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perfectly distinct
sounded by itself.
i', 'oy' of o' and i'

3 g,

4 1,

5 m,

6 n,

The subtonic elements are 15 in number. 1 b, as in the words b-old, b-ul-b, El-be

2 d,

d-are, ha-d

g-ive, ha-g l-ow, a-ll

m-ine, ai-m

ng,

8 r, 9 r',

10 v,

11 w

12 Y, 13 z,

14 th,

15 zh,

sounds, either of which may be Thus, 'ay' is made up of a" and and 'eu ' of i' and oo.

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The atonic elements are 9 in number.

1 p, as in the words p-ull, ha-p, a-pe
2 t,
t-ake, sa-t, la-te

3 k,

4 f,

5 wh,

6 h,

7 s,

k-ind, loo-k, c-ow, a-che, lo-ck f-ace, i-f, o-ff, ph-ysic, lau-gh wh-at, wh-en

h-it, h-orse
s-aw, hi-ss, era-se

* These two subtonic elements, w and y, can scarcely be distinguished in sound from the tonic elements, u and . Perhaps they are really nothing more than the very shortest possible sound that can be given to those elements.

+ The three atonic elements, p, t, and k, cannot be uttered audibly by themselves. They will require some other element to be sounded with them, p-i, l-p, t-s, a'''t-, k-l, l-k, o'-k. It does not signify whether the other element be a tonic, a subtonic, or even any other atonic. The union of any other element will enable us to sound them clearly enough.

8 th',

9 sh,

th-ink, ear-th [ous, na-ti-on sh-ake, har-sh, o-ce-an, gra-ci

There are several combinations of these elements which may be easily mistaken for simple sounds; e. g.

t-sh

The combination d-zh in the words j-oy, a-ge, stran-ge ch-ur-ch, ch-ance e-x-ample, e-x-empt ve-x, ta-x qu-een, qu-antity

g-z

k-s,

k-w

The pupils must be exercised in repeating all these elements SEPARATELY, as well as in the words in which they are exhibited, until each of them can be sounded correctly and with ease. After this practice is completed, let them proceed to the following tables. The first contains a number of words which from some cause or other are frequently mispronounced. These should be all gone over very carefully, the pupils being required to sound all the vocal elements which every successive word contains; or, in other language, to spell out, not the letters, but the elements of which it is made up. When the right spelling has been given, let the whole class be required to sound the word, the teacher stopping and correcting any who may pronounce it wrong. A good many of the words at the beginning of the table are spelt in their elements, to serve as an example of what is to be done with the others.

The second table contains all or most of the combinations of the subtonic and atonic elements admissible in the English language. These must be gone over in the same manner; the class first sounding after the teacher each of the component elements by

itself, then the combination as written in the first column, and last of all, the word or words given to exemplify its use. The third table contains a number of sentences of difficult utterance. These also must be read with the same care, until the whole class can repeat them all, without apparent effort, and without mistake or hesitation.

God

Lord

The importance of attaining a complete command over the use of the vocal elements is so great, that no part of these exercises must, on any account, be omitted. It will be well, however, in order to relieve the tedium of too great sameness of repetition, to diversify, as much as may be found convenient, the practice of the different tables with one another.

wants

orbs

offal

awful

nostril

whelmed

delft

bulb'd

bulbs

strength
stretch

whisps

rhythm

TABLE I.

stretch'd

offering

thumbscrew

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* The elements marked in italics are those which are most likely to be left out or mistaken.

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he-dge, lo-dg'd, do-dg'd'st

a-dd'st, ha-dst, sai-dst
brea-dth, wi-dths
bag-ged, brag-g'd'st
gl-isten, man-gl'd, hag-gl'd'st,
o-gles, bog-gl'st
gr-ove, gr-oat, gr-ot
pi-gs, fo-gs, la-gs
wag-g'st, brag-g'st
E-lbe, bu-lb'd, bu-lbs
he-ld, ho-ids

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* It has been attempted in this table to express the singleness of the elements ng, th, zh, th' and sh, by printing them in Italics.

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