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It is for the convenience of the prophetic calculations,' that the Roman western empire' is considered as sub• fisting, though in a new form, under the Ten Kings,
among whom it was to be divided',' The identity of these two Beasts, that of Daniel and that of John, Romanifts and Protestants alike adınit. • The Beast that * arose out of the sea (Rev. ch. xiii.),' says that learned jesuit Alcafar, evidently relates to the fourth Beast in
Daniel, ch. vii.?' That “the whole description of it is borrowed from the viith chapter of the prophecy of • Daniel 3,' is the declaration of Joseph Mede. 'It is,' says Dr.Cressener,' unquestionable, that the Fourth Beast • in Daniel is the same with the beast in the Revelations, ' and especially in the time of the little Horn4.'
. We are to look,' says Sir Isaac Newton", " for all. • the eleven horns of the fourth beast, among the nations ' on this fide Greece.' With respect to the Greek
empire seated at Constantinople, we are not to reckon it, adds this great author, among the Horns of the ' fourth Beast, because it belonged to the body of the * third.' These Ten Horns,' says bishop Hallifax,' are * the Ten Kingdoms of the Latin or western empire 6.' • We must look,' says bishop Newton, • for the Ten * Kings or Kingdoms, where only they can be found, ' amid the broken pieces of the Roman empire. The
Roman empire, as the Romanists themselves allow, was, by means of the incursions of the northern na* tions, dismembered into Ten Kingdoms?.'
• Procopius,' says Dr. Worthington, who was half Heathen and half Chriftian, and who therefore could have but • little regard for scripture-prophecies,—reckonis up
1 Hurd, vol. II. p. 191.
3 P. 623.
7 Vol. I. p. 460.
5 P. 31.
these several nations; and they prove to be in number ' exactly Ten, according to his recital · As if that ' number of Ten,' says Daubuz, ‘had been fatal in the
Roman dominions, it hath been taken notice of upon particular occasions. As about A. 1240 by Eberhard, * bishop of Saltsburg in the diet at Ratisbon. At the • time of the reformation—they were also Ten'.' the number of the kingdoms,' says Mr.Whiston, ' into which the Roman empire in Europe, agreeably to the ancient prophecies, was originally divided, A. D. 456. ' was exactly Ten :-fo is it also very nearly returned again to the same condition; and at present is divided • into Ten grand or principal kingdoms or states * 0.'
However, we need not,' as Daubuz'observes, 'to ' heed much the after-divisions.—The Holy Ghost only
takes notice of that number in the origin of the Beast.' - We must know,' says Jurieu (speaking of the Ten Horns) that things retain the names which they bore • in their original, without regarding the alterations which time does bring along'1,' To the fanue purpose Sir I. Newton. After enumerating the Ten Kingdoms into which the western empire was divided, he observes, some of these kingdoms at length fell, and 'new ones arose : but whatever was their number after*wards, they are still called the Ten Kings from their first number 12.'
To ch. xiii. of the apocalypse the most attentive consideration is due. Whilst the Beast with Ten Horns, the representative of the Ten Kings, and the emblem of Civil Tyranny, is pourtrayed in the first ten verses of the chapter; the seven that follow contain an account of
8 Serm. at Boyle's Lect. 1769. vol. II. p. 79.
10 P. 231.
another emblematic Brast, having two horns like a lamb, and speaking as a dragon, who is an ecclefiaftical perfonage, and denotes the Antichriftian Priesthood and Ecclefiaftical Tyranny. That the ten-horned Beast is a personage altogether distin&t from the antichristian priesthood, is abundantly evident from a perufal of the xiiith chapter; nor is this less clearly to be deduced from an inspection of the prophetic scenery of the xviith ; where the antichristian priesthood are blematized by a woman sumptuously attired, and this woman is represented as being seated upon the tenhorned Beast.
