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BIRTH INS., then very prevalent. The first we meet with is the Baptismal Office of Assu., the announcement of which furnishes the following outline of the nature of the bus. Every subs. was to pay 2s. 6d. towards each infant baptized until he had one of his own, when he was to receive £200, "the interest of which is sufficient to give a child a good education; and the principal reserved until he comes to maturity." Various similar schemes followed, of which we shall proceed to give a chronological outline. We may fairly assume that many more such projects existed than at this remote period we are able to trace.
The Profitable So., at the Wheatsheaf, by Tom's Coffee House, issued in Nov., 1710, the following: £250 to be paid on the Baptizing a Child, being a new proposal by the Profitable So.; which, by only paying 2s. 6d. for a pol., and 2s. 6d. towards each claim, entitles you to the sum above mentioned. There is also a second so, where, paying only Is. contribution, you receive £100.
About the 28th of the same month the Union So. (No. 3), was opened at the Corner of Rupert St., near Upper End of Haymarket, being "a new office on Baptism." No details given.
On the following day another Baptism office was opened, at the Hand and Pen, Earl Court, St. Giles. Pol., 2s. 6d. ; contribution, 2s. 6d. each infant; claim, £250.
On the 4th Dec. there was opened at the Widow Pratt's Coffee House, Cateaton St., A Faithful Office for Ins. of Baptisms. Terms, 5s., 5s. and £500. And shortly afterwards another: half-terms and half-benefits.
During this month of Dec. there was issued the following remarkable advertisement : At the several offices for ins. on marriages hereunder named are now also opened for paying 250%. in the first, 100l. in the second, say on the Baptizing children, or as to such of Her Majesty's Protestant subjects who do not baptize their children, on proof to be made that the child was alive three days after the birth thereof. The conditions for the 250/. are that each subscriber pay 2s. 6d. for each pol., and 2s. 6d. to each claim for the 100l. Every subscriber to pay 2s. for a pol. and is. to every claim. The number of subscribers to be 2100 in each office. Proposals at large may be had at Mr. Clement, "Wheat Sheaf," by Tom's; Mr. Simson, "Golden Lyon," Drury-lane; Mr. Baker, "Bourns Coffee House;" Mr. Morse, "Hargreaves Coffee House;" Mr. Edwards, "King's Head Court, Petticoatlane;" Mr. Blackmore, "Black Swan," Shoreditch.
On 6th Feb., 1711, it was announced by Profitable So., at Wheatsheaf, that the trustees appoint "all pol. for claims on Baptizing Children to be henceforth made out for 3 kal. months; all for dividends for 2 kal. months. . . . . Entered already in the said societies, 1835."
Early in March, 1711, was passed the 9 Anne, c. 6, sec. 57 of which imposed a fine of £500 on every person erecting or setting up any office of this character in future. The enterprise consequently died out, and has since remained a matter of history only. [GAMBLING INS.] CHRISTENINGS.-Before the General Registration Act came into working operation in 1836, the system of regis. of births, although enjoined by the Canons of the Church, and also by the Statute Law as early as 1695 [BIRTHS, REGIS. OF], had become very lax; and indeed the regis. of the christening was regarded much the same as the regis. of the birth, although we now realize the fact that the two things are very different. Baptism, when it ceased to be immediate upon birth, as enjoined according to the rites of the Romish Church, could no longer be certain. The infants who died within the first month after birth-till which period baptism was generally delayed by the practice of the Protestant Church-never got into the returns of christenings at all; while several sects of Dissenters discarded baptism altogether. When it first became the practice to enter the christenings in the B. of Mort. does not appear. They are not entered in the Lond. Bill we have given for 1563; but they are in that for 1582. [BILLS OF MORT.] So that this last date may perhaps be regarded as about the orig. of the practice.
The number of christenings recorded became, and remained until early in the present century, an important element in estimating the pop., and also in predicting its increase or decrease. But, as we have elsewhere shown [CENSUS], the test was a fallacious one.
The first writer who used the returns of christenings in relation to pop. estimates was Graunt. He soon found how imperfect they were for the purpose; and he hit upon the cause of their imperfection with marvellous sagacity. Here is what he says in his Natural and Political Obs., 1661:
For that there hath been a neglect in the accounts of the christenings is most certain, because until the year 1642 we find the burials but equal with the christenings, or near thereabouts; but in 1648, when the differences in religion had changed the Government, the christenings were but two-thirds of the burials. And in the year 1659 not half, viz., the burials were 14,720 (of the plague but 36), and the christenings were but 5670; which great disproportion could be from no other cause than that above mentioned; forasmuch as the same grew as the confusions and changes grew.
