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• nifies a multitude of men in commotion or war 2 3. • Therefore in Daniel's visions we find the four winds friving upon the great sea, and out of it four great 'beasts arising 24, to signify that four great monarchies 'fhould arise out of the wars, which should happen in

the world; one of which bears the characters of this beast.' In the fame manner, in the paflage under consideration (I am now transcribing from Dr. Lancaster's abridgement of Daubuz) 'the ascending of the

wild Beast, here described, from the sea denotes, that the ' tyrannical power represented has its origin from wars and commotions. And forasmuch as this wild Beast ' has seven heads and ten horns, as well as the dragon,

hereby is denoted that he is possessed of the same em'pire as the dragon was ; and consequently that the ' wars and commotions, from whence this beast had his rise, were such as had happened in the Roman empire, by the irruptions of the barbarous nations.'

The Secular Beast is likened to the bear, the leopard, and the lion. These, says Mr. Lowman, are · famous • for strength and rapaciousness in seizing and devouring * their prey. They are therefore admirably expressive of the formidable power and the plundering policy of the antichristian monarchies of Europe. It is, remarks an early commentator, ' said to be like a leopard, · full of spots, swift and cruel; to have the feet of a

bear, which grasps both with the hindermoft and fore* most legs and claws; and to have the mouth of a lion, to tear and devour. The government which this nature doth affect is absolute, to have all in subjection in


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23 • The resemblance between the noise of an enraged sea and the noise of an army or multitude in commotion is obvious, and frequently . taken notice of by the prophets.' Dr. Lancaster's Di&t.

24 VII, 2, 3

• its


• its will, without any other rule or law ?S.' The epithet of scarlet-coloured 26 is faftened upon this Beast, observe bishop Newton and Mr. Pyle, 'to denote his 'cruelty ??'

And the dragon gave him his power, and his feat, and great authority. The word here translated seat should rather have been translated throne, as it is by Wakefield, Doddridge, and Daubuz. This,' says Daubuz, is an induction of particulars to fhew, that the dragon surrendered up to the Beast all its royalties, or the several parts of his power. Aurajuus is often taken • for the armies 28, the throne is the imperial seat, or

power of government, and his authority is the juris• di&tion over all the subjects. The terms are easily. ' understood ; and that this signifies, that the Beast fuc

ceeded in the same power as the dragon ; that is, that • the Roman empire was divided into the Ten Monarchies

of the Beast.--There is one thing more to be observed, • that the dragon is said to give his power to the Beast ; ' whereas, it appears, that the barbarians, who dismem• bered the empire, did enter it by force : but this is not * material, for a surrender of power is the giving up of

But besides that, the Romans did not . barely surrender their power, but gave it for the most part by treaty to those barbarians under the name of alliance.'

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that power.


25 Clavis Apocalyptica, 1651, p. 48 of the Pref. 26 Rev. xvii.

29 That red doth emblematize bloudy cruelty and barbarous persecu• tion is so obvious to conceive, that it seems needless to have noted it.' More's Prophetic Alphabet.

28 Mede (in loc. p. 621) alleges passages in proof of this. 'E{801%, fays Dr. More, which is here translated authority, "Shews that duvauss

signifies military forces, or else it were a needless tautology.' Anf. to Rem. p. 89.


To facilitate our inquiries into the import of the next verse (v. 3), it will be requisite previously to explain a passage in ch.. xvii.

After mentioning the seven heads 29 in v. 9, the angelic interpreter says in v. 10, And they 30 are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space. The subsequent explanation is from bishop Newton. And they are seven 'kings, or lingdoms, or forms of government, as the

word imports, and hath been shewn to import in for* mer instances. Five are fallen, five of these forms of government are already passed ; and one is, the sixth is now subfifting. The five falien are kings, and confuls, • and dictators, and decemvirs, and military tribunes ' with consular authority; as they are enumerated and * diftinguished by those who should best know, the two

greateft Roman historians, Livy and Tacitus. The fixth is the power of the Cæsars or emperors, which

was subsifting at the time of the vision.' With respect to the seventh head, which in St. John's time was not yet come, and was to continue a short space, I shall quote from Mr. Evanson; previously observing, that the prophet fays in v. 11, ch. xvii, that the Beast itself is the eighth, i. e. may be regarded as an eighth head. “There


