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He was by wicked hands crucified and slain'; and all which followed, until He commended His Blessed Spirit to the Hands of His Heavenly Father, was One protracted, willing, Suffering. Then did He begin His lonely journey, where there was none to help or uphold, but He "travelled in the greatness of His strength;" then did He begin to "tread the wine-press alone," and to "stain all His raiment;" then to "wash the garments" of His Humanity "with" the "Wine" of His Blood; and therefore does the Blood bedew us too; it cleanses us, because it is the Blood shed for the remission of our sins". And this may have been another truth, which our Lord intended to convey to us, when He pronounced the words as the form which consecrates the sacramental elements into His Body and Blood, that that Precious Blood is still, in continuance and appli

"He Who disposeth all things according to His supreme Will awaiteth not the compulsion from the Betrayal, nor the violent assault of the Jews, and the lawless judgment of Pilate, so that their malice should be the beginning and cause of the common salvation of man; but by this dispensation He anticipateth their assault according to the mode of His Priestly Act, ineffable and invisible to man, and offered Himself as an Offering and Sacrifice for us, Priest at once and The Lamb of God, Who taketh away the sins of the world." S. Greg. Nyss. Orat. i. in Christi Res. t. iii. p. 389. add S. Cypr. Ep. 63. ad Cæcil. Theodoret in Ps. 109. S. Aug. de Doctr. Christ. iv. 21.

* Gen. xlix. 11. is explained of the Passion of Christ by Justin M. Apol. 1. p. 71. ed. Par. Dial. c. Tryph. p. 273. Tert. adv. Marc. v. 40. S. Ambr. de Jos. §. 13. de bened. Pat. §. 24. S. James of Edess. ap. S. Ephr. ad loc. (as v. 12. by S. Jerome in Is. l. 15. c. 55.) of His Blood, Clem. Al. Pædag. 1. i. p. 126. Orig. Hom. 17 in Jud. and by Orig. also of the Holy Eucharist, as also by S. Cypr. Ep. 63. S. Aug. de Civ. D. xvi. 41.

"That you may eat the Body of the Lord Jesus, wherein is remission of sins, the imploring of Divine reconciliation and everlasting protection.” S. Ambr. in Ps. 118. Litt. 8. §. 48. "He receiveth who examineth himself, but whoso receiveth shall not die the sinner's death, for this Bread is the remission of sins." Id. de Bened. Patr. c. 9.

"This word ['sufficient Sacrifice'] refers to the Sacrifice mentioned before, for we still continue and commemorate that Sacrifice, which Christ once made upon the Cross." (Notes from the Collections of Bp. Overall, ap. Nicholl's Comm. additional notes; see more at length Tract No. 80.) "What then? Do not we [Christians] daily offer? We do offer, but making a Memorial of His Death. And this is one and not many. How one and not many? Because it was once offered, as was that which was brought into the

cation of His One Oblation once made upon the Cross, poured out for us now, conveying to our souls, as being His Blood, with the other benefits of His Passion, the remission of our sins also. And so, when St. Paul says, "The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the participation of the Blood of Christ?" remission of sins is implied by the very words. For, if we be indeed partakers of His atoning Blood, how should we not be partakers of its fruits? "That which is in the Cup," S. Chrysostome paraphrases, "is that which flowed from His side, and of that do we partake." How should we approach His Sacred Side, and remain leprous still? Touching with our very lips that cleansing Blood', how may we not, with the Ancient Church", confess, "Lo, this hath touched my

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As then He,

Holy of Holies. This is a type of that, and this itself of That. For we always offer The Same (ròv avròv); not now one animal, to-morrow another, but always the same thing. So then the sacrifice is one. offered in many places, there were many Christs. But no. One Christ every where, here fully and there fully, One Body. being offered in many places, is One Body, and not many bodies, so also there is One Sacrifice. Our High Priest is He, Who offered the Sacrifice which cleanseth us. That same Sacrifice which was then also offered, we offer now too, That, the inexhaustible. For this is for a Memorial of That Which took place then. For, He saith, This do, as a Memorial of Me.' We do not make a different, but always the same Sacrifice; or rather we make a memorial of that Sacrifice." (S. Chrys. Hom. 17 on Heb. 9, 28. " Christ was once offered.")

k ad loc.


