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substance with Him," "the one Body and one Flesh of Christ";" and He the Eternal Son and God the Word in us," commingled" and co-united with us," with our bodies as with our souls, preserving both for incorruption; "re-creating the spirit in us, to newness of life, and making us partakers of His Divine Nature;""" the bond of our unity with the Father, binding us to Himself as Man," Who is "by nature, as God, in God His own Father;" descending to our nature subject to corruption and to change, and raising it to Its own excellencies," and " "by commingling it with Itself, all but removing it from the conditions of created Nature," and "re-forming it according to Itself." "We are," adds S. Cyril," perfected into unity with God the Father, through Christ the Mediator. For having received into ourselves, bodily and spiritually, Him Who is by Nature and truly the Son, Who hath an essential Oneness with Him, we, becoming partakers of the Nature Which is above all, are glorified." "We," says another",
m S. Chrys. in S. Matt. Hom. 82. §. 5. "That whereat the Angels gaze with awe, thereby are we nourished, therewith are we mingled, and we become the one body and the one flesh of Christ." add. S. Cyr. Jer. Lect. 22. §. 3.
n The whole passage stands thus in S. Cyril, (in S. Joh. 17, 23. 1. xi. c. 12. p. 1001.) "We are united [not only with each other but] with God also. And how, the Lord Himself hath explained. "I in them, and Thou in Me, that they may be perfected in one (sis ).' For the Son is in us corporeally as Man, commingled and co-united with us (ovvavanıgvausvós te xaì œuvevoúμevos) by the Holy Eucharist. And again spiritually as God, by the power and grace of His own Spirit, re-creating the spirit in us to newness of life, and making us partakers of the Divine Nature. Christ then appeareth to be the bond of our unity with God the Father, binding us to Himself, as Man, but being, as God, in God His own Father. For in no other way could the nature, subject to corruption, rise aloft to incorruption, unless the Nature, superior to all corruption and change, had descended to it, lightening in a manner that which ever sunk downwards, and raising it to Its own excellencies, and by communion and commingling with Itself all but uplifting it from the conditions conformable to created nature, and re-forming according to Itself that which is not so of Itself. We are &c. [as in the text.] For Christ willeth that we be received into the oneness with God the Father."
S. Cyr. Jer. 1. c.
come to bear Christ in us, His Body and Blood being diffused through our members; whence, saith St. Peter, we become partakers of the Divine Nature.""
Yet although most which is spoken belongs to Christians as belonging already to the household of saints and the family of Heaven and the Communion of Angels and unity with God, still, here as elsewhere in the New Testament, there is a subordinate and subdued notion of sin; and what wraps the Saint already in the third Heaven, may yet uphold us sinners, that the pit shut not her mouth upon us. The same reality of the Divine Gift makes It Angels' food to the Saint, the ransom to the sinner. And both because It is the Body and Blood of Christ. Were it only a thankful commemoration of His redeeming love, or only a shewing forth of His Death, or a strengthening only and refreshing of the soul, it were indeed a reasonable service, but it would have no direct healing for the sinner. To him its special joy is that it is His Redeemer's very broken Body, It is His Blood, which was shed for the remission of his sins. In the words of the ancient Church, he "drinks his ransom," he eateth that," the very Body and Blood of the Lord, the only Sacrifice for sin," God" poureth out" for him yet" the most precious Blood of His Only-Begotten';" they are fed from the Cross of the Lord, because they
PS. Chrys. in S. Joh. Hom. 46. §. 3. "I willed to become your Brother; I became partaker of Flesh and Blood for your sake; again, that same Flesh and Blood, whereby I became akin to you, I give forth to you." S. Ignat. Ep. ad Smyrn. §. 7. "They [the Doceta] abstain from the Eucharist and prayer, because they confess not that the Eucharist is that Flesh of our Saviour Jesus Christ which suffered for our sins, which by His lovingkindness the Father raised." Comp. Bp. Taylor. (App.)
9 See S. Chrys. below, p. 21. Liturgies, p. 24. Bp. Taylor. (App.)
r S. Aug. Conf. 1. 10. fin. "pretii nostri Sacramentum," ib. 1. 9. §. 36. add. Serm. 9. §. 14. S. 131. init. and in Ps. 48. S. 1. §. 3. and in Ps. 125. §. 9. s S. Aug. c. Cresc. Don. i. 25.
t S. Aug. Serm. 216. §. 3. "whom He accounteth so dear, that for you He poureth out daily &c."
eat His Body and Blood";" and as of the Jews of old, even those who had been the betrayers and murderers of their Lord, it was said, "the Blood, which in their phrenzy they shed, believing they drank," so of the true penitent it may be said, whatever may have been his sins, so he could repent, awful as it is to say,—the Blood he in deed despised, and profaned, and trampled under foot, may he, when himself humbled in the dust, drink, and therein drink his salvation. "He Who refused not to shed His Blood for us, and again gave us of His Flesh and His very Blood, what will He refuse for our salvation?" "He," says S. Ambrose', "is the Bread of life. Whoso then eateth life cannot die. How should he die, whose food is life? How perish, who hath a living substance? Approach to Him and be filled, because He is Bread; approach to Him and drink, because He is a Fountain; approach to Him and be enlightened, because He is Light; approach to Him and be freed, because, where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty; approach to Him and be absolved, because He is Remission of sins."
In each place in Holy Scripture, where the doctrine of the Holy Eucharist is taught, there is, at least, some indication of the remission of sins. Our Blessed Lord, while chiefly speaking of Himself, as the Bread of life, the true meat, the true drink, His Indwelling, Resurrection
u S. Aug. in Ps. 100, 9.