'In all the figures of bealls in the prophecy of Daniel,' says the learned Dr. Cresseper, are signified by the horns and heads of a beast the • several kinds of supreme government in the nation spoken of. If they be defcribed to come afier one another, they signify so many

fuc• ceffive kinds of settled government over the faine kingdom. But if they • be described to be in rule all at the same time, they signify so many dis

tinet sovereignties, or kingdoms.' Now it is admitted by all, says Dr. Cressener, that St. John has borrowed all these symbols from the book of Daniel. Dem, of the Prot. Appl. of the Apoc. p. 93.

30 In the common version it is, and there are seven kings. But bishop Newton, Wakefield, Doddridge, Lowman, Pyle, and Daubuz, are unanimous in introducing they into the translation,

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cannot remain a doubt,' that the Beast having seven heads and ten horns is a prophetic type of the civil

power of the Roman empire, considered in this pro'phecy of the New Testament, first, as subfifting under • its fixth or imperial form of government; then, as ' being for a short space of time only semi-imperial ; ' and lastly, as consisting of that pollarchy, into which * the semi-empire was broken by the incursions of the • northern nations 31.'...

I shall now return to ch. xiii. And I saw one of his heads, as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world 32 wondered after 33 the Beaft. This head, according to the quotation recently alleged, was the femi-imperial government, which was wounded even unto death by the hostile invasions of the barbarians from the east and from the north. By Mr. Pyle, who, the reader will perceive, does not distinguish between the imperial and semi-imperial power, this verse is thus paraphrased. . • One of

these forms of government, or one head of this empire, ' received, methought, a fatal blow, i. e. the imperial : power, under the Cæfars, was destroyed by the bar. barous nations. But, though this one head was destroyed, the Beast itself ftill lived; the power, the persecuting power, still remained, though got into several • hands, and the Ten Kings exercised the fame cruel and arbitrary dominion over their Christian subje&is as ever

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31 Let, to bilhop Hurd, p. 39. 32 · The word rendered world,' says Johnston of Holywood (in loc.), ought to have been translated earth. It is gn in the original, the proper ' signification of which is earth, and which is uniformly in this book trans. • lated earth.' The earth, in his opinion, is to be regarded as the symbol of the Roman empire.

33 « Oavua'w is here taken as in Jude, 16:-Jappa sex is to make ! courtship to, fawn, flatter, and submit to.' Daubuz.

• the

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the heathen emperors had done. Thus the deadly ' wound was healed, to the pleasing aftonishment of all the corrupted part of Christian world.' The similar ftatement that follows is from an ingenious writer of the laft century.

• The deadly wound of one of the • heads of the Beast' signifies the ruin of the empire by • the incursion of the barbarous nations, and the extinguishing of the western emperors in Auguftulus.--He lived again, when the like politic body or civil state of affairs in the empire was re-established by the ten-horned • Beast, by the barbarous nations settling into a subjec. tion to, or a compliance with, the Roman laws 34.'

And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the Beast; and they worshipped the Beast, saying, Who is like unto the Beafos? Who is able to make war with him? Dazzled with the luftre of the imperial throne, mankind in general had formerly reverenced the power and the persons of the Cæfars; and had fupported them in their exactions, and their despotism. Thus also has it happened to the ten-horned Beast, who has since laid waste the ancient dominions of the dragon. The mass of mankind, since the establishment of the tyrannic governments of modern Europe, have manifested an irrational reverence for the glitter which surrounds the thrones of their despots, and the titles with which they have been decorated; though their own labours have been taxed for the support of that glitter, and the assumption of those titles has often been inconsistent with their most valuable rights. They have been ready to exclaim, Who is like unto the Beast, who is able to

34 This anonymous writer, whose signature is S. E. is quoted by Dr. More in his Ans. to Remarks, p. 90, 98.

35 • This,' says Daubuz, ' may be limited to civil submission and ado* ration, as the word signifies sometimes.' lo proof of this, he refers to many passages.


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