He then follows up a train of statistical reasoning, and states his conclusions thus :"Wherefore I conceive that the true number of the christenings, anno 1659, is above double to the 5670 set down in our bills,—that is, about 11, 500; and then the christenings will come near the same proportion to the burials, as hath been observed in former times." He then enlarges upon the subject as follows:.
The decrease and increase of people is to be reckoned chiefly by christenings, because few bear children in Lond. but inhabitants, though others die there. The accounts of christenings were well
kept until differences in religion occasioned some neglect therein, although even these neglects we must confess to have been regular and proportionable. By the numbers and proportions of christenings, therefore, we observe as followeth, viz. :-First, that when from Dec., 1602, to March following, there was little or no plague, then the christenings at a medium were between 110 and 130 per week; few weeks being above the one or below the other; but when from thence to July the plague increased, that then the christenings decreased to under 90. Secondly, the question is whether teeming women died, or fled, or miscarried? The latter at this time seems most probable, because even in the said space between March and July there died not above 20 per week of the plague; which small number could neither cause the death or fright of so many women, as to alter the proportion one-fourth part lower. Moreover, we observe from the 21st July to the 12th Oct. the plague increasing, reduced the christenings to 70 at a medium, diminishing the above proportion down to two-fifths. Now the cause of this must be flying and death, as well as miscarriages and abortions; for there died within that time about 25,000, whereof many were certainly women with child; besides, the fright of so many dying within so small a time might drive away so many others as to cause this effect.
Under POPULATION we shall have occasion to review many other such estimates. CHRISTIAN ALLIANCE LIFE.-This Co. was projected in 1847, and regis. ; but no further steps were taken.
CHRISTIAN ALLIANCE MUT. LIFE ASSU. So.-An asso. under this title was prov. regis. under the Joint-Stock Cos. Regis. Act in 1846, but it did not proceed further. CHRISTIAN MUTUAL PROVIDENT LIFE AND SICKNESS SO., founded in 1846, and enrolled in 1847, under the F. Sos. Acts. The purpose of the So. is to supersede the numerous local and limited F. sos. which formerly sprung up in such numbers in Lond. and in the provinces. On this point the prosp. says:
By a general inst. we mean an inst. with head-quarters in Lond., and branches widely disseminating throughout the country. Mr. Neison considers that to make a F. so. permanently secure, a continued succession of young members is essential; and as these cannot be insured with certainty in any one place, it is important to ally various places together. Such an arrangement has moreover other material recommendations. Members of F. sos. are often seriously inconvenienced when circumstances compel them to remove from one place to another, by having either to relinquish their benefit club altogether, or to remain connected with it at a great distance, which, should sickness happen to them, will entail serious disadvantage. As with L. assu. sos., so with F. sos., the members should be altogether unrestricted as to their right to reside wherever their general interests may recommend; in fact, their club should be wherever they require it.
The So.—the business of which embraces sickness ins., annu., life ins., and endow.— has Mr. Samuel Morley, M. P., for its Treasurer. Amongst its Trustees is Mr. John Crossley, of Halifax. The Chairman for many years was the late Rev. J. B. Owen. Mr. Neison was formerly Consulting Act. Mr. A. G. Finlaison now occupies that position. Mr. Burls has been Sec. from the commencement. Its progress has been very rapid and satisfactory. Commencing with 30 members, and with a sum of £16 13s. 4d. in cash, it had up to 1869 enrolled 25,679 members; while its funds then stood at over £77,000 invested. It had at that date paid £141,354 in claims made up as follows:-Allowance during sickness, £33,294; paid annuities, £608; under life pol., £31,312; as endowments, £76, 138. It has declared several bonuses, not only on the life, but on the sickness departments. There is prob. no more useful an asso. in existence at the present moment. In 1858 it changed its name to the Mutual Provident Alliance, under which head we shall notice its later progress. [FRIENDLY SOS.] [SICKNESS.]
CHRISTIAN UNION MUTUAL.-A scheme under this title was regis. in 1849, the object of which (inter alia) was to provide a fund for aged ministers.
