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therefore, that where it stands separate from any of these emblems, it should fill bear a sense equally limited. In those other chapters, ch. xvi. and xx. where the Dragon is introduced, its meaning must indeed of necessity be different; because it is there fpoken of as existing at a time still future, and therefore many centuries pofterior to the dissolution of the empire of Pagan Rome. The fact accordingly appears to be this, that whilst the tenhorned Beast is the representative only of the modern antichristian governments established in the Western part of the Roman Empire ; the Dragon, being employed as a symbol of larger import, is put for Monarchical Tyranny in general. And that I may not be suspected of arbi. trarily annexing to it this meaning, I shall refer to the testimony of three very ancient writers, Horapollo, Manetho, and Achmet, whose authority, great as it is, has not I believe been hitherto appealed to upon this subject. Of these the two former were Egyptians. The one, Horapollo, was the author of a short treatise on Hieroglyphics, which is still extant, having been translated out of the Egyptian, into the Greek, language: the other, Manetho, was a learned priest of Heliopolis, who, about the year 258 before the Christian ära, and hy command of Ptolemy Philadephus, wrote a great historic work, of which some fragments are preserved in ancient writers. We learn from Horapollo, that the figure of a serpent was a well-known hieroglyphic for a king 23: we are told by Manetho, that Yk, which in the Egyptian language signifies a serpent, in the Sacred Diale&t fignified also a king 24: and we are informed by Achmet that

8pxxw, that is to fay, the serpent of the larger and more deftructive kind, which we have thought proper to translate the dragon, was regarded, not only by the Egyptians, but likewise by the Persians and Indians, as an established emblem of a monarchas. Now it is the declaration of bp. Hurd, that the prophetic style ABOUNDs in hiero. glyphic symbols, properly so called 26.'

13 Horapollinis Hieroglyphica, lib. i. cap. 59, 60, 61, 63, 64.

24 Apud Josephum contra Apionem, 1. i. e. 14. See Warburton's Lega, vol. ii. p. 141.


As passages from Daubuz have been repeatedly cited, in the present and in the preceding chapter, and will again be cited, the reader perhaps, in the course of the work, may feel some curiosity with respect to the man, to whom the Chriftian world is so much indebted for fixing the meaning of the symbolic language ; and as his merit was overlooked, and himself scantily provided for in his own life-time, I do on that account experience, like the writer of the subsequent account,


greater pleasure in introducing a juft tribute of respect to his memory. Chårles Daubuz' was born in the province of Guienne in France. His only 'surviving parent, Julia Daubuz, professing the reformed religion, was • driven in 1686 from her native country by that relent. | less persecution, which preceded the revocation of the 'edict of Nantes. She, with her family, found an • asylum in England. -Charles her son, destined to the ministry from his earlieft years, was admitted a fizer of

Queen's College, Cambridge, Jan. 10, 1689; and, about 10 years afterwards, was presented to the vica* rage of Brotherton, a small village near Ferry-Bridge • in the West-Riding of Yorkshire. This vicarage, of the annual value of fixty or seventy pounds, was all the

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es Achmetis Oneirocritica, p. 259. Of modern writers I shall cite

That the dragon has the signification of a tyrant, Matthias Martinus observes in his Lexicon Philologicum et Sacrum ; and that it bears this sense in fcripture Peter Ravanell declares. A new edition of the Bibliotheca Sacra of this learned Frenchman was printed at Geneva in 1660. 26 Vol. II. p. 113.'



