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of the Beaft fhould be killed. And he caufed all, both Small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive. a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: and that no man might buy or fell, fave he that had the mark, or the name of the Beaft, or the number of his name1.
The diftinction between the Beafts, the one as CIVIL, the other as ECCLESIASTICAL, is so obvious as to have been early pointed out. Jofeph Mede', whofe death took place in the year 1638, and Cradock, whose commentary was published near the close of the last century, both embrace this diftinction without hefitation; and Mr. Durham, whofe Expofition appeared in 1660, notices it, as adopted by different learned interpreters. The former Beaft,' fays Dr. Wall, represents the Secu'lar Power of the Roman empire (as it was now in the 'Ten Horns), and this the Pontifical'.' The Second
Beaft,' fays Dr. Creffener, is a fucceffion of eccle• fiaftical perfons having the fupreme power in ecclefi'aftical affairs*.' The two-horned Beast may represent, fays Waple, the antichriftian power of the clergy.'
This Beaft,' fays Daubuz, represents a fucceffion of
heads, having under them the whole body of the cor'rupted clergy.' Like Waple and Daubuz, Dr. More warns his readers, that it is not exclufively to be underflood of the church and clergy of Rome. This emblematic perfonage, fays Mr. Evanson, is afterwards called the falfe prophet', that is, a Teacher of a false religion; ' it plainly denotes therefore the ecclefiaftical ministry of
1 XIII. 11-17.
P. 619. It was in the 62d year of his age, and at Chriß's College, Cambridge, where he had spent the greatest part of his life, that this excellent man died.
3 Critical Notes on the New Teft. in loc.
4 Dem. of the Pr. Appl. of the Apoc. p. 179.
10 Yεudоπрo¶nTMns, which Mr. Wakefield tranflates the false teacher.
the antichriftian fuperftition"."
All, fay's Vitringa,
discern, that by this Beaft is fignified a certain body of 'falfe teachers; fince this is abundantly clear from the 'attributes of this Beaft, which attributes we shall pre
fently confider, as well as from a following part of the 'prophecy, wherein this Beaft is denominated the falfe
To interpret the two-horned Beaft exclufively of the church of Rome is, I apprehend, altogether an error. Thofe, however, who attribute to it the greateft extent of import, will generally be perfectly ready to admit, that Rome has been the head-quarters of facerdotal ufurpation; and that its practices and policy have been imitated by other churches, though upon a contracted scale.
Widely did the two Beafts differ in their mode of rifing. Whilst the Beast, having Ten Horns, was seen rifing up out of the fea, i. e. to use the words of Mr. Pyle, out of the people and nations of the world, that
were in great agitation like a ftormy ocean;' the twohorned Beast appeared to the apostle coming up out of the earth, i. c. from among the antichriftian part of mankind, from among men, devoid of the love of truth, ready to follow the multitude in every folly, and principally intent on gratifying the paffions of ambition or of interest. If we appeal to fact, we shall affuredly find, that it is to men of this character, that clerical ufurpation owes its early growth, its maturer strength, and the fondnefs with which it is ftill cherifhed in its declining years. Was it not by them, that false doctrines were first arbitrarily impofed upon the mind, that fuperftitious practices were introduced into the church, and the engines of perfecution fet in motion? That this is an established fymbolic fenfe of the word earth will be fhewn in a
future page. But it is not the only fenfe. Sometimes it is the symbol of the great body of the people. Poffibly it may be fo here, and in its import may be oppofed to the word fea. The former is an emblem of a tranquil character; the latter denotes commotion and turbulence. The ecclefiaftical Beaft may then, as Mede' and Peganius explain the words, be faid to come out of the earth, not by a violent conflux of a multitude of people, as the Temporal governments 'arife, but filently, by degrees, and unheeded.'
