deduction, as soon as advice is come here, and it shall appear to
us that he is redeemed, or that the money is drawn, and the bills of exchange shall be accepted; or
sooner in case it shall appear that the redeemed person is arrived on Christian ground; provided
nevertheless that what the ransom might have cost less shall be returned to the insurers; so that the
money of our underwriting shall only serve for his ransom and redemption, and all dependencies of the
same, and no further. For the accomplishing of what is aforesaid, we bind our persons and goods
present and to come; reciprocally submitting all differences as well concerning damages as premiums
to the decision of the Chamber of Ins. and averages of this city; choosing in case of our dwelling out
of the jurisdiction of the same for Domicilium citandi et executandi, the habitation of the sec. of the
said Chamber for the time being: all in good faith, without fraud or deceit; and we have received for
the premium . . . Done at Amsterdam, etc.

This branch of Ins. we shall treat of at large under CAPTIVITY INS.
Regarding Fire Ins. the ordin. is very brief :

XVIII. Ins. against fire on rope-yards, sugar-houses, still-houses, mills and other edifices, effects, and utensils thereto belonging, as well in this country as abroad; as also on houses and warehouses, shall be permitted to be made by policy for one year. [FIRE INS. HIST. OF.]

The following is the form of pol. provided under this sec. :


and thus together at the sum of


FIRE POLICY.-We, the underwritten, do ins. you, or whom else it may concern, wholly or partly, friend or foe, viz., each for the sum here by us underwritten, on the structure, building, etc., called the standing and situated with the house and utensils, moreover the household furniture, goods, wares and merchandizes of whatsoever quality or nature they may be, none excepted, as already are in, or on the aforesaid or during the whole space of this ins. shall be brought therein (and the insured shall be at liberty at any time to house so many goods, and to deliver them out again as he shall please), against fire and all danger of fire; moreover against all damage which on account of fire may happen either by tempest, fire, wind, own fire, negligence and fault of own servants, or of neighbours, whether those nearest, or further off; all external accidents and misfortunes, thought of and not thought of, in what manner soever the damage by fire might happen; for the space of twelve months, commencing with the and ending the both at twelve of the clock at noon: valuing specially and voluntarily the said structure, building, house, etc., with all its utensils and household furniture at the sum of and the goods, wares, and merchandizes at the sum of and it shall not prejudice whether all this be worth, or has cost, more or less. And the insured, or whom else it may concern, in case of damage or hurt, shall need to give no proof nor account of the value, as we know it is impossible to be done; but the producing this pol. shall suffice. And in case it should happen that the said structure, building, house, utensils and household furniture, and the goods, wares, and merchandizes, the whole, or part, are burnt or suffer damage on that account, we do hereby promise punctually to pay and satisfy without any exception, within the space of three months after the fire shall have happened, due notice having been given to us, each his whole sum underwritten, or else in proportion to the damages suffered, without deduction. Provided that in case of a partial loss all that shall be found to be saved and preserved shall be deducted, after the deduction of the charges paid for the saving and preserving ; and concerning which the insured shall be believed on his oath, without our alleging anything against it, provided there be paid to us in ready cash, for the consideration of this ins. per hundred, under obligation and submission of our persons and goods present and to come, renouncing as persons of honour all cavils and exceptions contrary to these presents; reciprocally submitting all differences as well concerning the damages as premiums to the decision of the Chamber of Ins. and averages in this city; and choosing in case of our dwelling without the jurisdiction of the said city, for Domicilium citandi et executandi, the habitation of the sec. of the said Chamber for the time being. Done at Amsterdam, etc.

Under such a policy now-a-days they would be done at Amsterdam, etc.! Anything better calculated to promote fraud it would be impossible to conceive. The policy is clearly founded upon the principle of "valued policies," well understood in Marine Íns. (although even there often employed for fraudulent purposes), but totally inapplicable to Fire Ins. [VALUED POLICIES.]

Sec. xix. of the ordin. relates to the Ins. of Bottomry Bonds, and would open up, if fully discussed here, many considerations which will develope themselves as we proceed. It will suffice, for the moment, to say, that for centuries the ecclesiastics launched their anathemas against the lending of money for gain: which they designated as the "high crime of usury." The Jews (most prob.) devised a system of loan into which the element of marine risk entered, and lifted the transaction out of the prohibitions of usury: this by means of BOTTOMRY BONDS,—an early form of Marine Ins., which we shall discuss very fully under its proper head. The Hollanders-who have for generations been adepts at every species of financial speculation ever devised by man-finally circumvented the ecclesiastics by adopting the plan of ins. the money advanced on Bottomry. We must now pass on. [BOTTOMRY.]