"His Blood is there received, His Flesh distributed to the salvation of the people; His Blood poured out, not now on the hands of the unbelievers, but into the mouths of the faithful." S. Greg. Dial. iv. 58. "While the Blood in the Cup is being poured out (nevovμivov) out of the undefiled Side." S. Chrys. de Pœnit. init. S. Chrys. also speaks of "the tongue reddened" (paviocoμévny) "with the most aweful Blood," in S. Matt. Hom. 82. §. 5. and de Sac. iii. 4. p. 382. "Thou seest all reddened with that precious Blood;" and in Ps. 140. §. 4. t. 5. p. 433. "Think that this [the tongue] is the member, whereby we hold converse with God-this the member whereby we receive the aweful Sacrifice." comp. Hooker, (App.) " We are dyed red within and without;" and in Bp. Wilson, (App.) "seeing the Blood of the true Paschal Lamb upon your lips."

m The coal from the altar is regarded as a type of the Holy Eucharist by S. Chrys. in illud Vide Dom. Hom. 5. §. 3. t. vi. p. 141. "And what marvel, if

lips, and shall take away mine iniquities and cleanse my sins " ?"

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There is, accordingly, an entire agreement in the Eucharistic Liturgies of the universal Church, in prayer, in benediction, in declaration, confessing that in the Holy Eucharist there is forgiveness of sins also. Those of S. James and S. Mark so paraphrase the words of Consecration as to develope the sense that they relate not only to the past act of His Precious Bloodshedding on the Cross, but to the communication of that Blood to us now. "This is My Body which for you is broken thou standest with the Seraphim, since those things which the Seraphim dared not touch, these God hath given thee with all confidence. For he saith, 'There was sent to me one of the Seraphim, having a coal of fire, which he took with the tongs from the altar.' That altar is an image and likeness of the Altar; that fire, of this spiritual fire; but the Seraphim dared not touch it with the hand, but with the tongs, but thou receivest It in the hand. Were you indeed to regard the dignity of what is there placed, (τῶν προκειμένων) it is far too great for the touch of the Seraphim—and ad loc. §. 4. Ib. p. 69. as the exposition of others, when himself giving the primary meaning, "Some say that these things are the symbols of the Mysteries which were to come, the Altar, the fire lying thereon, the ministering power, its being placed in the mouth, the cleansing of sins." See also de Poen. Hom. 9. t. ii. p. 350. ed. Ben. "Wherefore also, when ye approach, think not that ye receive the Divine Body, as from man, but, as from the Seraphim themselves with the tongs of fire which Isaias saw, think that ye receive the Divine Body; and as touching with the lips the Divine and Unpolluted Side, so let us receive the Saving Blood." Theodoret, ad loc." placing the coal on the mouth of the prophet, he declared to him the remission of sin. But by these things is moreover described and pre-typified the participation of our blessings, the remission of sins through the Body and Blood of the Lord." add. S. Ephr. Serm. 10. adv. Scrutat. Opp. Syr. t. iii. p. 23. S. James Doct. ap. S. Ephr. Opp. ad loc. t. ii. p. 30. et al. ib. See also lit. of S. Cyril, (Renaudot. Liturg. tom. ii. 49.) Coptic (ib. p. 54.) Renaudot (p. 195.) mentions a sacred vessel, in use among the Greeks and Copts, called hence the dyia λáßis, and suggests (ib. p. 323.) that the title spiritual 'fire,' frequent in Greek hymns on the Holy Eucharist, refers to this type, (see S. Chrys. ab. p. 16. and in this note.)

n Lit. of S. Chrys. p. 83. ed. Goar. comp. Lit. of S. James Ass. Cod. Lit. v. 56. “ The Lord bless us and make us worthy to take with the pure 'tongs' of our hands the fiery coal and to place it on the mouths of the faithful, for the cleansing and purifying of their souls and bodies, now and ever."

• Greek, (Ass. Cod. Lit. v. 36.) Syriac, (ib. p. 236.) Armenian, (Renaud. Litt. Orr. ii. 127.)

P Greek, (Ass. vii. 32, 33. 58. 104.) Coptic, (141, 2. ib.)

and given for the remission of sins." "This is My Blood of the New Testament, which for you and for many is poured out and given for the remission of sins.” Again, the Liturgies join together, manifoldly, remission of sins and life eternal, as the two great fruits of this Sacrament. Thus in the prayer for the descent of the Holy Ghost on the sacred elements ", " that they may be to all who partake of them to the remission of sins, and to life eternal;" or in intercession", "that we may become meet to be partakers of Thy holy mysteries to the remission of sins and life eternal," or in the words of communicating, "I give thee the precious and holy and undefiled Body of our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ for the remission of sins and life eternal." And the prayer in our own liturgy is almost in the very words of an Eastern and in the character of a Western


9 Lit. of S. James, (Ass. v. 40.) S. Mark, (ib. vii. 60 add. p. 35.) Lit. of S. Gregory, (ib. 106, 7.) Syriac, (ib. 190, 1.) Coptic, (ıb. 143, 4.) Const. Ap. viii. 12. Lit. of S. Chrys. (Goar. p. 77.)

