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10-inch gun abscissae amount analysis atmospheres ballistite barometric pressure bores of guns Bunsen and Schischkoff calculated calibres carbonic anhydride carbonic oxide chamber charge chronoscope close vessel colour composition considerable copper Pressure cordite crusher crusher-gauge curve cylinder deduced deposit determine detonation diagram driving-surface Elswick energy equation experiments Fahr feet per second fired gunpowder foot-tons furnished gaseous products gauge give given gravimetric density grms guncotton hydrogen hyposulphite initial velocity maximum pressure mean muzzle nearly observed obtained oxygen pebble pebble-powder permanent gases placed Plate platinum portion potassium potassium carbonate potassium nitrate potassium sulphate probable error products of combustion products of explosion projectile proportion R. L. G. powder realised Rodman rounds Saint-Robert saltpetre shell shot solid products solid residue space specific heat square inch sulphate sulphide sulphur supposed surface Table temperature of explosion tension tons per square volume weight yards
Página 322 - Nitro-glycerine is in like manner formed by the action of a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids on glycerine ; but we shall for the present confine our attention to guncotton.
Página 498 - I have mentioned, blocks and tackle were generally employed. To work, with any degree of smartness, such rude weapons, a very strong gun's crew was necessary, and, indeed, the gun and its carriage were absolutely surrounded by its crew. For the sake of the younger members present, who may probably not have seen the weapons I have been describing, I show in Plate I. * (p. 520), a 32-pr. gun of HMS Excellent, with its crew at practice. In the year 1858 the first great step in artillery progress was...
Página 265 - If the factor of effect for the powder be known, the above values multiplied by that factor will give the energy per pound or kilogramme that may be expected to be raised in the projectile. But it rarely happens, especially with the very large charges used in the most recent guns, that gravimetric densities so high as unity are employed, and in such cases, from the total realisable energy must be deducted the energy which the powder would have generated had it expanded from a density of unity to...
Página 142 - ... precise expression of the chemical changes which gunpowder of average composition undergoes when exploded in a confined space, they feel warranted, by the results of their experiments, in stating, with confidence, that the chemical theory of the decomposition of gunpowder, as based upon the results of Bunsen and Schischkoff and accepted in recent text-books, is certainly as far from correctly representing the general metamorphosis of gunpowder as was the old and long-accepted theory, according...
Página 467 - Such are the average analyses of the permanent pases generated by the decomposition of gun-cotton under the various conditions I have described, and it will be evident from these analyses that the volumes of the permanent gases may be expected to differ to some very appreciable extent, depending both upon the density under which it is exploded, and also upon the mode of explosion. I have found it most convenient to explode the charges, the permanent gases from which were to be measured, under a pressure...
Página 197 - Centigrade, and in terms of the density, of the product* when expanded, teith production of work, in the bore of a gun supposed impervious to heat. (x) WORK EFFECTED BY GUNPOWDER. The theoretic work which a charge of gunpowder is capable of effecting during the expansion to any volume v is, as we have said, represented by the area between the curve B, Plate XX. (p. 230), the ordinates corresponding to v and v0, and the axis of abscissae. In mathematical language, it is expressed by the definite integral...
Página 464 - Abel, have been engaged for very many years, have had their scope so altered and extended by the rapid advances which have been made in the science of explosives, that we have been unable to lay before the Society the results of the many hundreds of experiments under varied conditions which I have carried out. We are desirous also of clearing up some difficulties which have presented themselves with certain modern explosives when dealing with high densities and pressures ;. but the necessary investigations...
Página 230 - The variations in the composition of the products of explosion furnished in close chambers by one and the same powder, under different conditions as regards pressure, and by two powders of similar composition under the same conditions as regards pressure, are so considerable, that no value whatever can be attached to any attempt to give a general chemical expression to the metamorphosis of a gunpowder of normal composition (p.
Página 104 - The work so done is compared with that of exploding gunpowder, and the conclusion finally reached is that " the destructive energy of one cubic foot of water, at a temperature which produces the pressure of 60 Ibs. to the square inch, is equal to that of one pound of gunpowder.
Página 513 - ... guns are carried on the main deck. On the upper deck effective shields, and as thick as can be conveniently carried, should be attached to the mountings. (4) Where an attack is made against thin armour, shell charged with gunpowder are more effective than high explosive shell, as, dependent on circumstances, the former can be got to pass through, thin armour and burst inside. I doubt if shell charged with any explosive can be got to pass through thick armour without bursting.