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CLERKS. In the earlier Ins. asso., and indeed almost down to the present century, the principal officer of such associations was designated the "Clerk." The origin of the appellation is clear enough. The term, from having originally been applied to the clergy, came to signify an educated person: hence the "Clerk' was the educated person, or chief officer of such establishments. The Lond. Assu. Corp. and the Equitable were among the earliest offices that departed from the old practice. A clerk now signifies a scribe, or a writer; but the Chief Clerk in an ins. office may be regarded usually as occupying a position of great trust and confidence.

We may take this opportunity of offering a few general obs. regarding clerks in ins. offices. We are often asked the question, What are the chances of success for a young man of fair education entering an ins. office in the ordinary way, i.e. trusting to his merits for advancement? We are obliged to answer that the prospects are not very inviting. 1. It is a genteel employment-genteel employments are much sought after in this country. 2. It involves no outlay of capital either for special training, as nearly all professions do; or to be staked on the success of the venture, as in commerce. 3. It secures an immediate return in the shape of some small salary-this is of the greatest consequence to sons of widows and others in reduced or moderate circumstances. For these reasons the competition for such employment will always be considerable, and the scale of remuneration correspondingly low. On the other hand, there is scope here, as in other pursuits, for the exercise of ability, with the prospect of a fair reward. The clerks of this generation will be the managers, actuaries, or secretaries of the next. These are the prizes of the profession; and as all advancement should be, and to a great extent must be, by merit, there is scope for those who determine to become proficient. The increasing competition with ins, offices will require to be met by a higher standard of managerial ability. CLERKS, INS. OF.-During the years 1710 and 1711, when a great number of speculative ins. projects were on foot, various schemes were brought forward for ins. Clerks. We have never seen any explanation of the exact nature of the ins. undertaken. It was no doubt analogous to the schemes for ins. apprentices and servants; for it was carried on at the same offices.

CLERKS, MERCANTILE, ETC., MORT. OF.-There would seem at first sight no especial reason why persons occupied as mercantile clerks should sustain an unusually heavy mort., yet the fact is so. It most prob. arises from several causes combined, rather than from any one well-marked and distinctive circumstance.

Thackrah, in his Effects of Arts, Trades, and Professions, etc., 1832, says:

Clerks, book-keepers, accountants, etc., suffer from confined atmosphere, a fixed position, and often also from long days. At many large manufactories the book-keepers are kept at the desk, with the intervals of 24 hours for meals, from 6'30 in the morning till 9 at night. Attorneys' clerks are sometimes confined too long and too closely; but this excess is but occasional, and on the average I believe their work is moderate. Yet they, as well as book-keepers, are often distressed. Their muscles are distressed by the maintenance of one posture; and they complain frequently of pains in the sides of the chest. This affection is not dependent on the state of the thoracic viscera, neither do we find the size of the chest considerably diminished. It is less indeed than in the soldier, but scarcely less than in the average of townsmen; and the capacity of the lungs, as indicated by the pulmometer, is not at all reduced. In clerks and book-keepers the digestive organs suffer most, a fact apparent even from the countenance and tongue. The circulation is imperfect; the head becomes affected; and though urgent disease is not generally produced, yet a continuance of the employment in its full extent never fails to impair the constitution, and render the individual sickly for life. I scarcely need mention the simple and effectual remedies: fresh air, and full muscular exercise. Many of the class have the opportunity; all ought to have.

This is the medical view of the case; and it prepares the way for what follows.

In 1840 the Provident Clerks Ins. Asso. was founded, for the purpose of affording ins. facilities to mercantile and other clerks. Its experience, whenever it may be given to the ins. world, will be of vast importance. (See 1871.)

In 1845 Mr Neison pub. his Contributions to Vital Statistics, etc., wherein he says: It will no doubt cause some uneasiness in the minds of inquirers to find that so highly important and industrious a class of men as clerks should stand lowest in the scale of the above employments [viz. miners, bakers, plumbers, painters, glaziers, clerks]; and that from 20 to 60 their expectation of life should be only 75 p.c. of the general average. The expectation of life among plumbers, painters, and glaziers in the same period is equal to 81 p.c., miners 85 p.c., and bakers 88 p.c., of the general average. At age 30 the difference between the expectation of life in the rural districts and in Liverpool is 8'2636 years; but the difference between clerks and labourers is 13'0211 years, and so also at other periods of life. In the comparison between clerks and labourers the expectation for clerks has been for the average of the three districts [rural, town, and city]; but if it had been taken for the city districts only, a much greater difference would have been found, and, consequently, the influence of employments appeared the greater.

He gives a mort. T. for clerks.-See 1857.