The following clauses show how completely the bus. of ins. was intended to be brought under the control of the Chamber of Ins. :

LIX. No book-printers, booksellers, or other persons in this city shall be permitted to print or sell policies without stamps, on penalty of 300 gilders.

LX. No insurers or insured shall underwrite, or cause to be underwrote, but on pol. furnished with a proper stamp, and signed by the sec. of the Chamber of Ins., who shall have three stivers for the same; on penalty of 300 gilders, over and above the penalty enacted by the general edict and ordin. concerning the small stamps against the defrauders of the public revenue.

The form of Marine Ins. pol. provided was as follows:
MARINE POLICY (SHIP).-We, underwritten, do assure you,

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or whom it else may concern,

wholly or partly, friend or foe, none excepted, viz., each for the sum here by us underwritten, from


the hull or body of the ship, which God preserve, with all her guns, ammunition, utensils, and appurtenances of the same, belonging to the said ... or anybody else, called whereof the master is or who in his stead as master or masters may navigate, of which we hereby take the risks, perils, and adventures, to run for our account, from the hour and day that the said ship has made a beginning to lade merchandize, or shall have taken on board the ballast for the said voyage, and end 21 days after the said ship shall be arrived at the last destined place of unlading, or so much sooner as she shall be entirely unladed. The said ship shall be permitted to sail forwards and backwards, to turn and wind to the right, left, and to all sides, as the master or masters shall please and think proper for the service and benefit of the said voyage. The afore-mentioned dangers, consisting of all perils at sea, stress of weather, fire, and wind, arrests by friends and enemies, detentions by kings and queens, princes, lords, and republics, letters of mart and contra-mart, carelessness of masters and sailors, villanies of the said sailors, and all other perils and adventures which anywise may happen to the ship without means of the insured, thought of or not thought of: putting ourselves in all such cases in your place, to pay to you the insured, or your factor, all the damage which you shall have suffered, viz., each in proportion to the sum he shall have underwrote, the first as well as the last insurer, within three months after we shall have notice given us of the loss or damage. And in such case we do grant you the insured, and all others, full power to lend a hand as well to our loss as to our benefit, in saving and benefiting of the said ship and the appurtenances of the same; also to sell the same and to distribute the money, in case the master doth require it, without asking our consent or leave: and we shall also pay the charges attending the same, besides the damages fallen thereon, whether anything be saved or not: and faith shall be given to the account of the charges on the oath of him who has taken the same without alleging anything against it: provided in ready cash be paid us for the consideration of the ins. p. hundred under obligation and submission of our persons and goods present and to come, renouncing as persons of honour all cavils and exceptions that may be contrary to these presents; reciprocally submitting all differences which may arise concerning damage and premiums to the decision of the Chamber of Ins., choosing in case of our dwelling beyond their jurisdiction, for Domicilium citandi et executandi, the house of the Secretary of the said Chamber for the time being. Done at Amsterdam, etc.

The form used for Cargo was very slightly different.

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ANEMIA. This term denotes simply absence of blood, and it implies deficiency of blood; but it is employed to denote generally an alteration of quality, rather than of quantity, of blood.-Hoblyn. Anæmic, bloodless.

ANASARCA.-General dropsy; dropsy of the cellular substance.

ANATOCISM.-Interest upon int. ; compound int. From the Greek signifying "child": the int. being the child of the principal.

ANCHORAGE.—A duty taken from the owners of ships for the use of the havens where they cast anchor.

ANCHOR ASSU. Co., for F. and L. Ins., founded in 1849, with an authorized capital of £1,000,000 in 50,000 shares of £20-subsequently reduced to £5-of which upwards of £150,000 was subs. This Co. was based upon the bus. of the ANCHOR LIFE Assu. Co., founded 1842, but which bus. was restricted to Life and Loan, and chiefly confined to Lond. The present Co. made F. Ins. a very important branch of its bus., and extended its agencies throughout England and many parts of the world. Local boards were estab. in Manchester, Glasgow, and Hull. The report for 1851 said, "In 18 months since the estab. of the fire department 3800 pol. have been issued, ins. nearly 2,250,000, producing in prems. £7109. Up to the end of the last financial year, the losses by fire amounted only to 16 p.c. of the prems. received." At the meeting in August, 1853, the accounts were still glowing: two millions new F. Ins. during the year; the prem. income, F. depart., £12,000.