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Lit. of S. James, (Ass. v. 52.) Post-Comm. Const. Ap. viii. 14. S. Basil from S. James, Ass. vii. 46. "for the remission of sins, for the communication of the Holy Spirit." S. Mark, ib. vii. 73. It is retained in the Nestorian lit. Ren. ii. 634. "May Thy Living Body, O Lord, which we have eaten, and Thy pure Blood which we have drunk, not be to us, Lord, to hurt or weakness, but to the expiation of offences and blotting out of sins, Lord of all;" and p. 635. (benediction,) "To Him, Who expiates our offences by His Body, and doeth away our sins by His Blood, be praise in His Church;" and, GallicGoth. Liturg. Post-Comm. (Mabillon de Lit. Gall. p. 300.) Thy Body crucified for us we have eaten, and Thy Holy Blood shed for us we have drunk; may Thy Holy Body be to us to salvation and Thy Holy Blood for remission of sins here and for eternal ages." Armenian, ap. Ren. ii 12. “Let not this Mystery which was instituted for our salvation, become to us to judgment, but to the abolition of our sins, &c." Miss. Mixt. Mozarab. p. 233. ed. Les!. "Tasting, Lord, the fulness of [Thy] sweetness, we pray that this be to us for the remission of sins and the health of our minds;" and the priest for himself," O Lord, my God, grant me so to receive the Body and Blood of Thy Son our Lord Jesus Christ, that by It I may obtain remission of all my sins, and be filled with Thy Holy Spirit." (ib. p. 232.)

s Lit. of S. Chrys. Goar. p. 82, 83.

"Vouchsafe to us, O Lord God, that our bodies may be sanctified by Thy Holy Body, and our souls cleansed by Thy propitiating Blood, and that it may be to us forgiveness of our debts and pardon of our sins." Supplem. to Syriac

Liturgy", "that our sinful bodies may be made clean by His Body and our souls washed by His most precious Blood." Even the Roman Liturgy, though less full on this point, has prayers, "that" the Communion may cleanse us from sin," "may be the washing away of guilt, the remission of all offences "."

It will then seem probably too refined and narrowing a distinction, when some Divines of that Communion, countenanced by the language of the Council of Trent, maintain, in opposition to other error', that venial sins only are remitted by the Holy Eucharist, since to apLiturgies, Ass. v. 208, 9. comp. S. Ephr. Paræn. xi. ad Pœnit. Opp. t. iii. p. 429. "Leave me not in hell, most merciful Lord, Who hast given me Thy Body to eat, and made me to drink Thy Blood which is life; through Thy Body may I be cleansed, and through Thy Blood my trespasses be forgiven."

u" by Whose Flesh, sanctified by Thyself, while fed,we are strengthened, and by His Blood, while given us to drink, we are washed." Gallic. Sacram. ap. Muratori Lit. Rom. Vet. p. 816. add Missale Gall-Goth. ap. Mabillon, p. 229.

▾ Post-Comm. for the Circumcision, &c. In the Sarum, York, and Hereford Missals, daily.

w 3rd Post-Comm. for Ash-Wedn. &c. Also in the Præp. ad Miss. in the Breviary, "Grant that this holy foretaste of Thy Body and Blood, which I, unworthy, look to receive, may be the perfect cleansing of sins, &c." [A friend adds the following; "Deliver me by this Thy All-holy Body and Blood from all mine iniquities and all evils;" prayer before communicating, (so also Sar." all my evils," York. Heref.) " Grant that I may so worthily receive this All-holy Body and Blood of Thy Son our Lord Jesus Christ, that I may be meet to receive thereby remission of all my sins and be filled with Thy Holy Spirit." Sar. Prayer before kiss of peace. "Grant us so to receive

this Body and Blood of Thy Son our Lord God Jesus Christ, that we may be meet to receive thereby remission of our sins, &c." York and Heref. ib. "By the operation, O Lord, of this mystery may both our offences (vitia) be purged away and our good desires brought to good effect." Post-Comm. Vigil of Epiph., Lent Ember-Fr., Palm-Sunday. "Cleansed from guilt [expiati] by Thy Holy Mysteries, O Lord, may we obtain, we beseech Thee, both pardon and grace." 1st Post-Comm. 3rd S. in Lent. "May the receiving, O Lord, of this Sacrament cleanse us from our guilt" [crimine]. Fr. after 3rd, and Tu. after 4th S. in Lent, 66 a vitiis expiatos," 3rd S. in Adv.]

* "An antidote, whereby we may be set free from sins of daily incursion, and preserved from mortal sins." Sess. xiii. c. 3.

y "That forgiveness of sins was the chief object of the Holy Eucharist." Ib. can. 3.

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