The account given by St. John of the first Beast is as follows. And I saw a Beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. And the Beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion : and the dragon gave him his power, and his feat, and great authorily. And I saw one of his heads, as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the Beast. And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the Beast: and they worshipped the Beast, Jaying, who is like unto the beast? Who is able to make war with him ? And there was given unto him a mouth Speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months. And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven. And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them : and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations. And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him,
whose names are not written in the book of life of the lamb slain from the foundation of the world 13.
This Beast, says Daubuz, is the representative of the Ten Monarchies,' which arose out of the ruins of the • Roman empire 14 .' He represents, says Mr. Pyle,
the Civil Powers of the Roman empire,' meaning that empire in its present state, as divided into a number of independent governments. In contradiftin&tion to the other, it is denominated by bishop Newton the • Secular Beast;' and his lordship correctly says, that whilft the other Beait enslaves the consciences,' this
subjugates the bodies of men.' 'St. John, says the prelate, faw this Beast rising out of the sea, but the
Roman empire was risen and established long before * St. John's time, and therefore this must be the Roman ' empire, not in its then present, but in some future shape and form; and it arose in another shape and form, after it was broken to pieces by the
incursions of the northern nations.-And the fove' reignty, which before was exercised by Rome alone,
now transferred and divided among Ten Kingdoms 15.' In correspondence with this, Mr. Pyle says, you have the same Beast in a new shape.-It is no
longer a pagan empire; but it is the fame dominion ' under Ten weak Tyrants 16.' 'Those Ten Kingdoms
of the Roman empire,' says Mr.Whiston ??, which arose ' in the fifth century, are that great Beast with seven
13 The last clause Mr. Wakefield renders somewhat differently. Whose names are not written from the foundation of the world, in the book of life of the lamb that was slaughtered.
618. 15 Vol. III. p. 207.
p. 16 P. 101. 17. P. 115
• This empire under its Ten Kings,' Mr. Whiston else. where says, ' became very large, and proud, and blasphemous, and idolatrous.' .P. 218.
heads 18 and ten horns.' But important as the subje&t is, I am introducing authorities with a needless profusion; since the prophet himself has communicated to us direct information on the point, not only telling us, that this emblematic Beast had Ten Horns, and upon his Horns19 Ten Crowns, but that the Ten Horns are Ten Kings20. It deserves also to be noted, that the dragon is expressly said to have given to the ten-horned Beast his power. Now a dragon,' as bishop Hurd observes, when speaking of this passage, is the known symbol of the old Roman government in its pagan, persecuting • ftate 21.' And who succeeded the Roman emperors in their power, but the Ten Kings, among whom the provinces of their empire were distributed ?
The symbolic import of sea? 2, from which the tenhorned Beast is said to have risen, perfectly harmonizes with these observations. ' The sea,' says Daubuz, 'fig
18 The mention of the seven heads serves an important purpose. First, it ascertains with precision in what part of the world the Ten Monarchies, fignified by the Ten Horns, were to be erected. For it denotes, that they , were to be reared in the countries at that time belonging to the Roman emperors, since, as bishop Newton remarks, the seven heads • are the well
known marks and signals of the Roman empire,' and allude not only to the seven mountains, but also 'to the seven forms of government which ' successively prevailed there.' Vol. III. p. 207. Secondly, it also in fome degree marks out the period of the Ten Horns; for it may be inferred, and in particular from v. 10 and 12 of c. xvii. that they should not appear till after the sixth head had fallen; that is, that the Ten Horns should not arise till after the imperial government was dissolved.
19 • These Ten Horns have Ten Crowns upon them : i.e. they denote so many kings or crowned heads, over so many diftinct provinces or king• doms.' Whiston, p. 217. 20 Rev. xvii. 12.
2 1 Vol. II. p. 161. 22 In ch. xvii. a kindred symbol occurs. The Babylonish woman having appeared to St. John (v. 1), sitting upon many waters; the angelic interpreter said unto him (v. 15), the waters which thou fawest, where the whore fitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.