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wave, the intervals of pitch employed in the waves being greater or less, according to the degree of scorn thrown into the utterance of the words 'your' and 'mine.'

So, also, in the following example :

'Not think they'd SHAVE?' qouth Hodge, with wond'ring eyes,

And voice not much unlike an Indian yell, What were they made for, then, you dog?' he cries— 'MADE?' qouth the fellow, with a smile, ' to SELL!

Here the words 'shave,'' made,' and 'sell,' will exhibit the unequal wave.


Where, as on the word 'your' (in the first example,) or on the words shave' and 'made' (in the second,) the expression of interrogation is to be given, the slide ends with an upward movement, and is called




an inverted unequal wave;' whereas, on the other two words, my' and self,' on which there is no interrogation, the slide ends by running downwards, and is called the direct unequal wave.'

Of course, a wave cannot be made on any really short syllable, as the only way of making it, consists in lengthening the syllables on which it is to be exhibited.

These waves must all be practised on the two following tables, in the same manner as was directed for the slides in the last chapter.



ee, oo, a, a', a", o, ou, i.

II, save, all, old, fair, praise. wo, move, arm, roll,



In explaining what was meant by pitch, as an element of expression, it was shown that there were two kinds of pitch used in speaking, the first being the change of pitch or slide made between the begiuning and the end of each syllable, and the second being the pitch on which the beginning of successive syllables is made. The first of these two kinds of pitch has been explained in the two preceding chapters. We have now to consider the second.

If we say, as a pettish child would do, the words, 'I WON'T,' we shall notice that the second word begins a good deal higher than the first. This distance or interval between the two is much greater in this case, than it was between any two of the syllables in the example given in the fourth chapter,' I am coming to see you to-day.' We have, then, in this chapter, to see what different intervals of this kind may be made, and what are their uses.


Let the sentence, I am coming to see you to-day,' be repeated, taking great care not to make any word in it emphatic. Two things may be observed in the way of uttering it. 1. As was shown in the last chapter but one, there will be no slides of more than a tone on any of the syllables in it. 2. Though the syllables. do not all begin on the same note, yet no two of them have any great difference in radical pitch between them, such as was observed in the other example between the words 'I' and 'won't.' The slight differ

ence, which is made between some of them, has been found to be the same with what we have called a tone.

The first rule then to be remembered in re erence to Radical Pitch is, that an interval of a tone between two syllables gives no emphasis to either of them.

'You dare tell me so ?' If this sentence be read as it would be commonly spoken, the word 'dare' would be emphasized by having its radical pitch a third lower than that of the word before it. It would have also as was explained in the last chapter, an upward slide of a third, in order to give it the intonation of a simple question.

'I dare tell you so.' Here we should give an upward interval of a third in discrete pitch, between the words 'I' and' dare.' There should be also a downward slide of the same length on the latter word, to give it a somewhat positive expression.

Repeat the question with more earnestness. 'You DARE?' Here we shall have the downward interval of the fifth, with an upward slide of the same length.

'I DARE. This repeated answer would exemplify the upward interval of the fifth with its downward slide.

In the same way the corresponding octaves may be made, but, as was before observed, they are of little use, except for acting.

In all the above examples of emphatic discrete intervals, it will be seen that, by adding them to their corresponding slides, a word is emphasized in a much more spirited manner than it would have been by the slides alone. Let the sentence, Sir, I thank the government for this first measure,' be read, in the solemn and dignified tone of a man quite confident of being in


the right, and then in a more lively manner, and it will be seen, that the difference between the two readings will be, that in the former case we have a downward slide on the word 'thank' without any upward discrete interval, while in the latter we use both together. In the same way, taking any of the examples which have been given in the fourth chapter for the slides, their emphasis may be made more or less spirited, simply by adding or not adding a discrete interval in the opposite direction.

The emphasis, then, which is given by the use of discrete pitch, is always spirited. In all the examples which have yet been given, the emphatic discrete interval has been accompanied by an equally long slide running the other way; but this, it should be understood, is not always the case. The rule for the employment of discrete pitch is, to make the interval wider, according as we would have the emphasis more spirited; the slides and waves must then be added according to their own rules. An example will be sufficient to explain this.

'A pretty fellow you are, to be sure.' This sentence is one which requires no emphatic slides. There is no interrogation to require an upward slide, and nothing positive, to need a downward one. If therefore we wish to read it as an angry taunt, we must give to it the spirited emphasis of the wide discrete interval combined with the unemphatic slide of the tone.

Between the syllable' pret-' therefore, and the one before it, there will be an upward interval of a fifth or a third, according as the taunt is made more or less seA downward interval of corresponding length


will then be made between 'ty' and 'fel-.' The voice may perhaps rise a second time in radical pitch, on' you.'

We have stated it as a general rule, that this kind of emphasis may be used, at any time when we want to give a spirited expression. There are some particular cases in which it is almost necessary to use it. These may be best shown by examples.

'Had I been his slave, he could not have used me worse. We have here between the words 'his' and 'slave,' an upward discrete interval of a third or fifth, according to the degree of violence with which we suppose the sentence to be spoken. There is, in addition to this, a downward slide of the same length or the latter word. On the second emphatic word, 'worse,' we shall probably give only the downward slide, without any upward interval. On both words we require a spirited emphasis. Why then do we not give the upward interval on the second, as well as on the first? The reason is this. The first clause is conditional: If I had been &c. :' the second is not. We give to the emphatic words in the conditional clause the upward interval, in order to keep the sense suspended, and to make the hearer expect a second clause. When we come to the second clause, we commonly cease to use it, that we may mark out clearly the transition. This will be foundto be a rule of almost universal application.


It may be remarked that in this mode of applying the upward intervals, it is by no means necessary to have a corresponding downward slide joined with them, though this is certainly the most common usage.

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