CHRISTIANIA, the capital of Norway, built in 1624 by Christian IV. of Denmark, to replace Opslo (the ancient capital, founded 1058), which had been destroyed by fire. On 13th April, 1858, the city suffered again severely by fire, the loss being estimated at about £250,000, a good deal of which fell upon the Brit. fire offices. Dr. Price had his attention called to Norway on account of the remarkable longevity of its inhabitants. In the Annual Register for 1761 there appeared the following statement :-"In 1761 the burials in the district of Christiania amounted to 6920, and the christenings to 11,014. Among those who died, 394-or 1 in 18-had lived to the age of 90; 63 to the age of 100; and 7 to the age of 101. [LONGEVITY.]
CHRISTIE, ALEXANDER, was Man. of Bon Accord from its commencement, down to its amalg. CHRISTIE, CHARLES, Man. of Scottish Imperial in Edin. since 1866. He commenced his ins. career with the Home and Colonial, and on that co. relinquishing its L. bus., he accepted his present appointment.
CHRISTIE, DAVID, Man. of Edin. Branch of Northern Ins. Co. since 1867. He was trained in the Sun F. Office, where, after many years' employment, he passed to the claim department, in which he obtained a large experience. He read before the Inst. of Act., in 1859, a paper, On the Settlement of Losses by Fire under Specific and Average Policies, separate and combined. The paper is printed in vol. viii. of Assu. Mag., and is referred to in various parts of this work.
CHRISTIE, ROBERT (No. 1), was appointed Act. of the Universal L., on the estab. of that Co. in 1834, under the 12th clause of the D. of Sett. of the So., which is as follows:
That there shall be an act. of the So., and that Robert Christie, of Cornhill, in the City of Lond., Esquire, shall be the first or present act.; and an act. shall be chosen ann. by the directors for the time being within 14 days after the second Wednesday in the month of May in every year; and the said Robert Christie, or any future act., may be elected to that office in each of the several successive years. And it shall be the bus. of the act. for the time being to furnish the directors with all necessary information and advice relating to assu., and with such rates, calculations, and other matters of computation as shall be required of him, and to keep the accounts of the So., and to prepare and issue
proposals and prosp. for the public, under the orders of the directors, and to attend all general and special general meetings of the members for the time being, and all board or other meetings of the directors for the time being, and to take minutes of all proceedings at such meetings, and to keep the accounts, and to attend at the office of the said So. at such periods as the board of directors shall appoint for the purposes of receiving proposals of ins. and sales, and of transacting the other bus. of the said So.; and to perform such other bus. in such manner as the board of directors shall from time to time require.
We do not recall any other deed in which the duties of act. are so precisely defined. We believe Mr. Christie was the first Act. who compiled a T. of mort. for European life in India; and in this he was prob. assisted by the late Mr. Griffith Davies. [INDIA.] In 1838 he read before the Statistical So. a paper, On the Rate of Mort. amongst Officers Retired from the Indian Army,- -a paper upon which we shall have to speak under INDIA. He was appointed Hon. Sec. of the Committee of Actuaries and Managers appointed in 1838 to compile the data upon which the Experience T. (No. 1) was founded; but he died very soon after the commencement of the undertaking.
CHRISTIE, ROBERT (No. 2), was Man. of the Scottish Equitable from its commencement in 1831 down to 1861, when he retired on a pension of his full salary. He had been trained
as an accountant.
Mr. Christie's first pamp. on ins. questions was pub. in 1840, An Exposure of Unsoundness of the Western Annu. So. ; and of Certain Kindred Sos. estab. in England and Ireland for the same Purpose. This pamp. was written in a clear and vigorous style, carrying the impress of honesty of intention upon its face. We shall speak of it again in the hist. of the asso. against which it was mainly directed.
In 1852 he pub., Letter to the Rt. Hon. Joseph Henley, M.P.. President of the Board of Trade, regarding Life Assu. Institutions, with Abstracts of all the Accounts Regis. by Lond. Life Assu. Cos. from the Passing of the Act 7 & 8 Vict. c. 110 (5 Sept., 1844) to 5 Feb., 1852.
It was the appearance of this pamp. that gave rise to what is now known as the "Insurance Controversy. The events of that period have become matter of hist., and will be dealt with fully in our hist. of LIFE INS., under this date.
In 1854 Mr. Christie prepared and pub., View of the Affairs of the Professional Life Assu. Co., as at 31st Dec., 1853, and remarks thereon. He had the discernment to discover, at that early period, that the affairs of this Co. presented elements of danger.
