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in his own court. However, various other complaints appear to have been made against him. The Bishop, in his letter to Archbishop Ussher, stated that he had been accused to him of being a Papist, an Arminian, of bowing at the name of Jesus, of pulling down the seat of his predecessor to erect an altar, and of undervaluinge the Primate's preaching. The Primate answers the Bishop with great severity. The following passage is very remarkable: "Most of the slanders wherewith you were so much troubled I never heard till you now mentioned them yourself; only the course which you took with the Papists, was generally cried out against: neither do I remember in all

cellor confirmed Mr. Cook's appointment, with £100 costs. The details of these transactions are not given in any of the Lives of Archbishop Ussher, and in the Lives of Bishop Bedell are not arranged correctly. Bishop Burnet, and he is followed by Mr. Mason, places the trial in the Court of Chancery before the discovery that the patent was illegal. Now this is certainly not the case, for the suspension of Mr. Cook and the trial in the Archbishop's court are mentioned in the letters written in the end of the year 1629 and the beginning of 1630. But a disgraceful story, related by the son-in-law of Bishop Bedell, fixes the date of the trial after the appointment of Chancellor Bolton, which took place in 1639. The story is, that when Bishop Bedell asked the Lord Chancellor Bolton "how he came to make so unjust a decree?" he answered, "that all his father had left him was a register's place; so he thought he was bound to support those courts, which he saw would be ruined if the way he took had not been checked." The Bishop appears to have argued his case both on the invalidity of the patent, and on the general question of the powers vested in the bishop.

e The story of this complaint is too happy an illustration of the mode in which such accusations are got up, to be omitted. The story was, that the Bishop compared the Primate's preaching to one Mr. Whiskins, Mr. Creighton and Mr. Baxter's, and preferred them. The Bishop states the facts in these words: "Thus it was: Mr. Dunsterville acquainted me with his purpose to preach of Prov. xx. 6: But a faithful man who can find;' where he said the doctrine he meant to raise was this, that Faith was a rare gift of God. I told him I thought he mistook the meaning of the text, and wished him to choose longer texts, and not bring his discourses to a word or two of Scripture, but rather to declare those of the Holy Ghost. He said, your Grace did so sometimes. I answered, there might be just cause, but I thought you did not so ordinarily. As for those men, Mr. Whiskins, and the rest, I never heard any of them preach to this day. Peradventure their manner is to take longer texts, whereupon the comparison is made up, as if I preferred them before you." See Letter 161, Works, vol. xv. pag. 473.

my life, that any thing was done here by any of us, at which the professors of the Gospel did take more offence, or by which the adversaries were more confirmed in their superstitions and idolatry. Whereas I could wish that you had advised with your brethren, before you would adventure to pull down that which they have been so long a building; so I may boldly aver, that they have abused grossly both of us, who reported unto you, that I should give out, that I found myself deceived in you. What you did, I know was done out of a good intention, but I was assured that your project would be so quickly refuted with your present success and event, that there would be no need, that your friends should advise you to desist from building such castles in the air." The Bishop, in his answer, declares that all this is a riddle to him, but it is very evident to what the Primate alluded. The censure was upon the Bishop's attempt at converting the Irish, by translating the Scriptures into the Irish language, and by circulating a short catechism with the Irish and English on opposite pages. The objection affords a melancholy instance of the strength of prejudice. The Primate, who could so convincingly argue upon the impropriety of prayers in an unknown tongue, and upon the necessity of translating the Scriptures into different languages, yet failed to apply his own principles to the case immediately before him, the case of the Irish nation. Blinded by the false notion of upholding English influence by exterminating the Irish language, and taught to reverence the policy which dictated an Act of Parliament in direct opposition to the principles of the Reformation, the Primate censured as a mode of confirming superstition and idolatry, the first judicious attempt that had been made to spread the doctrines of the Reformation through the country. It is not a little singular that the two bishops who, at different periods, exerted themselves most strenuously to spread the knowledge of the Irish language among the clergy were Englishmen, Bishop Bedell and Primate Marsh..