Mr. Ratcliffe, in his Rate of Mort. and Sickness existing among Friendly Sos., particularly for Various Trades, Occupations, and Localities, pub. 1850, says:

Clerks and schoolmasters are inhabitants of all the localities from which the general results have been experienced. They constitute about 1'4 p.c. of the whole of the lives previously given in the rural, town, and city districts, and relative to vitality are the very worst class of lives shown in this experience. At T. XLV. it will be seen that one-half of the persons forming this class die off on attaining the age 54'5-thus showing an inferior vitality of nine years, as compared with the general class of lives, and with those of E. and W.

Clerks and schoolmasters show a less expectation at the decennial periods of life, 20 and 30, than any other class of lives here experienced upon. At the other periods, 40, 50, and 60, they show the least expectation, with the exception of letter-press printers and compositors; and at the latter periods, the last-named class show a less inferior expectation, though to a very limited extent, than clerks and schoolmasters.

In the 3rd. ed. of Contributions to V. Statis., etc. (pub. 1857), Mr. Neison again refers to the mort. of clerks; but he does not throw any new light upon the subject, except that a T. of Expectation is furnished, and his mort. T. is thus rendered complete. The data from which the T. is deduced will be explained under OCCUPATIONS. We curtail the decimal places in cols. 4, 5, and 6.

MORT. T. FOR CLERKS (MALES), RURAL, TOWN, AND CITY DISTRICTS COMBINED.

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Mr. A. H. Smee, the medical officer of the Gresham, Provident Clerks, and other ins. asso., in his return of the "causes of death" in the Gresham, pub. 1871, gives a T. of the relative mort. from each of the 12 great classes of disease, in 1000 insured clerks obs. upon-in which we assume the mort. of the Provident Clerks is placed under con. tribution :

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CLIFTON, MORT. T. FOR.-This place [Co. Gloucester] has, at least during the greater part of the present century, been a famous health resort. Its close proximity to Bristol, not altogether famous for the standard of its health, has caused an increased interest to be felt as to the measure of its actual and comparative salubrity. The following are the main facts at our command regarding it.

Mr. Robt. Rankin, in his Familiar Treatise on Life Assu. and Annu., pub. 1830, gave a mort. T. for Clifton, based upon data arranged with a view to accuracy. He says: The great influx of persons to Clifton, both as visitors and permanent residents, rendered a correct exclusion of the deaths among them from this T. almost impracticable. With the assistance, however, of the clerk of the parish, who had held the office for nearly 10 years, I was enabled so to approximate the truth, as to be quite confident that every add. step towards it would exhibit the duration of life in this parish in a more favourable point of view. It would now, from the vastly increased and still rapidly increasing pop. (principally from immigration), be impossible to form a T. from the burial regis. of the parish with the least pretension even to an approximation to the true rate of mort. amongst its inhabitants.

Mr. Rankin's painstaking methods have been more fully explained under BRISTOL, MORT. T. FOR. Here is his T., which he designates:

"PROBABILITIES AND EXPECTATIONS OF LIFE in the PARISH OF CLIFTON."

Age. Living. Dying. Expecta- Age. Living. Dying. Expecta-Age. Living. Dying. Expecta

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At the Brit. Asso. Meeting at Bath, in 1864, Dr. J. A. Symonds, M.D., read a paper on The Sanitary Statistics of Clifton, of which the following is but a very brief outline:

The point of the paper is to show the importance of adding verbal explanations to statistical returns. The R.-Gen. Rep. had given 24 in 1000 as the death-rate of Clifton, calculated from the deaths in the quarter ending June, 1864. This statement would be very injurious to the reputation of Clifton as a watering-place, unless it were explained that its name is given to a large poor-law district, to the pop, of which Clifton proper contributes little more than one-fifth. The several subdistricts of Clifton Union are described in detail, as to their sanitary characteristics, and as to their respective death-rates, calculated from the ann. returns of deaths in the five years from 1859 to 1864. The average for Clifton proper is 17 in 1000; and if a quarterly return be a fair basis of calculation, it would be found that in some quarters the death-rate amounted to only 15 in 1000. On comparing the death-rates of the several sub-districts of Clifton Union, the influence of urban and rural agencies is shown. The highest death-rates denote the combination of poverty and crowding. He compared the death-rates of several localities in England, and ascertained that the average for a crowded town was 24 in 1000; for a rural district, 15; and for a mixed district, 21. Clifton Union is a mixed district. One of its sub-districts, three miles distant from Clifton proper, gives 24 in 1000; for it belongs really to one of the most miserable quarters on the outskirts of Bristol. A purely local sub-district, Westbury, gives 15 in 1000, and Clifton proper 17 in 1000. But the average of the whole union is 21.