In 1856 Mr. Christie pub., Life Assu.: Abstracts of all the Accounts Regis. by Life Assu. Cos. in the U.K. from 5 Sept., 1844, to 5 March, 1856; being an Analysis of Three Returns made to the House of Commons by the Registrar of Joint-Stock Cos., in the Years 1849, 1852, and 1856. Of this pamp. we shall also speak in our hist. of LIFE INS. The labour involved in the preparation of these pamp. was very considerable; and although we do not think they were productive of unmixed good, they brought their compiler into wide repute.
Abcut 1857 Mr. Christie pub., View of the Causes of Deaths Regis. in E. and W. in the Years 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, and 1854, compiled from Reports of the Reg.-Gen. applicable to those Years. This we shall speak of under DEATHS, CAUSES OF. On the occasion of Mr. Christie's retirement into private life, the Asso. of Managers of L. Assu. Offices in Scotland passed the following resolution, under date 21st Feb., 1861: Looking to the length of time during which Mr. Christie has been connected with the Managers' Asso., to the satisfactory and agreeable intercourse they have had with him, to the valuable services he has rendered to the cause of L. assu., and to the consistent and determined opposition which he has uniformly shown to all unsoundness in the principles, and all irregularities in the practice, of L. assu. offices, this meeting are unanimously of opinion, that the retirement of Mr. Christie is a loss which they all regret. While his brother managers have much satisfaction in the reflection that he is retiring from an inst., which he has so long and so ably conducted, in the full enjoyment of all his faculties, and with the well-earned remuneration of his faithful services, they would express towards him their friendly sympathies and regards, and their anxious and earnest wishes for his future welfare and happiness. [INDEPENDENT WEST MIDDLESEX.]
CHRISTIE, ROBERT, JUN. (son of the above), was Sec. of Edin. branch of Northern for many years. He retired from that position a few years since. We have to thank him for some of the details in the preceding art.
CHRISTISON, DR. ROBERT, the able medical adviser of the Standard Life. He pub. in the Monthly Fourn. of Med. Science for Aug., 1853, An Investigation of the Deaths of the Standard Life Assu. Co., for the quinquennium 1845-50, of which we shall speak fully under STANDARD LIFE, MORT. EXPERIENCE OF. [CHOLERA, 1853.]
CHRISTMAS, C. G., Sec. of Reversionary Int. So. from 1836 to 1871, when he retired. He died in 1872, aged 78.
CHRONIC DISEASES (from the Greek, signifying time).-Diseases of long duration and slight severity, as distinguished from acute diseases of short duration.
CHRONICLE, THE.-A sprightly and well-edited ins. newspaper, until recently pub. in Chicago, but now pub. in New York. The paper was estab. in 1866, and is conducted by Mr. John J. W. O'Donoghue.
CHRONOLOGY.-The science of time. As the basis of this work is chronological [the arrangement of the subjects only being alphabetical], it is necessary to offer a few explanatory remarks here. So long as the Catholic or old style was in force, the day of the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary, or Lady Day (March 25), was reckoned as the first
day of the year. The new style was adopted 1st Jan., 1752. This change was made by authority of 24 Geo. II. c. 23. In Scotland the year began on 1st Jan. previous to the alteration in England. This difference caused great practical inconvenience; and Jan., Feb., and part of March frequently bore two dates, as we find in old records, 1745-1746, or 1745 6, or 174. Such a reckoning constantly led to chronological mistakes; for instance, we popularly say "the Revolution of 1688," as that great event happened in Feb. of the year 1688, according to the then mode of computation; but if the year were held to begin, as it does now, on the 1st of Jan., it would be the revolution of 1689. We have experienced difficulties of this kind in the progress of this work, but we have endeavoured to make them clear. [YEAR.]
CHRONYK, VON VLAENDIRN.-The Chronicle of Flanders, which purports to give an account of the practice of marine ins as early as 1310. Some of the best writers do not regard the Chronicle as authentic in this respect. [BRUGES.] [FLANDERS.] [NETHERLANDS.] CHRYSTAL, D. J., Act. of Scottish Commercial since 1867. Was orig. trained to the law, but preferring the ins. profession, entered the Scottish Provident about 1862, and passed his examination in the Faculty of Actuaries before receiving his present appointment. CHURCH BENEFICE.-See ECCLESIASTICAL BENEFICE.
