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steps, and retain many of her fpurious doctrines, though they may prudently have endeavoured to throw a veil over their likeness to her, and studiously have shunned all open intercourse with her.

It deserves to be noted, that this sumptuously-dressed WOMAN, stigmatized with the name of Babylon the Great, is sometimes represented under a different emblem, and called the great city Babylon. That they refer to the same antitype all admit. The propriety of the name, Babylon, (were it necessary) might be evinced; and it might be fewn, as it actually has been, in what various respects the antichristian church in general, and that of Rome in particular, resembles that ancient seat of tyranny, and perfecutor of the children of Israel. That * this city Babylon is not a city of brick and stone, but a “polity, and particularly the Roman hierarchy, I have,' says Dr. More, · evidently proved in my Joint-Expofi

tion. That it has this extensive import is indeed demonstrable, because the Babylonish woman appeared to St. John in his prophetic vision (v. 1) as fitting upon many waters, and the words of the interpreting angel are (v. 15), the waters which thou saweft, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues. She is, says Dr. More in allusion to this fymbol,' a water-nymph, whose skirts are so large, that • she has fat floating upon the whole Imperial ocean for.

these many ages?' This learned writer also observes, that it is remarked by Grotius and by the Jesuits Alcafar and Cornelius a Lapide, that the symbolic waters fig




6 Myft. of Iniq. p. 424. ? Myst. of Iniq. p. 306,

& Lewis d'Alcalar was a celebrated Jesuit of the 16th cent. a native of Seville, who, for almost 20 years, wholly bent his attention to the study of the apocalypse; and to this prophecy the whole of his two volumes in folio have either an immediate or indirect reference. But Cornelius a



nify: the universal extent of the Roman empire'.' In consistency with this Dr. More admits, that Babylon is not to be understood solely of the church of Rome''; and declares, that it comprehends 'the whole body of * the idolatroús clergy throughout the Roman empire"." But to give any farther statements respecting the extenlive signification of the apocalyptic Babylon will not here be necessary, as in the next chapter the subject will be resumed.

So long has the antichristian power in the apocalypse been regarded as completely applicable to the papal usurpation in particular, that it would probably be vain to inquire, from what quarter the opinion originated. Its origin it might possibly derive from the words of a Roman pontiff, from Gregory the Great, who, in the 6th century, writing to the bishop of Conftantinople, and disputing his claims, says, ' I affirm it confidently, * that whoever styles himself Universal Bishop, or is so·licitous for the title, by this elation of heart, proves

himself to be the forerunner of Antichrift.' 'cil, held in the 10th century at the city of Rheims, Arnulph, bishop of Orleans, thus addressed, whilst he spoke of the reigning pontiff. • What think ye, reverend Fa

thers, of this man, elevated on a lofty throne, and glittering in gold and purple ? Whom do ye account * him to be? Surely, if destitute of charity, and elated

with the pride of science alone, he is Antichrift, fitting * in the temple of God, and shewing himself that he is God.' • That the Beast in the apocalypse occupied the

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Lapide was a yet more voluminous commentator. His annotations on scripture occupy no less than ten volumes in folio. Moreri. Bayle.

9 Myst. of Iniq. p. 306. The waters you saw the woman ftting upon, ‘i. e. ruling over, are the people of the several European countries.' Mr. Pyle's Paraph. Myft. of Iniq. p. 365. Myst. of Iniq. p. 276. Q&