This subject will be further discussed under LOCALITY. We assume also that Clifton was one of the districts included in Dr. Farr's Healthy Life T. CLIMACTERIC (properly Klimacteric, from the Greek, the step of a ladder).—A stage in the progression of the life of man, usually divided into periods of 7 years; thus the 7th period, or 49, is the "lesser climacteric "; the 9th period, or 63 years, the "climacteric "; while 81 (which is not a multiple of 7) is the "grand climacteric." Some writers say the climacteric period is every 9 years; this would conform to 81 as the 9th period of nines. It is affirmed that notable alterations in the health and constitution of a person happen at these periods. Cotgrave says, "Every 7th, or 9th, or 63rd year of a man's life, all very dangerous-but the last most." Hippocrates is said to have referred to these periods in his writings 383 B.C.

Certain years in the life of man have been from great antiquity supposed to have a peculiar importance, and to be liable to singular vicissitudes in his health and fortunes. This superstitious belief is said to have originated in the doctrines of Pythagoras.

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well-known notice of the climacterical year 63, supposed to be particularly dangerous to old men, in a letter of Augustus Cæsar preserved by Aulus Gellius, evinces its prevalence amongst the Romans. This year has been called by some astrological writers "heroicus," as having been peculiarly fatal to great men. The virtue of this year seems to consist of its being a multiple of the two mystical numbers 7 and 9. It is certainly singular that usage should have attached in all countries peculiar distinctions to those years which are denoted by compounds of the number 7. Thus 14 has been fixed for various purposes as the epoch of puberty; 21 of full age; 35 is selected by Aristotle as the period when the body is in its highest physical vigour. The same author supposes the vigour of the mind to be perfected at 49; 63 to be the grand climacteric year; 70 the limit of the ordinary age of man. Bodinus says that 7 is the climacteric number in men, 6 in women.-Brande. Modern writers have differed much regarding this climacteric theory; the great majority of them more or less discarding it. For ourselves, we look upon it as among the last surviving superstitions of the "medicine-men"-only surviving alchemy, because less capable of practical refutation. Any half dozen unadjusted mort. T. could dispel it for ever. But we must glance at a few authorities.

In 1704 the continental writer, Carolus L. Funckert, pub. a thesis: Annorum climactericorum explicatis-one of the very few separate publications which have appeared on the subject.

Sir John Wm. Lubbock, in a paper which he read before the Cambridge Philosophical So. as far back as 1828, said:

It is to be regretted that those who have pub. T. of mort. should generally not only have altered the radix or number of deaths upon which the T. is constructed, but also the number of deaths recorded at different ages, in order to render the decrements uniform; this is the case particularly with the Northampton T. For if obs. were continued to a sufficient extent, they would prob. show that some ages are more exposed to disease than others—that is, that they would indicate the existence of climacterics, of which alterations such as these destroy all trace.

In 1845 Dr. Wm. Guy contributed to the Statistical Journ. his famous paper: On the Duration of Life among the Families of the Peerage and Baronetage of the U.K. After preparing a series of tables illustrative of his main purpose, he proceeds to review their collateral uses, and therein he says:

The facts from which the T. are formed may be used to determine another question of some little interest, namely, are there any particular ages marked by an excessive mort. The ancients, as is well known, attached great importance to certain ages, attributing to them unusual danger and a high mort. These ages, which were designated as the climacteric years, are the 49th, 63rd, and the 81st. Although the fanciful value attached to No. 7 and its multiples is perhaps a sufficient explanation of the importance attached to the first two periods, it may possibly have happened that a rude obs. of the ages at which death took place bore its part in the estab. of the theory. It may, therefore, be worth while to submit this theory to the test of facts. The inquiry indeed derives an add. interest from the occasional revival in modern times of the superstitious importance formerly attached to certain numbers.

He then refers to the T. of " ages at death" of the several persons he had been observing upon. The number of deaths at age 49 is found to be somewhat in excess of the numbers of several preceding and succeeding years; it exceeds by six deaths the number at the age of 47, which is the highest number for all the earlier ages; and by eight deaths the highest number for the next five years. The precise numbers are at 49 years, 45 deaths; at 47 years, 39 deaths; and at 51 years, 37 deaths. The number of deaths at the age of 63, on the other hand, falls short of the number in the year preceding by two deaths; and only exceeds the number in the 61st and 65th years by three deaths. Again, the number of deaths at 81 years of age, though somewhat greater than in the year following, and higher than in every preceding year, falls greatly short of the number in the year immediately preceding. Of the three climacteric years then, says Dr. Guy, "there is only one (49, or the lesser climacteric) which displays any excess of deaths; and even in this case the excess is not so large but that it may safely be attributed to a coincidence." He then tests the matter in the following form: take the year before and the year after each climacteric year, and compare this triad with the triads immediately preceding and following. Thus :

