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various forms of the cadence, and indeed to explain all the several uses of discrete pitch, which we have mentioned, may be found in the exercises for reading, at the close of the volume.

CHAPTER VIII.

ON FORCE.

THE second of the elements of expression has been stated to be the force, or degree of loudness, with which we speak. Every body knows that we speak much louder at some times than at others. Every body knows too, that loud speaking gives a very different meaning to a sentence, from what softer and less forcible speaking does. For example, the sentence Take care, sir,' if uttered with great force and loudness, would seem like an angry threat, but, if uttered in a milder tone, it would appear a very friendly warning. Such feelings as anger, joy, pain, terror, or confidence, are generally expressed by the use of considerable force. Secresy, sorrow, doubt, or shame, will require much less.

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This general rule must suffice to direct the pupil for what purposes he is to employ this element throughout a speech or sentence. If the sentiment contained be of the first class, he must use a good deal more of force throughout, than if it be of the second. His own judgment must tell him how much is required in each particular instance.

It is not, however, only to the general loudness of voice with which whole sentences are to be spoken, that we have to attend. We must see on what words in a sentence it is to be most used, and also in what manner it may in each case be best used, so as to convey the exact meaning we wish to give.

In every sentence, some syllables must have greater force than others. 'It is false, Sir, utterly false.” Now, whether this sentence be read in a loud angry tone, or in a milder and more sorrowful one, the emphatic syllables 'false," ut-' and 'false,' will be given with more force than the others. In this case, we see that the element of force is used to give emphasis.

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But now let us take another sentence: 'And Nathan said unto David.' Read this sentence without giving emphasis to any of the words in it. The syllables Na-'' said ' and ' Da-' will still be louder than the others. Here, then, we have the element of force used more on one syllable than on another, without making it emphatic.

When the element of force is used to make a word emphatic, we commonly call it stress. What is the difference between stress, and that kind of force which was given to the unemphatic words in the last example? In order to explain this, we must describe more minutely the nature of the slide, which has been shown to be made on every syllable in speaking.

It has been shown already, (Chap. iv.) that whenever we speak, there is a greater or less change of pitch between the beginning and the end of the sound

we make. This change, we may now say, is a gradual one, that is, the voice passes quickly through all the musical sounds that can be made between the pitch where we begin, and that on which we end. There is another thing, too, to be noticed. In common speaking, it will be found that the voice begins more or less loud and full, and gradually dies away, becoming weaker and weaker as it rises or falls in its slide. This dying away of the sound at the end of the syllable led Dr. Rush, who first noticed it, to give the name of the vanishing movement,' or vanish' to the latter portion of the slide. To the beginning, he gave the name of the 'radical movement' or 'radical.'

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This gradual and regular dying away of the sound takes place, we have said, in ordinary speaking. All unemphatic words have it, whether they are sounded loud or not. This may be seen by a reference to the example already given. And Nathan said unto David.' Let the whole be read without emphasis, just as one would say the words in the middle of a story. The syllables Na-said' and Da-' will be louder than the rest, as has been already shown. Now let each syllable be repeated separately, exactly as it was given in reading the whole sentence, and it will be found that on every one there will be made a gradual and even lessening of sound from the beginning to the end. This, as we shall see, is the reason why the louder syllables in the sentence do not strike us as emphatic. Why some syllables should receive this unemphatic force will be explained hereafter, in the chapter on Accent. It will be enough here to

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state that, whatever may be the force of voice with which we may be speaking, if this full opening and regular vanish is given, emphasis will not be produced by it; in other words, it will not be what we called stress. Of course we do not mean to say, that, in such a case, there can be no emphasis at all, but only that no emphasis will be given to the syllable by the use of this element.

It is only where this proportion between the radical and vanish is not preserved, that we have stress or emphatic force. Now this may happen in several

ways.

1. The radical may be sounded fully, and the vanish be given very faintly, and of course very short. This is what we call radical stress.

2. The radical may be sounded faintly, and the force may be given on the vanish. This has been termed vanishing stress.

3. Force may be given at both ends, i. e. first on the radical, and then at the end of the vanish. This we call compound stress.

4. Force may be given in the middle of the sound. This is called median stress.

Each of these four kinds of stress will require some explanation.

CHAPTER IX.

FORCE-Continued.

STRESS-RADICAL STRESS.

By radical stress, then, we mean the giving a full sound to the radical, and a much feebler and shorter sound to the vanish, of the syllable. It is, in fact, giving it what we may call an abrupt or sudden sound. It may be named either radical stress, or abruptness.

An example of this kind of stress may be had in the words out with you.' Let this sentence be uttered in a very hasty and passionate manner, and after it, in a natural manner, such a sentence as 'he went out.' In the first case, the word 'out' will have radical stress given to it, in the second it will not. The difference may be very easily perceived, and when once perceived will not be very easily forgotten.

We shall notice, if we attend to the above example, a very important fact in regard to this kind of stress. The tonic element ou in the word 'out,' is one of the eight long tonics, and is therefore capable of having a somewhat long sound given to it. . In the second sentence, he went out,' where radical stress is not given to the word, we shall find that we may make it as long a syllable as custom will permit us; but in the first, where radical stress is to be given, we must make it as short as possible.

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Radical stress, then, or abruptness, gives us a means of emphasizing a class of words, which we

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