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lixity, which is repugnant to the genius of prophecy : on the other hand, to have given an account of them altogether general, and equally applicable to them all, would have proved a method, in a considerable degree, vague and unsatisfactory. The middle course then, which the prophet is thought to have followed, and which will be admitted to have been a very natural one, was to point out the events happening in one of the Ten Countries, as containing a specimen of the sufferings, which the witnesses were to endure in Europe in general, and of the subsequent changes in their favour, which were afterwards to ensue. Conformably to this, we find, in the account of the witnesses, that separate mention is made of The Street of the Great City, as in v. 8, and again in v. 13 THE TENTH PART of the City is particu. larized; and thus it appears absolutely necessary to interpret this part at least of the description of the witnesses, as having a particular reference to some one of the European nations. The question then is reduced to this. To which of them are the predictions in'ch. xi. capable of being best applied? And on this point, after sufficient inquiry, it will not perhaps be found difficult to decide; and especially if it can be proved, that they admirably suit the events which have happened in one country of Europe, whilft, on the very face of the prophecy, they correspond not at all to what has taken place in any other. The account of the witnesses' reaches from v.
3 tó v. 14; and on each of these verses fome obfervations will be offered. In v. 7 it is said, that whilst they shall perform"2 their testimony, the Beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit, that is to say, the Ten-horned Beast shall make war against them, and Mall overcome them, and kill them. 'This,' says Daubuz, 'is such a Death, as be
12 In our English version it is falsely rendered, when they shall have finished their teftimony. Hear the learned Daubuz, Και όταν τελεσωσι
comes a political or collective body :' and the meaning appears to be this: during the period of the 1260 years, whilst antichristian usurpation is particularly prevalent, and whilst the witnesses are employed in opposing it, the Horns of the Secular Beast, and especially the Galliç Horn, shall overcome them, and they shall become politically defunét, being deprived of their liberties, both civil and religious. In agreement with this explication we find in fact, that it was not till many centuries, after the commencement of the 1260 years, that monarchical despotism was completely established in France and in most other countries of Europe. But the arguments intended to prove, that the Death of the witnesses is political, and that they bear testimony against Civil as well as Spiritual Tyranny, are reserved for the ixth chapter.
These two great classes of witnesses were not, however, always to remain in a perfecuted state. They were not always to continue politically dead. It is predicted in v. 13, that there would be A GREAT EARTHQUAKE, and that this would happen in THE TENTH PART OF THE CITY". Now Great Earthquakes,' in the language of prophecy, says Sir I. Newton, are put • for the Shaking of Kingdoms, so as to distract or over
την μαρίυριαν αυτων. And whilst they shall perform their testimony. This • is the right meaning of these words, as Grotius, More, and others, eyen • Mede himself, own it. For the word Thew may signify the doing of any thing in order to its perfe&tion, as well as the actual finishing it. So
ETITELEW in Hebr. ix. 6, signifies simply to accomplish, without any respect to the end, any more than to the whole service ; and the particle ótav, whils, fuits exactly with this sense : Mat. v. 11.'
13 By this predi&tion the friends of the Roman hierarchy have long been embarrassed. Philip Pareus, speaking of it, says, ' Ribera, from his un• willingness to explain this paffage, prudently passed over it.' Pareii Opera, 1628, in loc. Ribera was a learned jesuit, who died in the 16th century, and composed a considerable commentary on the apocalypse.
throw them.' Indeed since the Earth, as he observes in the preceding page, signifies the Mass of the People, an Earthquake is a very apt and natural symbol of an Insurrection of the people and a Revolution of govern. ment. But this symbol is sufficiently important to authorize a fresh elucidation of it in a future chapter.
The expression, the Beast, that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit, it is probable, may not have appeared very intelligible to the reader. The fa£t is, that when St. John says in ch. xiii. that, in the prophetic vision, he saw a Beast rise up out of the fea, having Ten Horns, he employs an expression of exactly similar import. Accordingly Daubuz, when he comes to this passage in ch. xiii. says, “this is the Beast, which is before in ch. xi. 7, said to ascend out of the bottomless gulph, and to make war with the witnesses95;' and he observes that alvotos, translated in the common version, bottomless pit,' signi' fies the same as Janacea, the fea16! Now the symbolic import of sea has been explained in a preceding chapter 17
iq P. 17.
