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crifice than Cain; through him too become as dead, sprang which Abel obtained witness that as many as the stars of heaven he was righteous, God witness-in multitude, and as the innuing of his gifts and through it merable sand which is by the he, though dead, still speaketh. sea-shore. 5 Through faith, Enoch was translated, that he might not see death; and was not found, because God had translated him: for before [his] translation he had this witness, that he pleased God. 6 But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he who cometh to God must believe that God exists, and that he is a rewarder of those who diligently seek him.

13 All these died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and having hailed them, and having confessed that they were strangers and foreigners on the earth. 14 For those who speak such things, plainly declare that they are seeking a country.

15 And indeed if they had borne in mind that country whence they came out, they might have had opportunity of returning to it: 16 but now they desire a better, that is, a heamade ready an ark for preserv-venly country. Wherefore God ing his house: by which he is not ashamed to be called condemned the world, and be- their God: because he hath precame heir of the justification pared for them a city. which is through faith.

7 Through faith, Noah, having been warned of God concerning things not then seen, moved with godly reverence,

17 Through faith, Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac; and he that had received the promises offered up his only son: 18 with reference to whom it was said, "In Isaac shall thy seed be called:" 19, having concluded that God was able to raise him up even from the dead; whence he had also in a manner received him.

8 Through faith, Abraham obeyed, when he was called to depart into the place which he was afterward to receive for an inheritance; and departed, not knowing whither he went.

9 Through faith, he sojourned in the land of promise, as in a foreign land, and dwelt in tents with Isaac and Jacob, the joint-heirs of the same promise: 10 for he was waiting for that

20 Through faith, Isaac blessed Jacob, and Esau, concerncity which hath foundations;ing things to come. 21 Through whose framer and builder is God. faith, Jacob, when he was dy11 Through faith, also Sarah ing, blessed both the sons of herself gained strength to con- Joseph; and worshipped, leanceive, even when she was pasting on the top of his staff. 22 age, because she thought Him Through faith, Joseph, when faithful who had promised. 12 he was ending his life, menWherefore even from one, and tioned the departure of the

for the time would fail me to tell of Gideon, and of Barak, and of Sampson, and of Jephthah; of David also, and of Samuel, and of the prophets: 33 who through faith subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions, 34 quenched the violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong, became valiant in war, turned to flight the armies of other nations. 35 Women received their dead by a resurrection to this life: but others were tortured, and did not accept deliverance, that they might obtain a better resurrection. 36 And others had trial of scoffs and scourgings; and of bonds also and imprisonment: 37 they were stoned, they were sawn asunder, they were piercsible. 28 Through faith he kepted with stakes, they were slain with the sword: they went about in sheep-skins and in goatskins, destitute, afflicted, cruelly treated, 38 (of whom the

27 Through faith, he left Egypt, and feared not the wrath of the king: for he remained firm, as seeing Him who is invi

29 Through faith, the Israel-world was not worthy,) wanderites passed through the Red sea ing in deserts, and in mounas on dry land: which the tains, and in dens and caves of Egyptians attempting to do, the earth. were drowned. 30 Through faith, the walls of Jericho fell

39 And all these, though they obtained a good witness down, after they had been com-through faith, yet received not passed about for seven days. 31 the promise: 40 God having Through faith, the harlot Rahab provided a better thing for us, did not perish with those who that they might not be made believed not, when she had re- perfect without us. ceived the spies with peace.

32 And why do I still go on?

CH. XII. 1 Wherefore since we are surrounded by so great

sons of Israel from Egypt: and gave commandment concerning his bones.

23 Through faith, Moses, when he was born, was hidden three months by his parents, because they saw that he was a goodly child; and they feared not the king's commandment. 24 Through faith, Moses, when he grew up, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter; 25 choosing rather to suffer cruel treatment with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a short time; 26 and esteeming the reproach of Christ* greater riches than the treasures of Egypt: for he had respect to the recompense of the reward.

the passover, and the sprinkling of the blood; that he who destroyed the first-born might not touch them.

* "such reproach as Christ endured." Newcome. "such reproach as the anointed of God endured." Im. Ver. "the reproach of Christ, or, the anointed." Gr. The Israelites are called Christs, or anointed, i. e. a chosen and favoured people, Psalm ev. 15; Hab. iii. 13.

a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight, and the sin which easily entangleth us, 2 looking to Jesus, the leader on to faith, and also its perfecter; who, for the joy which was set before him, endured the cross, and despised its shame, and is seated at the right hand of the throne of God. 3 For consider him who endured such opposition of sinners to himself, lest ye be wearied, and faint in your minds.

4 YE have not yet resisted to blood, contending against sin: 5 and ye have forgotten the exhortation which speaketh to you as to sons, "My son, despise not the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked by him: 6 for whom

nevertheless afterward it yield. eth the peaceable fruit of righteousness to those who have been exercised by it.


12 WHEREFORE lift up the hands which hang down, and strengthen the feeble knees; 13 and make straight paths for your eet, that the lame be not turned out of the way, but rather be healed. 14 Follow peace with all men; and the holiness, without which no shall see the Lord: 15 looking diligently lest any one fall short of the favour of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and by it many be defiled; 16 lest there be any fornicator, or any profane person, as Esau, who for one meal sold his birth-right. 17 For ye know the Lord loveth he correcteth, that afterward, when he desired and scourgeth every son whom to inherit the blessing, he was he receiveth." 7 If ye endure rejected: for he found no place chastisement, God dealeth with for change of mind in Isaac, you as with sons for what son though he earnestly sought it is he whom his father chasten- with tears. eth not? 8 But if ye be without chastisement, of which all others are partakers, then ye are spurious, and not lawful sons.