With all this apparent progress, the affairs of the Co. were not in a satisfactory position. In 1855 or 1856 an important change in the management of the Co. occurred. Mr. Thomas Cave, then of Maidstone, and now M.P. for Barnstaple, came into the management. He cut down the working expenses, and made, in conjunction with the chairman, Mr. Wm. Lee, M.P. for Maidstone (where a large number of shareholders resided), great efforts to place the bus. on a sound footing. Finding this could not be done as rapidly as they desired, the directors, who were respectable and well-known men, resolved to amalg. the bus. with that of the National Provincial. This arrangement was set aside on some technical ground; and a call was made of £1 per share, with a view of carrying on the bus. Some dissensions arose, and in 1857 the Co. was amalg. with the Bank of Lond. Ins. Co. This last-named Co. in 1858 amalg. with the Albert. On the failure of the Albert, steps were taken to wind up this Co.-see below.

It was out of the affairs of this Co. that the leading case of Dally v. India and Lond. Ins. Co. arose in 1855. We shall give some details concerning this case under INSURABLE INTEREST.

In 1862 there was before the Court of Chancery an important case arising out of claims made upon the Saxon So. by this Co. Of these we shall speak in our hist. of the Saxon. On 21st March, 1870, an order was made by V.C. James for winding up the Anchor, and Mr. S. L. Price was appointed liq. On appeal to the Lord Chancellor, the petition upon which the order was made was dismissed, and the liq. therefore set aside. This was in July, 1870.

ANCHOR INDUSTRIAL. A Life, Endow., and Sickness Asso., set on foot at the close of 1867, with an authorized cap. of £2,000; but appears never to have become fully developed.

ANCHOR LIFE ASSU. Co., founded in 1842, with an authorized cap. of £200,000. An early prosp. states, "This Co. affords to the community every advantage resulting from

a system of Life assu., estab. upon a safe and equitable basis, and embraces the lowest rates of prem. consistent with stability; and a liberal system of loan upon personal security, or otherwise, to parties assu. in this office." "The lives of persons subject to gout, rupture, asthma, and to such diseases as do not essentially tend to shorten life, may likewise be assured in this office upon payment of a prem. commensurate with the increased risk." Endowments to widows and children were granted; and credit for a portion of the prem. on ordin. ins. allowed. The Co. was founded by Mr. Edward Baylis, who remained its act. and man. down to 1846. In 1849 the Co. was re-organized, and indeed re-regis. [ANCHOR ASSU. Co.]

ANCILLARY.-That which depends on, or is subordinate to, some other decision. ANDERSON, ADAM.-For 40 years connected with the South Sea House, pub. in 1762, An Historical and Chronological Deduction of the Origin of Commerce from the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time; containing a history of the great commercial interests of the British Empire, etc., 2 vols. fol. In 1789 the 2nd ed. was pub. ; in 1801 the 3rd ed. 4 vols. 4to. A justly celebrated and valuable work, embodying the result of 40 years' labour, replete with useful information; so much of which as bears upon ins., int., usury, etc., will be noticed in these pages.

ANDERSON, E. G. LAUGHTON, Sec. of Lond. Guar. and Accident since its formation in 1869, he being one of the founders. He commenced his ins. training in the Western L. 1851. In 1858 he entered the Albert, and managed its re-insurances department for some years. He has contributed to the lit. of ins. in the form of articles and letters. ANDERSON, J. J. P., Sec. of Scottish Widows Fund, which position he has occupied since 1860.