This emblematic perfonage is faid to have two horns like a lamb, i. e. fays Daubuz, a pretended power like that of the Lamb.' When we reflect, fays bp. Hurd, * that horns, in the prophetic style, are the emblems of $ power, and that a lamb is the peculiar, the appropriated fymbol of Chrift, and is conftantly fo employed throughout this whole prophecy of the Revelations, • we must, of neceffity, conclude, that a beast with the horns of a lamb can only be a state, or person, pretending to fuch powers as Christ exercised, and his religion authorifeth; that is, powers, not of this world, but purely fpiritual".' The antichriftian priesthood, whom the two-horned Beaft reprefents, affect to teach the doctrines of Chrift, to be animated with his fpirit, and poffeffed of his authority. They accordingly af fume the high prerogatives of being judges over the confcience, and the decisive interpreters of the will of heaven. As if poffeffed of infallibility, they defpotically appoint, what articles of faith are to be believed, and what modes of worship are to be practifed. The horns, fays Mr. Pyle, have been interpreted of the several
powers this Beaft pretended to have a right to exercife. -But perhaps, after all, the horns might be here men
7 P. 629.
8 Vol. II. p. 160.
'tioned by St. John only as part of the defcription of
'fected to take
the lamb; the appearance whereof this Beaft now afupon him..' When it is faid, that the 'Beast Spake as a dragon, the meaning is,' fays bp. Hurd, that Antichrift fhould affume the highest tone of
' civil authority in promoting his tyrannous purposes, ' though he cloked his fierce pretenfions under the meek
resemblance of a spiritual character'.'
It is indeed faid of him (v. 12), that he exercifeth all the power of the firft Beaft10; and closely does this correfpond with fact. Princes and nobles, during almost the whole period of modern history, have either lodged an ample share of the power and property of the state in the hands of pontiffs and.of priests; or guaranteeing their poffeffion of it, have fupported them in their daring ufurpation over the rights of confcience. But in purfuing this line of conduct, wicked as it may be, their intereft" they undeniably confult. Accordingly it immediately follows, that the two-horned Beaft1 caufeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the firft Beaft. This is the alliance between church and
• Vol. II. p. 161.
10 The two-horned Beaft is also faid to exercise the power of the first Beaft BEFORE HIM; i. e. fays Mr. Sam. Clarke, by the permiffion of 'the several princes, and in their dominions, and with their authority.' In agreement with this, this refpe&table annotator observes (on Rev. xvi. 13), that the Beaft fignifies the Antichristian Civil Powers,' and the False Prophet, the Antichriftian Ecclefiaftical Powers.'
"The line of interest and of policy they did, however, unwarily overstep, when, in a period of the dark ages, they raised the facerdotal body to fuch a pitch of aggrandisement, as to render it formidable to themselves.
12 The ecclefiaftical Beaft, fays Whifton (p. 244), by joining with them, procures them a blind obedience from their fubjects.'
Daubuz, upon this verfe, pertinently cites the following paffage from cardinal Palavicini. The monarchies would not be durable for
fate, the benefits of which have been so loudly founded. Of priests in all countries, too many have been ready to propagate the deteftable doctrine of paffiye obedience and non-resistance, and to aid the crown in the depresfion of civil liberty 14. To this reciprocity of affiftance is to be afcribed the continuance of many of the grievances of mankind.
And he doeth great wonders, fo that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the fight of men; that is, the antichriftian priesthood are poffeffed of fuch power, as to cause perfecution 15 to come down from those invested with the civil government upon their fubjects; and this is done, not privately and by stealth, but in the fight of men, i. e. publicly. To prove that heaven is a fymbol fignifying the civil government or governors, repeated authorities will hereafter be cited. That this prediction has been amply verified, the annals of Europe too clearly teftify, when they give an imperfect narrative of the millions, whofe flaughter has been inftigated by the priesthood.
And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth, by the means of thofe miracles 16 which he had power to do in the fight of the Beast. Since it is plain, that the Deity would not permit the antichriftian priesthood to work real miracles; the import of the words may be, that they would raise themselves into the favour of princes and of
'the infolencies of innovators without the interpofition of the fpiritual authority; and by that means the number of plots and rebellions is 'much lefs.'
14 All difloyalty and difrefpect' fhewn to princes, fays the learned Bingham (in his Antiquities of the Chriftian Church), was always feverely 'chaftifed by the laws of the church.' B. xvi. c. 9.
15 Not only is fire the fymbol of destruction in general, but, as Daubuz obferves on this verse, of perfecution in particular.
16 The word tranflated miracles need not have been fo tranflated. In the preceding verse it is rendered wonders.