CHURCH OF ENGLAND L. AND F. ASSU., TRUST, AND ANNU. INST., founded in 1840, under the title of the Church of England L. and F. Assu. Co., with an authorized cap. of £1,000,000, in 20,000 shares of 50. While the Co. was in process of formation overtures were made for uniting with it the bus. of the then recently founded City of Lond. Annu, and Loan Co. The negociations eventuated in an agreement bearing date the 22nd April, 1840, by which the Church of England took over the contracts and engagements of the City of Lond., and modified its title so as to indicate more prominently the annuity feature.
The orig. prosp. contained the names of a most powerful list of patrons and honorary directors, among the former his Grace the Duke of Beaufort, the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, and the Bishop of Worcester. There was an ordinary Board of Directors, and a Man.-Director, Benjamin Jackson, Esq. The clerical sec. was the Rev. C. Packman, "Priest in Ordinary to Her Majesty," etc. The Sec. was Mr. Wm. Emmens. The document set forth :
Many distinctive classes of society have formed their ins. cos. depending in a great degree upon the aid and patronage of their respective members, and especially adapted to the circumstances of those parts of the community which they more immediately represent. The Church of England requires the estab. of a similar inst. on an enlarged and liberal scale, not confined in the benefits it offers to one class of its great community, but calculated to meet the wants and demands which the social relations and complicated arrangements of property render so necessary and advantageous to all its members. To supply this desideratum, and to extend the advantages of a well-regulated system of L. assu. among its clergy, members, and friends, is the immediate object of this asso.; its resources not being derived from the clergy alone, but from the laity also; its sphere of usefulness and its success under discreet and sound management will be co-extensive with the great interests it represents.
The members of the Church possess more than ordinary power and influence to promote all the great and beneficial objects which such an inst, is calculated to effect; and the directors of this Co., in undertaking its formation, have determined to base it upon a principle which cannot fail to give it peculiar claims to the zealous support of that great and influential body.
It is set forth that by the constitution of the Co., one clear tenth of the entire profits of the asso. were to be applied to the formation of a fund to be called the "CLERGY FUND," to be vested in trustees (one-third of whom to be selected from the Clergy), "to constitute an increasing and perpetual provision for distressed and deserving clergymen, and their widows and children, when recommended by the Bishops or the Clergy of their respective localities; and generally to meet such other charitable objects connected with the clergy as may from time to time arise." But "this fund not being immediately available for all these benevolent purposes, it is contemplated to anticipate one of its chief objects by ins. the lives of necessitous clergymen, and enabling congregations to do so, or otherwise providing for them, at a reduced prem."
The peculiar advantages thus accruing to the clergy will, it is confidently hoped, induce them to exert their salutary influence to promote these charitable objects, that by their co-operation the Co. may have the means of diffusing more widely the boon offered to their less fortunate but deserving brethren. The laity and all those who are attached to the Church, and the benevolent principles which it inculcates, will doubtless be animated by the same feeling.
Regarding foreign residence and travel there was the following:
Ins. may be effected on the lives of persons resident in any part of the world, on more moderate terms than are generally charged by other respectable offices; but the assured, not being mariners by profession, may, without extra prem., go abroad in time of peace in a decked vessel to and from any place in Europe not subject to the Quarantine Laws, or affected by epidemic or endemic diseases. Then the following somewhat novel provision: "Unopposed probates of the Diocesan Courts may be held sufficient to entitle claimants to receive or recover the amount of pol. without the expense and delay of a prerogative probate." Next, under head of "Trusts": The peculiar adaptation of a public co. to the administration of trusts, and the preference it has to the agency of individuals, is now generally acknowledged. The ample guarantee it offers for the faithful and diligent discharge of those duties required to carry out properly and effectively "testamentary and all other trusts" cheaply and securely, which are now too frequently long liti gated, expensively executed, and from fraud or insolvency not performed at all, must recommend it as the best possible agency for bus.
This branch of the proposed bus. was never entered upon. In the F. department, "the residences and furniture of clergymen" were to be ins. 10 p.c. lower than the ordinary rates.