ANDERSON, ROBERT, Barrister-at-Law, and Sec. of Essex and Suffolk Equitable Fire since 1868. He was called to the Bar in 1851, and in 1856 became superintendent of the F. department of the Yorkshire, where he gained an experience eminently fitting him for the guardianship of the successful office of which he is now the principal officer. ANDERTON, JAMES, was for many years agent in Lond. of the West of England. He was also one of the founders of the Law Life, although he never held any official position in connexion with it. Mr. Joshua W. Butterworth, the well-known law bookseller, in Fleet Street, is our authority on this subject. In a letter to the City Press under date 6th Feb., 1868, speaking of Mr. Anderton having been mainly instrumental in founding the now flourishing Law Institution, he says: "Mr. Anderton was destined speedily again to render his professional brethren indebted to him by projecting for their special service a life assu. so., the first that had been originated with particular reference to the legal profession. The result was the estab. of the Law Life," etc. Mr. Anderton died in Jan., 1868, at the age of 85.

ANDREW, WILLIAM, solicitor, Lincoln, was founder of the Lincolnshire F. Office, in 1851; and in 1854 of the Midland Ins. Co., which took over the bus. of the first-named co. and extended it to Life and other branches. He was the secretary of these Cos. from their formation down to 1862.

of the Co.

ANDREWS, WILLIAM, resident superintendent of Palladium at the time of the foundation ANEURISM; disease of the arteries (Class LOCAL; Order, diseases of organs of circulation). The deaths from this cause in England show a rather rapid increase. In ten consecutive years they were as follows: 1858, 350; 1859, 371; 1860, 368; 1861, 387; 1862, 373; 1863, 418; 1864, 479; 1865, 499; 1866, 450; 1867, 503; showing a variation from 18 per million of the population living in 1858 to 21 in 1863, and 24 in 1867. Over a period of fifteen years ending 1864 the deaths averaged 18 per million.

The deaths in 1867 were: males, 378; females, 125. The deaths were mostly in the middle and advanced ages of life.

ANGARIA.-Impressing of ships.-Blount.

ANGINA PECTORIS; breast-pang sudden and acute pain in the chest, referred to the sternum (breast-bone), accompanied by intense anxiety and fear of death. (Class LOCAL; Order, diseases of organs of circulation.) The deaths from this cause in England are considerable. In 1866 they were 246: males 161, females 85; in 1867, 262: males 166, females 96. The ages at death in 1867 were: males, under 20, 6; between 20 and 45, 22; between 45 and 75, 128; between 75 and 95, 12; females, under 20, nil; between 20 and 45, 14; between 45 and 75, 61; between 75 and 95, 21.

ANGLIAN LIFE AND GUARANTEE Co. was projected by a Brighton gentleman in 1854, but made no progress.

ANGLICUS SUDOR.-The English sweating-fever, or the ephemera maligna of Burserius, described by Dr. Caius as "a contagious pestilential fever of one day.' It made its first appearance in London in 1480 or 1483.-See PLAGUE. ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN AND GOLD-DIGGERS MUTUAL LIFE ASSU. Co.-Projected in 1852, for Life, Loan, and Guar. bus. ; but it did not get beyond prov. regis. under that We believe it broke out in the following year under the title of Anglo-Australian and Universal, etc., which see. ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN AND UNIVERSAL FAMILY LIFE INS. Co., founded in 1853 (under 7 & 8 Vict., c. 110), with an authorized cap of £150,000, in 15,000 shares of £10. This


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scheme abounded in "new features," most of which we shall briefly notice. The Co. was estab. 'for granting infantile, adult, and matrimonial assu., annu., endow., loans, and guar.; and for the purchase of rev. property; with special application to infants, emigrants, and gold-miners." "75 p.c. and eventually 100 p.c. of the entire profits divided on a new and most equitable principle among the members." "No commissions paid to agents or others." Then the following:

The design in the estab. of this Co. is to supply an extensive vacancy in the application and practice of L. Assu. by the intro. of new and highly important features of great practical utility. The operations of the Co. will embrace every improvement calculated to be permanently beneficial to its members. Its constitution will protect the policy-holders from every species of liability and loss which attach more or less to sos. whose only legal security rests in the ann. prem. fund, and while the members have the security and profitable use of an ample capital fund, they will possess a mutual interest in the prosperity and government of the Co., being entitled to, etc. (profits as before stated).

The leading objects of the Co. were comprised under 5 principal departments, viz., 1. INFANT INS. 2. GENERAL INS. 3. EMIGRATION INS. 4. AUSTRALIAN INS. 5.


