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be a good-'), it will be observed that the last syllable uttered has a crying or plaintive expression, and also that it leaves us in expectation of something to follow it. This expression is produced by the voice sliding upwards through this very short interval of a semitone. The slide is called, therefore, the upward slide of the semitone.' If, on the other hand, the sentence be finished ('I will be a good boy '), there will still be the crying or plaintive expression, but the feeling that the sentence is unfinished is no longer produced. This expression is the result of 'the downward slide of the semitone,' on the word 'boy.'

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The musical names are given to all these ten simple slides (as they are called), merely to distinguish them from one another. It is not expected, that most pupils will be able to distinguish the semitone, tone, third, &c., as they are used in music. This is not at all necessary. All that need be done, is to show the expression of each slide. It will be easy always to distinguish them by this. Their musical character is, for practical purposes, of no impor


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These slides must all be practised on by the prp'ls till they can be made with perfect ease, and with unvarying success. For this pur. ose, it may be well to use the following tables. The first contains the eight long tonic elements, on which all the slides may be made with ease. The second consists of the six short tonic elements, to which, on account of the shortness of their sound, it is hard, if not impossible, to give the long slide of the octave. These

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two tables should be first taken up. Let the instructer sound each of these elements, as varied by the use of the ten slides, and the whole class repeat after him, the instructer taking care to note and correct all errors. This, after a little practice, will not be difficult. When all the slides can be well made on each of these elementary sounds, let the class proceed to a similar course of drilling on the third and fourth tables, which consist of words, selected to afford them practice on long and short syllables respectively. The class should not relinquish this exercise till they are able, any one of them, to sound correctly and without effort, any slide that may be called for, and on any one of the elements or syllables.

Tables for practice on the simple Slides.


ee, oo, a, a', a", o, ou, i.


ï', u, e, o', a", e'.

III. all, old, fair, heal, dare, save, hail, thrive, you, I, he, hound.

IV. gone, will, sit, out, ice, ought, past, done, ask, bite.




The last chapter has given an account of the simple slides of the voice, as they are commonly used in


speech. We have now to consider a second kind of slides, called the compound slides, or waves. The slides mentioned in the last chapter have all of them only one direction, that is, they run either upwards or downwards, through a certain interval. In the compound slides, or waves, on the other hand, the voice slides, first in one direction, and then back again in the other.

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Let the sentence, Hil, holy light,' be repeated, giving to the word 'hail' the longest possible sound, unaccompanied with any thing like positive emphasis, and avoiding carefully all drawling on it, and it will be perceived, by a nice ear, that the voice first falls a little in concrete pitch, and then rises again through an equal interval. It is found to pass, in either direction, through a musical tone. This wave is called the indirect equal wave of the tone indirect, because it terminates with a rising movement; and equal, because the interval passed through in one direction, is the same with that traversed in the other.



Repeat in the same way, All hail,' still avoiding all positive emphasis on the word hail,' but lengthening out its sound, without drawling, and the voice will pass through the same wave, but in the opposite direction. It will first rise, and then fall, a tone. This is what is called 'the direct equal wave of the tone.' There is the same difference of expression between the two waves of the tone, as there was between the two simple slides of the tone. The indirect wave answers to the upward slide, in not finishing the clause, but requiring other words to follow it. The direct

wave answers to the downward slide, in always giving the other expression.


Let the question be imagined to be put, 'you said Hail?' If this sentence be repeated as a simple inquiry, with the same long sound on 'hail' as before, the voice, instead of at once rising a third, (as in the example given in the last chapter, where the word 'you' was sounded in its common or rather short way), will first fall a third, and then rise again to where it started. This is what we call the indirect equal wave of the third.'


'I said, Hūil.' Let this last word now have the emphasis naturally given, in the answer to such a question as the preceding, together with the same slow, serious utterance as before, and the voice will be found first to rise, and then to fall a third. This is an example of 'the direct equal wave of the third.'

'You said, HAIL?' If the question be again repeated with more surprise and emphasis, but still with the same long sound, there will be, on the word 'hail,’ the indirect equal wave of the fifth,'

'Yes, HAIL.' In this answer, more positive than the former one, we shall hear 'the direct equal wave of the fifth.'

In the same way, by again repeating the question and answer, with increased violence, we may make the 'indirect,' and 'direct equal waves of the octave ; ' but as, like the slides of the octave, these waves are scarcely ever used, except in conversation, they need hardly be practised on for speaking.

The two equal waves of the semitone are easily ex

plained. They correspond in expression with the slides of the semitone; that is, they are both plaintive in the expression, the indirect wave suspending the sense, and being used on words which are immediately followed by others, the direct wave closing it, and coming therefore at the end. They may be easily exhibited, by uniting the plaintive expression with slow For instance,


" Pity the sorrows of a poor old man.'

Here the indirect equal wave of the semitone will fall on the words, 'poor' and 'old.'

'I will be a good bōy.'


Here the closing word, boy,' will exhibit the direct equal of the semitone.

The ten preceding waves have all received the name of equal waves, from their ascending and descending parts being equal. But this is not the case in regard to all the waves that can be made. Wherever the two parts of a compound slide are unequal, it is said to be an unequal wave.' These unequal waves are, of course, very numerous; but as they have all of them very nearly the same expression, (that of contempt and ridicule,) it is not worth while to try to enumerate them. It is enough to state, that they become more strikingly emphatic, according as the intervals of concrete pitch passed through, in either direction, are made longer.



The question your friend?', or the answer my friend,' may be made to exemplify this species of

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