• preferment he ever enjoyed. To support a numerous • and infant family, (for at his death he left a widow and

eight children, the eldest of whom was not fourteen years old) he was under the necessity of engaging • himself in the education of several gentlemen's sons in • the neighourhood. He was a constant resident in his

parish until the time of his death.--He always retained 'the character of a pious, humble, and benevolent man. • His parishioners, who long regretted the loss of their ex'cellent paftor, loved and respected him.-In the privacy • of his retirement at Brotherton, unpatronised and unre'warded, with scarce a single smile of favour to exhilarate • his labours, or to animate his pursuits, he composed the · whole of his Perpetual Commentary on the Revelation ' of St. John, with a learned and elaborate Preliminary • Discourse concerning the principles upon which that • revelation is to be understood. Were I inclined to

use the embellishments of panegyric, I might expatiate • at large upon his singular modesty, his most extensive

and ftri&tly accurate knowledge of the Greek and Latin * authors, his happy application of that knowledge in elu

cidating the words of prophecy, his intimate acquain• tance with the symbolical character and language of the • Eastern nations, his temperate and discreet judgment; • totally removed from the indulgence of fancy and ca

pricious coujecture. The following anecdote was com*municated to me from the best authority. When he had * finished his Commentary, he went to Cambridge to * consult Dr. Bentley, the great critic of the age2?. The * doctor, as it is supposed, thinking that Mr. Daubuz • would out-shine him in learning and eclipse his glory,

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R7 The following fact is from Whiston's Memoirs of his Own Life, P. 107. Daubuz's Commentary on the Apocalypse, on account of the

great critical fagacity of its author therein thewed, Dr, Beatley had in "migh esteem.'

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'or, which is more probable, knowing that works of that • kind, however excellent they might be, were little re• lished in those times, did not encourage him to publish, .it. Upon which Mr. Daubuz returned home, wearied * in body and unhappy in mind, fickened of a pleuritic • fever, and died in a few days. The book was published • soon after his death 28. The merit of this pious and • truly learned man seems to have been disregarded in his • life-time ; nor has due justice been done to his memory • since his demise.We cannot but lament, that the

strange and unaccountable predilection, which has long • impeded the study of the apocalypse and some other prophetic parts of fcripture, should have rendered the literary reputation of this eminent divine less con: spicuous?o !


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38 In the year 1720

ey See an Address delivered to the Clergy of the Deareries of Richmond, Cat.. Brick, and Boroughbridge, at the Vifitation held in 1792. By Thomas Zouch, A.M. Rector of Wycliffe, York lhire. The long passage given above is maken from a poter wbich tbe Author of the Address has annexed to it.




THAT the book of Revelation is involved in no small

degree of obscurity was stated in the fourth chapter. In addition to this statement it may be observed, that the sources of this obscurity are numerous*; and that par

• Ser Hurd's xiith Disc. vol. II. page-108!


ticular difficulties are at present invincible. Indeed, when difficulties are capable of being surmounted, their removal is often to be effected only by the labours of many successive commentators, and perhaps long after the completion of the event foretold. Thus, for instance, however we may explain the account of the witnesses in ch. xi. of St. John, fome difficulties may probably, after all, remain unremoved. That explanation, therefore, which has the fewest, is to be preferred'. This it is proper

to premise, left the unlearned reader should come to an inquiry of this sort, under the disadvantage of false notions, and should in consequence entertain expectations, which are unreasonable and not to be gratified.

It may here be remarked, that Mr. Fleming is not the only commentator, who has regarded France as being pointed out in the apocalypse; and that the Fourth Vial is not the only passage of the Christian prophet, which is thought to relate to that country. In truth, so many scriptural interpreters have apprehended a Revolution in France to be predicted by the apostle, that I am fearful of exhausting the reader's patience by that enumeration of names, and that crowd of passages, which I shall adduce on the subject. It is not to one country that the advocates of this opinion have been confined. It has been maintained in England and Scotland, in Holland and in France: and of those who have favoured it there appears to have been an uninterrupted succession, for above a century and a half. Universally will it be


Particular obscurities, that may be found remaining in it, ought by no means to abate our attention to, nor deprive us of the great advantage • and consolation to be reaped from, the general drift and design of it.' Mr. Pyle on the Rev. Pref. p. 12.

3 In the interpretations of the apocalypse, says Mr. Lowman, 'we are not to expect demonstrations, or such proofs as shall be liable to no manner of objections, Pref. p. 27.


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