It would appear from the whole correspondence, that nothing gave the Primate so much offence as Bishop Bedell's


complaint about his triennial visitation. The Bishop, with not a little want of courtesy, says in his letter: "In that of your late visitation, they see no profit but the taking of money." The Primate is evidently much hurt by this remark, and, after defending himself against the charge of oppressing the clergy of Kilmore, concludes thus: "I am a fool, I know, in thus commending (or defending rather) myself, but consider who constrained me." These unfortunate differences were not settled till Bishop Bedell, in the following summer, visited the Archbishop at Termonfechin, and then a perfect reconciliation took place, as he himself states in a letter to the Archbishop: "I cannot easily express what contentment I received at my late being with your Grace at Termonfechin. There had nothing happened to me, I will not say, since I came into Ireland, but as far as I can call to remembrance in my whole life, which did so much affect me on this hand, as the hazard of your good opinion. For loving and honoring you in truth (for the truths sake, which is in us and shall abide with us for ever) without any private interest, and receiving so unlooked for a blow from your hand, (which I expected should have tenderly apply'd some remedy to me, being smitten by others) I had not present the defences of reason and grace. And although I know it to be a fault in myself, since in the performance of our duties, the judgment of our Master, even alone, ought to suffice us; yet I could not be so much master of mine affections, as to cast out this weakness. But blessed be God, who (as I began to say) at my being with you refreshed my spirit by your kind renewing and confirming your love to me: and all humble thanks to you, that gave me place to make my defence, and took upon you the cognisance of mine innocency." Upon the question of the right of the Chancellors to preside in

e Dr. Ward, in a letter to the Primate about this time, says: "I know not how my Lord of Kilmore doth sort with the Irish. I persuade myself he hath godly and pious intentions: He is discreet and wise, industrious and diligent, and of great sufficiency many ways. I do persuade myself, the more your Lordship doth know him, the more your Lordship will love him and this I dare say, he truly honoreth and sincerely loveth your Lordship."-See Works, vol. xv. pag. 507,

the courts of the several dioceses Bishop Burnet states, that "the other Bishops did not stand by our Bishop in this matter; but were contented to let him fall under censure, without interposing in it as a cause of common concern: Even the excellent Primate told him, the tide went so high that he could assist him no longer; for he stood by him longer than any of the order had done." The explanation of this conduct is given so correctly, and the character of Primate Ussher is so well drawn by Bishop Burnet, that I must again quote his words: "No man was more sensible of the abuses of the spiritual court than Usher was; no man knew the beginning and progress of them better, nor was more touched with the ill effects of them: and together with his great and vast learning, no man had a better soul and a more apostolical mind. In his conversation he expressed the true simplicity of a Christian: for passion, pride, self will or the love of the world seemed not to be so much as in his nature. So that he had all the innocence of the dove in him. He had a way of gaining peoples hearts and of touching their consciences, that look'd like somewhat of the apostolical age reviv'd; he spent much of his time in these two best exercises, secret prayer and dealing with other peoples consciences, either in his sermons or private discourses; and what remained, he dedicated to his studies, in which those many volumes that came from him, shewed a most amazing diligence and exactness, joined with great judgment. So that he was certainly one of the greatest and best men that the age or perhaps the world has produced. But no man is entirely perfect; he was not made for the governing part of his function. He had too gentle a soul to manage that rough work of reforming abuses: and therefore he left things as he found them. He hoped a time of reformation would come. He saw the necessity of cutting off many abuses, and confessed that the tolerating those abominable corruptions that the canonists had brought in, was such a stain upon a Church, that in all other respects was the best reformed in the world, that he apprehended it would bring a curse and ruin upon the whole constitution. But though

he prayed for a more favourable conjecture, and would have concurred in a joint reformation of those things very heartily; yet he did not bestir himself suitably to the obligations that lay on him for carrying it on: and it is very likely that this sat heavy on his thoughts when he came to dye, for he prayed often and with great humility, that God would forgive him sins of omission, and his failings in his duty. It was not without great uneasiness to me that I overcome myself so far as to say any thing that may seem to diminish the character of so extraordinary a man, who in other things was beyond any man of his time, but in this only he fell beneath himself: and those that upon all other accounts loved and admired him, lamented this defect in him, which was the only alloy that seemed left, and without which he would have been held perhaps in more veneration than was fitting. His physician Dr. Bootius, that was a Dutchman, said truly of him, If our Primate of Armagh were as exact a disciplinarian as he is eminent in searching antiquity, defending the truth and preaching the Gospel, he might without doubt deserve to be made the chief Churchman of Christendom.' But this was necessary to be told, since History is to be writ impartially, and I ought to be forgiven for taxing his memory a little; for I was never so tempted in any thing that I ever writ, to disguise the truth as upon this occasion: yet though Bishop Usher did not mind himself, he had a singular esteem for that vigor of mind, which our Bishop expressed in the reforming these matters."

With this passage Dr. Parr is greatly offended, and speaks of "the injurious reflections upon the Archbishop, taken up partly from uncertain reports, and partly upon the Bishop's letter to him upon that occasion;" and he adds: "of which inadvertency as the composer of that life is already made sensible, so we hope that he will do him right, according as he hath promised, when time shall serve. If Bishop Burnet ever made such a promise, he certainly did not fulfil it, for the passage remains uncontradicted. Nor do I think the warmest admirer of the Archbishop ought to wish any change made in the faithful

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