9 Have we then had fathers of our flesh, who corrected us, and we gave them reverence: and shall not we much rather be in subjection to the Father of spirits, and live? 10 For they indeed chastened us during a few days, as it seemed fit to them but He for our profit, that we might be partakers of his holiness. 11 Now no chastisement secmeth for the present to be joyous, but grievous:

18 For ye are not come near to the mount which might be touched, and which burned with fire, nor to blackness, and darkness, and tempest, 19 and to the blast of the trumpet, and to the sound of words; which sound those who heard, entreated that the word should not be spoken to them any more: 20 (for they could not bear what was commanded; "If even a beast touch the mountain, it shall be stoned;" 21 and [[so terrible was the sight, that]] Moses said, "I exceedingly fear and tremble:") 22 but

* Conj. " might [not] be touched." See v. 20.

ye are come✶ to Mount Sion, [ some have unknowingly enterand to the city of the living tained angels. 3 Remember God, the heavenly Jerusalem,† those who are in bonds, as if and to myriads of messengers bound with them; and those from God, 23 to the general who are cruelly treated, as beassembly and congregation of ing yourselves also in the bothe first-born that are enrolled dy. 4 Marriage is honourable in heaven, and to God the judge among all, and the bed undefilof all, and to righteous men ed: but fornicators and adulwho are made perfect, 24 and terers God will condemn. to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, which speaketh a better thing than that of Abel.


5 Let your manner of life be without covetousness. Be content with such things as ye have for God himself hath said, "I will never leave thee, nor utterly forsake thee." 6 So that we may boldly say, Lord is my helper, and I will not fear what man can do to me." 7 Remember those who preside over you, who spake to you the word of God: whose faith imitate, considering the end of their behaviour.

25 See that ye refuse not him who speaketh. For if those escaped not who refused him when he uttered oracles on earth, much less shall we escape, if we reject him speaking from heaven: 26 whose voice then shook the earth: but now he hath promised, saying, "Yet once more I shake not only the earth, but also the heaven."‡ 27 Now this expression, "Yet once more," signifieth the removing of the things shaken, as of things which are made, that the things which are not shaken may remain.

8 Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, and to day, and to the ages. 9 Be not carried aside by various and strange doctrines: for it is a good thing that the heart be strengthened by the gracious gospel, not by meats, which have not profited those who have attended to them.§ 10 We have an altar from which they who serve the tabernacle have no right to eat. 11 For the bodies of those beasts whose blood is brought CH. XIII. 1 LET brotherly into the sanctuary by the highkindness continue. 2 Be mind-priest, as a sin-offering, are burnful of hospitality: for by this ed without the camp. 12 Where

28 Wherefore, since we receive a kingdom which cannot be shaken, let us hold fast on favour, by which we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear. 29 For even our God is a consuming fire.

The writer describes a state present, not future: the state of believers under the gospel, as opposed to Israelites under the law, not the state of the virtuous in heaven.

The Christian church, figuratively represented by the city of God, the heavenly Jerusalem. The shaking of heaven and earth denotes convulsions in the political and moral world; and, as the writer explains it, the abolition of the Jewish dispensation, to make way for the aionian kingdom of the Messiah. See Acts. ii. 19, 20.

Gr. in which, those who have walked, have not been profited.

fore Jesus also, that he might | I more especially beseech you sanctify the people through to do this, that I may be shortly his own blood, suffered without restored to you. the gate. 13 (Let us therefore go out to him without the camp, bearing his reproach: 14 for here we have no continuing city, but we seek one to come.) 15 Through him therefore let us offer up the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of our lips which render thanks to his name. 16 But to do good, and to distribute, forget not: for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.

20 NOW the God of peace, who brought back from the dead our Lord Jesus, who is the great shepherd of the sheep in the blood of the aionian covenant, 21 make you perfect in every good work, that ye may do his will; working in you that which is well-pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ: to whom be glory to the ages [of ages]. Amen.

22 NOW I beseech you, 17 Obey those who preside brethren, bear with this word of over you, and submit your-exhortation: for I have written selves for they watch for your a letter to you in few words.* benefit, as those who must give 23 Know that our brother account that they may do it Timothy is set at liberty: with with joy, and not with grief: whom, if he come shortly, I for this would be unprofitable will see you. 24 Salute all those to you. 18 Pray for us: for we who preside over you, and all trust that we have a good con- the saints. They of Italy salute science, desiring to behave our-you. 25 The favour of God be selves well in all things. 19 But with you all. [Amen.]†

May we not conjecture that is wanting before dia Bgaxwv, when it would read thus: "for even [not] in few words have I written an epistle to you. This seems better to agree with the connexion, and (if this epistle be alluded to) more agreeable to the fact.

+"The epistle to the Hebrews is the first of those books which are distinguished by Eusebius, as having been disputed in the primitive ages of Christianity, and which, therefore, are not to be received as of equal authority with the rest. This epistle, however, which contains many important observations and many wholesome truths, mingled, indeed, with some far-fetched analogies and inaccurate reasonings, was probably written before the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, for it contains no allusion to those calamitous events. But by whom it was written is uncertain. Origen says, that no one can tell who was the author of it. It has been ascribed to Paul, to Barnabas, to Luke, and to Timothy: but if Origen, the most learned and inquisitive writer in the third century, could not discover the author, it is in vain for us to at tempt it; and we must be content to remain in ignorance." Im. Ver. note.

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