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very often cannot emphasize in any other way. We cannot make a naturally short syllable emphatic, by giving it a longer sound than others. It is also very difficult to make the long slides with perfect distinctness on such a syllable. Wide intervals of radical pitch, together with the employment of radical stress, are the only means we can make use of to distinguish it.

It is then of great importance, that every pupil should acquire a perfect command over this mode of employing the element of force. For this purpose let him practise diligently on the following tables, until he is able, without apparent effort, to give to every one of the sounds which they contain, the abrupt expression heard on the word 'out' in the preceding example. This sudden, coughing effort of the voice will be the radical stress which he has to learn.

It may be observed, that, as radical stress means nothing more than the giving to the radical a considerably greater degree of force as compared with the vanish, than it would have had in ordinary speaking, it by no means follows, that it must always have a great degree of general force or loudness of voice, combined with it. Radical stress may be given to a syllable just as completely when we are speaking in a low voice, as when we are declaiming in a very loud one. It is true, indeed, that the addition of general force to radical stress gives it much greater intensity and energy, but still it must never be forgotten, that it is not necessary to its existence.

The tables must be practised on, in the order in

which they are here arranged; first, the short tonic elements, as it will be found to be most easy to a beginner to give to them this kind of sound; next, the eight long tonics to be sounded as short as possible; and last, the list of words subjoined. It may be well also, in order to become entirely master of radical stress in all its varieties, to practise on these tables, first with a moderate degree of loudness or force of voice, then with its utmost power, and afterwards with as little force as possible. Care must be taken, however, that the sudden short explosive sound be always given, whatever be the degree of general force which we employ. This exercise will be found to be of very great utility, and must therefore be persevered in, till the pupils have acquired a very perfect command over the use of radical stress. A public speaker who cannot use this element well, will never make himself HEARD in a place of any size.



i', u, e, o', a"", e'.

II. ee, oo, a, a', a", o, ou, i.

III. it, end, edge, odd, at, up, eat, ask, art, all, ought, oaf, old, out, ice, ev-er, of-fer, act-ive, un-der, oth-er, art-ful, ov-er, oust-ed, ic-y.


The second modification of stress has been stated to be, the giving to the vanish a greater degree of force than to the radical. It is in fact just the reverse

of the natural, or unemphatic pronunciation of the syllable. In common speaking, we begin loud and end faintly; in this element, we begin more faintly, and end loud.

Vanishing stress may be most commonly heard in the speech of the lower orders among the Irish. ' And sure your honor will be knowing it.' It is heard also in the sound which we make in sobbing.

It ought only to be used at the end of the emphatic slides of the voice. When it is added to the slide of the tone, it gives nothing more than the jerk we so often hear on the unemphatic words in Irish pronunciation. When properly combined with an emphatic slide, it gives a more hasty and earnest expression than the radical stress. In this way it is very frequently used by young children, I wo'n't, I tell you.'

In order to give vanishing stress to a syllable, it is also necessary that it be one which is capable of receiving a pretty long sound. It need not indeed be a very long one, but it must not, like those syllables to which we give radical stress, be very short.

Two tables are subjoined for practice on this element. The first contains the eight long tonics; the second, a few words on which vanishing stress may be easily exhibited. Each of the emphatic slides and waves may as well be given in their turn, in combination with it. Great care has to be taken, however, that the whole of the stress be thrown on to the end of the slide or wave, and none of it to the beginning. If the sound be forcible at the open

ing, as well as at the close of the syllable, it will produce compound and not vanishing stress.

It may be observed here, that any degree of general loudness may be made to accompany the use of vanishing stress. This is indeed the case with all the four kinds of stress. They should therefore all of them be practised not only in a loud and energetic tone, but also in a more moderate, and even in a low and muffled voice.



ee, oo, a, a', a", o, ou, i.

II. he, you, may, dare, past, will, bound, bite, gone, done, shall.


It will not be necessary to enter very minutely into the examination of this form of stress. It has all the earnestness of the vanishing stress, combined with much more gravity and dignity. It consists in giving comparative force to both ends of the syllable, leaving the faint sound of the voice only on the middle. It may be given on the word 'all' in the following example.

"The boat upset, and they were all lost.' 'ALL lost?"

Compound stress may be practised with advantage on the two preceding tables.


This last species of stress differs considerably from any of those which have been already described. In exhibiting it, the voice opens at the beginning of the syllable with moderate force-it then gradually increases or swells till the middle, after which it dies away again to the end. Of course, all this can be done only on syllables which are of very considerable length, such as all, hail, wo. It should be heard in the sentence, unto thee, Bethsaida.' of great solemnity.


Wo unto thee, Chorazin, wo
Its expression is always that

Median stress can be given much more perfectly on the equal waves of the voice, than on the simple slides. The reason of this is, that the speaking voice, when it is made to dwell long on one syllable, naturally assumes the form of an equal wave, and median stress can be only given on very long syllables. In using the subjoined tables, therefore, each example should be sounded successively, with median stress on every one of the equal waves, direct and indirect.

It will require great practice to obtain a full command over this element, and great care after it has become familiar to us, to use it judiciously in speaking.


I. ee, oo, a, a', a”, o, ou, i.

II. aid, save, all, heal, old, fair, praise, wo, move, know, arm, hail, bear, roll, lord, thine, lone-ly, roy-al, glo-ry, hol-y, un-known, con-ceal.

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