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Although the triads comprising the climacterics exhibit a slight excess of deaths over the preceding and succeeding triads, the excess is not more considerable than in the case of other years to which no peculiar importance attaches. Thus the 33rd and 35th years, taken either separately or in connexion with the years immediately preceding or following, exhibit a similar excess. In the case of the three years immediately preceding that which comprises the 81st year, there is a great diminution in the number of deaths; but it is only such a decrease as must happen towards the end of life, when the numbers living at each age must of necessity very rapidly decrease. From all that has been now stated, it would appear that there is no sufficient reason for attaching to the climacteric years an unusual importance, though there seems to be a slight increase of deaths at or about these years. [vol. viii., p. 75.]

CLIMACTERIC DISEASE. This term was formerly applied to a sudden and general

alteration of health, occurring at a certain period of life, and of uncertain duration.— Hoblyn. It has more lately been applied to that declension of bodily and vital powers which is frequently observed to come on in the later period of life, and from which many persons again rally so as to attain extreme old age.-Brande.

The late Sir Henry Halford, "the Physician of the Aristocracy," in one of those brilliant essays (pub. 1831) in which he aired his Latinity, carried the theory of climacterics so far as to attribute a special disease as an incident thereof. This essay, On the Climacteric Disease, forms No. 1 of his pub. series. The affection he describes represents the wearing out of the nervous system, through the agency of an overwrought brain, and exhausting mental and emotional influences. The period of life at which the learned author supposed this to take place is between the 50th and 75th year-a somewhat wide

range.

In a paper read by Dr. G. Shann, M.D., before the Social Science Congress at York in 1864, On the Influence of Occupation and Age on the Health of those engaged in some of the Commoner Manual Employments, etc., that writer says:

My obs. among the operative classes lead me to the conclusion that they also have their climacteric disease, representing not the outworn condition of the organs of thought and feeling, but the destructive effects of unremitting physical exertion on the degenerating nervous and muscular systems of organic and animal life. This is not the occasion to enter at length on the subject; it is sufficient for my present purpose to obs. that the investigations made led me to the inference that, in the classes of which I am now speaking, the period of climacteric failure is most marked between the ages of 35 and 49; terminating, it would seem, about the time when that of the class alluded to commences. I would only point to one circumstance bearing on this question, which appears on the face of the statistical T., viz. that throughout nearly every class of workmen, considerably the largest per-centage of those suffering from anemia, or impoverishment of blood and failing nutrition, is found in group A-that is, at the period of life of which I am speaking. [OCCUPATION.] CLIMACTERICAL YEAR.-Either of the periods indicated in our art. CLIMACTERIC. CLIMATE (from the Greek, a region).—The term climate is derived from the old mathematical geographers, who were accustomed to draw imaginary lines on the earth's surface parallel to the Equator, and the successive "climates were the spaces and regions between these lines. At present the term climate denotes merely the temperature and other conditions of the atmosphere of different countries and districts in reference to their effects upon the health of persons inhabiting them.

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Climate in its most ordinary and general acceptation embraces all those modifications of the atmosphere by which our organs are sensibly affected; such as temperature, humidity, variations of barometric pressure, the tranquility of the atmosphere, or the effects of winds, the purity of the air or its admixture with gaseous emanations more or less salubrious; and lastly, the habitual diaphaneity of the atmosphere-that serenity of the sky so important on account of the influence which it exercises, not only on the development of organic tissues in vegetables and the ripening of fruits, but also on the ensemble of moral sensations which mankind experience in the different zones. -Brande.

This same writer tells us that there are two general causes upon which the climate peculiar to any country principally depends. 1. Its distance from the Equator. 2. Its altitude above the level of the sea. But their effect is generally modified by many circumstances exerting a partial influence. Among these may be enumerated the configuration and extent of the country; its inclination and local exposure; the directions of the chains of mountains by which it is intersected, or which are in its vicinity; the nature of the soil as it is more or less favourable to radiation; absorption and evaporation; the proximity to or distance from seas; the action of winds, blending the temperatures of different latitudes; and even the changes produced by cultivation. The appreciation of all these causes, which modify the results deduced from the consideration of latitude and elevation alone, and the effect produced by their combined operation, constitutes the science of Climatology.-Dict. of Science.

The chief constituents of the climate of any place, are: (1) the temperature; (2) the moisture of the atmosphere; (3) the pressure of the air; and (4) the prevailing winds. But these are liable, in their operation, to modification from or by the causes already stated. The following T. of temperatures may be useful for future reference:

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The other points will be illustrated under their respective heads.

In the writings of Hippocrates, B.C. 400, will be found many minute meteorological

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