The D. of Sett. of the Co. bears date 2nd Feb., 1841. It recites the arrangement with the City of Lond. Annuity and Loan Co., and confirms the same. It takes over all the engagements and liabilities of the C. of England L. and F. Co. It sets out the nature of the bus. to be undertaken by the Co., which included the "ins. of ships or vessels in dock, or in any haven, port, or harbour, or against loss or damage by fire." appointed Mr. E. M. Elderton Sol. of the Co., and Mr. William Emmens its Sec. No female qualified to vote at any gen. meeting. If shares of any new cap. issued at prem., such prem. to be carried to the "Proprietors Fund." The limit of the sum to be ins. on any one life to be left to discretion of directors for the time being. Six funds to be formed, viz., "Proprietors Fund," "Fire Assu. Fund," " Parti. Life Assu. Fund," "Non-Parti. Life Assu. Fund," the "Trust Profit Fund," and the "Clergy Fund." Separate and distinct accounts of each of these to be kept. Another fund is afterwards provided for, to be called the "Ship Ins. Fund," but its creation was optional:
If at any time hereafter, in pursuance of the power hereinbefore for this purpose contained, the objects of the Co. shall be extended to the ins. of ships against loss or damage by sea, or other sea risks, either in connexion with such other bus. as is usually transacted by underwriters or otherwise, then in such case and immediately thereafter the board of directors shall form a seventh fund, to be called, etc.
This was no doubt a very prudent power at the time; but a far greater prudence has been shown in never entering upon this perilous bus.
In 1841 the Co. obtained a special Act of Parl.-4 & 5 Vict. c. xcii.-An Act to enable the Church of England L. and F. Assu., Trust, and Annu. Co. to sue and be sued in the name of the Man.-Director or other Officer of the said Co. This Co. is to sue in the name of its Sec. or any Director. If any individual shareholder sued, contributions to be made to him by other shareholders. The liability of shareholders is carefully defined. A list of the proprietors is periodically enrolled in the High Court of Chancery.
The D. of Asso. has been altered by special resolutions on various occasions, viz. in 1843, when the operations of the Co. were allowed to be extended "to such parts of the world beyond Gt. Brit. as to the directors for the time being may appear expedient or proper." In 1847 the date of ann. meeting was altered from March to June, to enable returns of Indian bus. to be included. In 1848, as to appointment of chairman. Again, same year, making divisions of profits quinquennial instead of septennial, and also providing for provisional bonus. In 1853, as to mode of dealing with proportion of profits carried to "Clergy Fund"; again, in 1858, as to same fund. In Sept. 1859 special powers were obtained from proprietors to take over bus. of Schoolmasters and General Assu. So. In 1868 powers were taken to hold gen. meeting in April or May. In 1871 alterations were made as to joint ownership of shares, also permitting investments to be made in other than the stocks of Gt. Brit., her Colonies and India; also the following:
That the granting of assu. on the lives of clergymen at reduced rates of prem. being found of greater general utility than the maintenance of the present restricted "Clergy Fund," all rules and regulations in the D. of Sett., and in previous resolutions of the Court of Proprietors, relating to the formation and maintenance of such fund, be and are hereby repealed and rescinded.
The present prosp. says, "Special grants are made from the shareholders' profits in aid of the prems. payable for clerical and scholastic life assu. in the proprietary branch. This arrangement does not therefore in any way affect the profits divisible amongst the ordinary parti. policy-holders."
In 1859 the bus. of the Schoolmasters and General Assu. So., which was small, was trans. to this Co. The bus. of the Co. has been managed with much prudence from the commencement, to which the clear-headed foresight of the manager contributed not a little. It did not very frequently become involved in litigation, yet it added three leading cases to our law-books: (1) Elderton v. Emmens, in which the principle of hiring, or in other words the exact scope of appointments in D. of Sett. or under Art. of Asso., was determined; (2) the case of Quirk v. Emmens-an Irish case, in which the Co. set aside a pol. obtained by a fraudulent statement of the age of the ins., notwithstanding that "age had been admitted" on the pol.; (3) Emmens v. Lang, in which an important question in the attestation of deeds was decided.
In 1868 Mr. W. Emmens retired from the man. of the Co., and was succeeded by his son Mr. Stephen H. Emmens. At the close of 1871 the ann. income of the Co. from prems. was £75,779; from int. £21,215-total, £96,994. Total invested funds, £509, 148. CHURCH OF ENGLAND SCHOOLMASTERS.-This So. was founded in 1850, being enrolled under the Friendly Societies Acts as a provident inst. It afterwards became the Schoolmasters and General, which see.
CHURCH LEASES.-The Episcopal and Capitular Estates Act of 1854-17 & 18 Vict. c. 116-under which the values of life contingencies in connexion with Ecclesiastical Leases and Copyhold Enfranchisements are determined, excludes the use of the Northampton T. of mort. (sec. 12), and provides that no T. shall be used "less favourable to the expectation of life" than that of the English Life T. The whole subject will be discussed under LEASES FOR LIVES.