Infant Ins.-The subject of Infant Assu. is highly interesting and important, and calculated to prove far more beneficial to society than even adult assu.-the great utility of which is now generally recognized. The only cause perhaps which has hitherto operated to retard its adoption is the fear that it would encourage infanticide." But the principle of Infant Assu. as adopted by this Co. is calculated to check any tendency to this crime, and at the same time to afford the fullest advantage that can possibly be derived from early assu. Great pecuniary profit often arises to policy-holders during life on adult assu.; how much greater then must the profit be upon the pol. of those who were ins. in infancy, from the increasing accumulations of money at compound int. ! What a valuable boon therefore would parents confer upon their children by ins. their lives while they are young. An orig. set of prem. tables for the several forms of Infant Assu. has been calculated expressly for this Co.; assu. and annu. are granted on infant lives from the age of 3 months to 14 years, and embrace the following benefits: the prem. for which can be paid in one sum, or by ann., half-yearly, or quarterly payments. Prems. not forfeited through inability to continue them.

We shall give a résumé of the various schemes of infant ins. contained in this prosp., many of which were orig. and ingenious, under CHILDREN, INS. OF. Under department No. 2, pol. were granted on male and female lives from 15 to 75. The only special features under this head were the following:

Legacy Bonds, from £5 to £5000, by which relatives or friends can give possession of a legacy in their lifetime at a great saving, and avoid the legacy duty. Thus, a gentleman between 30 and 40 desirous of leaving his niece £1000 at his death, would save £500 to the estate, and the legacy duty, by obtaining a legacy bond of this Co.

Policies of Exchange, from £5 to £5000, which can change hands by endorsement, like a bill of exchange; are totally free from the payment of prems. or the performance of conditions on the part of the assu., are made payable to the holder seven days after satisfactory proof of death.

Guarantee Policies, for sums payable in cases of defalcation and breach of monetary trust, with L. assu. Widows, Orphans, and Survivorship Annuities, for permanent incomes after the death of specified persons, as husbands, fathers, masters, friends, etc.

The next department, Emigration Ins., we shall speak of under that head. The 4th department, Life Assu. in Australia, was spoken of as follows:

The great and increasing success which has so long attended the operations of Life Assu. in England, and the happy effects which have resulted therefrom, prove that its introduction was a great blessing, and warrant the expectation that in Australia also the estab, of a well-constituted assu co., conducted on principles of liberality, and possessing every facility for promoting the extension and beneficial application of the science to the peculiar features of Australian life, will be as much appreciated and produce results equally as salutary as in this country.

The practical development of the principle of Guarantee Assu. for honesty has afforded us ample and satisfactory evidence of its utility, both in a social and commercial aspect. And this fact furnishes a strong argument for its extension to Australia, where the Co. will transact every variety of Life Assu., Annu., and Guar. which characterize its operations in England, both as to infants and adults.

The 5th department, Life Assu. at the Gold Regions, was thus set forth :

This department will be conducted on a system of convenience to the assured, and safety to the Co., and will comprise-I. The assu. of capital sums from £5 to £3000, payable at death. II. The assu. of capital sums from £5 to £3000, payable at a specified age, or at death, if it occur before reaching the given age. III. The assu. of life incomes from £5 to £500 per annum, to commence at any given age. IV. The granting Annu. Assu. for £5 and up to £500 p.a. for life, after attaining a specified age, together with the sum of £5 and upwards to 1000, payable at death, whenever it may occur.

The man. director and act. of the Co. was Mr. Tobiah Pepper; the sec., Mr. John Newton.

In 1855 it took over the bus. of the Accumulative Life; and out of that amalg. arose the famous case of King v. Accumulative, of which we have given an abstract under AMALG. In 1858 its entire bus. was trans. to British Provident, and out of this trans. arose the case of Anglo-Australian v. Brit. Provident, heard before Lord Chancellor Westbury, in 1862, wherein the question as to what indemnity should be given to a co. which sells its bus. was decided. [AMALGAMATION.] See also Dict. of Decisions in

Ins. Cases.

ANGLO-FRENCH MARINE INS. Co.-This Co. was projected in 1859 by Mr. John J. Peddell, solicitor, 82, Cheapside, and Mr. Alex. Gunn, "newspaper proprietor and projector of ins. cos. It came to nothing.

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ANGLO-INDIAN.—An Englishman domiciled in the Indian territory of the Crown. [INDIA, INS. IN.]

ANGLO-SAXON HOME AND COLONIAL LIFE ASSU. Co. was projected in London, in

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