15 To the same purpose speaks bp. Newton (on ch. xiii, v. 1). , ' He was said before (xi, 7) to ascend ex Tns abuooo, out of the abyss or bote • tomless pit; but here he is said to ascend şu ans Danaoons, out of the fea, ' so that the sea and abyss or bottomless pit are in these passages the same.'
16 By abuoros having been translated bottomless pit, a false idea is almost necessarily communicated to the mind of the reader; and in confirmation of what Daubuz has said, I observe with H. Stephens, that it is properly an adjective, and I accordingly apprehend, that Sanacons may be regard. ed as being here understood and the abusoo as agreeing with it. Thus £f. chylus has an expression, exactly similar to that of St. John, only that it is not elliptical; cvOcov Tehayos, the immense or bottomless sea. Indeed when autoos is regarded as a substantive, its signification in scripture, as Suidas and Theodoret observe, is a great mass of waters; a sense annexed to the word by the most approved lexicographers, by Hesychius, Constan
tine, and Suicerus. Though this point would not have been dwelt upon at all, had it not been controverted; yet, as several important consequences have been founded on a different interpretation, I will farther try the patience of the reader by two short references to doctors Lancaster and More. The former says, . in If. xliv, 27. what in the lxx. is abyss is . in the Hebrew, Deep, that is, the great sca;' and the latter, in correspondence with this remarks, that avocos, in Rev. xi. 7. might, very properly, have been translated the sea. Myft, of Godliness, p. 178. Mr.Wakefield translates it the bottomless deep.
17 To prove that αβυσσος, as well as θαλασση, fignifes in the fymbolic language multitudes in motion and disorder, ch. vii. v. 4, of the prophet Amos may be appealed to, where (I am speaking of the Septuagint) abuvớos is employed as an emblem of the Jewish nation in a ftate of comfusion.
EXTRACTS PROM COMMENTATORS, WHO HAVE THOUGHT
A REVOLUTION IN FRANCE TO BE PREDICTED BY ST.
"HE object which I have now in view, is to shew,
what commentators have applied to France, the predi&tion of the figurative Earthquake, occurring in ch. xi. though, in their time, to human discernment there was not the remotest probability of an Insurrection and a Revolution in that kingdom : and I am also to give a detail of their arguments.
The expectation of a REVOLUTION IN FRANCE, Dr. Gill derived from this passage; but he shall not here be cited; because incidental mention will be made of his
féntinents on this subject in the chapter next succeeding. If this figurative Earthquake be regarded as affecting the Tenth Part of the Roman Catholic countries, Mr. WAPLE says, 'the kingdom of France may most pecu* liarly be denoted; which was the Tenth Part of the • City; that is, the last of those Ten Kingdoms, which * arose out of the ruins of the Roman empire, and gave their
power to the Beaft; as may be seen in the cata• logue of them, given by the judicious and learned • author of the book De Excidio Antichrifti.' After observing that this prophecy has been applied to the
kingdom of France,' Mr. LOWMAN declares, that it may be understood very properly of some confiderable part of the Empire,' meaning the papal, and that it may fignify the downfal of some considerable supporters of the Beast's persecuting power.' That it most probably referred to France was the opinion of a divine of Scotland, Mr. LAUCHLAN TAYLOR"; an opinion which was also approved by another Scotch minister of the name of WILLISON, who thus expresses himself, • Before Antichrift's Fall one of the Ten Kingdoms, * which supported the Beast, fhall undergo A MARVEL
LOUS REVOLUTION, Rev. xi. 13. • The same hour * there was a Great Earthquake, and the Tenth Part of • the City fell. By which Tenth Part is to be under" stood one of the Ten Kingdoms into which the Great City, Romish Babylon, was divided.
This MANY • take to be the Kingdom of FRANCE, it being the Tenth • and last of the Kingdoms as to the time of its rise, and that which gave Rome the denomination of the Beast
By the Great Earthquake here mentioned,' we under tand,' says Dur. HAM, the great commotions which usually accompany REFORMATION, ' whereby kingdoms are put in an uproar.'
• See his El. on Some Important Parts of the Rev. p. 142. It was printed 29 late as 1770,