* S. Aug. Serm. 77. 4. add. Serm. 80. 5. fin. S. 87. 14. S. 89. 1. S. 352, 2. in Ps. 45. §. 4. and in Ps. 65. §. 5. add. S. Chrys. de Prod. Jud. Hom. 2. §. 3. "This is My Blood, which is shed for you for the remission of sins. And Judas was present when the Lord said this. This is the Blood, which thou didst sell for thirty pieces of silver.-Oh how great the lovingkindness of Christ! oh, what the ingratitude of Judas! The Lord nourished, the servant sold. For he sold Him, receiving the thirty pieces of silver; Christ shed His own Blood as a ransom for us, and gave It to him, who sold Him, had he willed. For Judas also was present before the betrayal, and partook of the Holy Table, and received the mystical Feast."
y S. Chrys. ad Pop. Ant. ii. fin,
z In Ps. 118. lit. 18. §. 28.
from the dead, and Life everlasting, still says also," the Bread that I will give is My Flesh, which I will give for the life of the world." As amid the apparent identity of this teaching, each separate oracle enounces some fresh portion of the whole truth, so also does this; that His Flesh and Blood in the Sacrament shall give life, not only because they are the Flesh and Blood of the Incarnate Word, Who is Life, but also because they are the very Flesh and Blood which were given and shed for the life of the world, and are given to those, for whom they had been given. This is said yet more distinctly in the awful words, whereby He consecrated for ever elements of this world to be His Body and Blood. It has been remarked ©, as that which cannot be incidental, (as how should any words
a S. Chrys. in S. Matt. Hom. 25. §. 3. "If of His Birth it is said 'all this,' what shall we say of His being crucified, and shedding His Blood for us, and giving Himself to us for a spiritual feast and banquet ?" S. Cyr. in S. Joh. vi. 51. lib. iv. c. 2. p. 354. "Christ then gave His own Body for the life of all, but again through It He maketh life to dwell in us (ivoxí¿u); and how, I will say as I am able. For when the life-giving Word of God dwelt in the flesh, He transformed it into His own proper good, i. e. life, and by the unspeakable character of this union coming wholly together with it made It life-giving, as Himself is by Nature. Wherefore the Body of Christ giveth life to all who partake of It, for It expels death when It entereth those subject to death, and removeth corruption, producing by Itself perfectly (rsλsiws adivov iv iavr) that Word which abolisheth corruption." S. Cypr. Ep. ad Cæcil. init." His Blood whereby we were redeemed and brought to life cannot seem to be in the Cup, when wine is wanting to the Cup, whereby the Blood of Christ is set forth." S. Clem. Al. Pæd. ii. 2. v. fin. "He blessed wine when He said, Take, drink, this is My Blood, the blood of the vine; for the Word, Which is poured forth for many for the remission of sins, he calls in image, the holy fountain of joy."
b S. Chrys. de Prodit. Jud. Hom. i. 6. " As that voice, 'increase and be multiplied,' was uttered once, but throughout all time doth in act enable our race to produce children, so also that voice [This is My Body], once spoken, doth, on every Table in the Churches, from that time until this day, and until His Coming, make the Sacrifice perfect."
c Johnson's Unbloody Sacrifice, c. 2. s. 1. p. 85 sqq. Of Roman Catholic Divines it is maintained by Jansenius ad Concordiam Evang. c. 13. and others quoted by Vazquez (qu. 78. art. 3. Disp. 99. c. 1.), rejected by Vazquez (ib.)
of the Eternal Word be incidental?) how amid lesser variations in the order or fulness of those solemn words, they still, wherever recorded, speak of the act as a present act. "This is My Body which is given for you;" "This is My Body which is broken for you;" "This is My Blood of the New Testament which is shed for many for the remission of sins;" "This Cup is the New Testament in My Blood, which is shed for you." He saith not, "which shall be given," "shall be broken," "shall be shed," but " is being given," "being broken," "being shed,” (διδόμενον, κλώμενον, ἐκχυνόμενον,) and this in remarkable contrast with His own words, when speaking of that same Gift, as yet future," The Bread which I will give is My Flesh, which I will give (öv żyw dwow) for the life of the world." And of one of the words used, S. Chrysostome remarks how it could not be said of the Cross, but is true of the Holy Eucharist. "For a bone of Him,' it saith, shall not be broken.' But that which He suffered not on the Cross, this He suffers in the oblation for thy sake, and submits to be broken that He may fill all men.' Hereby He seems as well to teach us that the great Act of His Passion then began; then, as a Priest, did He through the Eternal Spirit offer Himself without spot to God; then did He "consecrate" Himself, before
d Hom. 24 in 1 Cor. §. 4. The comment is immediately on c. 10, 16. ("the Bread Which we break,” τὸν ἄρτον ὃν κλῶμεν,) where he chieffy dwells on the doctrine of the Holy Eucharist. It of course more strongly applies to the words themselves, τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν κλώμενον.
e S. John xvii. 19. "What meaneth 'I sanctify Myself?' I offer Thee a sacrifice; but all the sacrifices are called 'holy;' and properly, 'holy' are what are dedicated to God." S. Chrys. ad loc. Hom. 82. §. 1. "That, according to the usage of the law is said to be sanctified, which is by any one brought unto God, as a gift or offering, such as every first-born which openeth the womb among the children of Israel. For He saith unto Moses, 'sanctify unto Me &c.' i. e. dedicate, set apart, write down as holy.-Taking, then, according to usage, 'sanctify' as meaning 'to dedicate and set apart,' we say that the Son'sanctified' Himself for us. For He offered Himself, as a Sacrifice and holy Offering to God The Father, reconciling the world unto Him, &c." S. Cyr. ad loc. l. xi. c. 10. p. 989.