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• chair of St. Peter,' was the declaration of St. Bernard"?, abbot of Clairvaux in Champagne, who, in the 12th century, founded 160 monasteries; and whilft he saw his admonitions respectfully listened to by princes and by pontiffs, was obeyed by the nations of Europe, when he summoned them to the defence of the holy sepulchre. By another famous abbot, Joachim of Calabria, fimilar sentiments were advanced. Richard I. of England, when spending his winter at Messina, and in his way to Palestine, sent for him to hear him interpret the prophetic visions of St. John ; and the abbot then maintained, that Antichrist was already born in the city of Rome, and would be elevated to the apostolical ' chair.' So far from being offended by his discourse, the king and his courtiers, as we are told by a contemporary annalist of the 12th century, listened to him with a high degree of pleasure. But this adaptation of prophecy was not confined to these or to other celebrated individuals that might be specified. The Waldenses and Albigenses, fo renowned for their numbers, their virtues, and the purity of their faith, taught, in the 12th and 12th centuries, that the pope was Antichrift, and the church of Rome the Babylon of the apocalypse*3. This opinion, as well as others maintained by them, was felt to be so deeply founded in scripture, that the papal plunderers,

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1. One day on his entering into church, an image of the Virgin Mary apparently faluted him with Good morrow, Bernard;' but the abbot of Clairvaux, instead of receiving so flattering a compliment with the civility of a devotee, replied to her sharply, that her Ladyship liad forgotten both herself and her sex, for that it was not permitted to women to speak

in the church, 1. Tim, ii, 12. See this story related in a small treatise on Antichrift (p. 51), now scarce and anknown, by Christopher Ness, printed in 1679.

13 Such, says Vitringa, was the langnage of pious men in general, during the whole of the four centuries which preceded the Reformation. 19 Apoc. p. 749,

in order to preserve their authority, exerted against them all their power and exhausted all their cruelty.

These early interpretations of prophecy I have been rather tempted to introduce, not only because they are remarkable in themselves, not only because they proceeded from eminent men, but because their genuineness is unquestioned, as they are either extant in their own works, or are recorded by celebrated writers of the Roman Catholic communion 14.

Hitherto I have been speaking of the xviith chapter. In the 2d v. of the xviiith, the destruction of the figurative Babylon is folemnly announced; and an angel is represented as crying mightily with a strong voice, Jaying, Babylon the Great is fallen, is fallen, A few verses farther it is declared (v. 8), that her plagues shall come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine's. The pomp and splendor,' says Mr. Pyle, the plenty and extravagance, the artifices and delusions, that have accom• panied this false religion and worship, shall end in • shame, poverty, and disgrace16.'

Three of the intervening verses (v. 4, 5, and 6) are justly thought to implicate a strong cenfure and a solemn threatening against all persons and all nations, who, in the periodof its decline, thall in any way aslift the cause of Antichrift, or attempt to arrest the certain downfal of the antichristian church. And I heard another voice from Heaven,


14 The declaration of Gregory, the most respected of all the popes, may be seen in his 30th Epiftle, lib. vi. (Opera, Par. 1518, fol. 398); that of the abbot of Clairvaux in his 125th. For the testimony of Arnulph, delivered at the council of Rheims, and as bp. Newton erroneously supposed by Gerbert, the archbishop of that city, fee Baronius (in Ann. 992, vol. X. p. 863); for that of the Calabrian abbot, consult Rogeri de Hoveden Annales, inter quinque Scriptores. Edit. Franc. 1601, P:

68,. os There will be mourning and famine ; i. c. says Dr. More, grief of heart, with scarcity and poverty to requite their luxury before.'

46 P. 156.

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For her fins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities. Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double, according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double. “I take the word double,' says Daubuz, “ in all such cases to fignify vastly great,' and of this force of the word he alleges many specimens from classical authors 17. * The Papifts seem to me,' says Mr. Evanson,' to reason very justly when they conclude,

if the words come out of her, my people, &c. lay Chris'tians under an obligation to separate from the apostate • church; the words reward her as she hath rewarded you, * &c. lay them under an equal obligation, as far as is in * their power, to endeavour her extirpation. At the * same time it is evidently impossible that they, who are ' really a&tuated by the spirit of that amiable religion, ' which breathes nothing but benevolence and love to

wards all mankind, should be guilty of revenge, or treat * any of their erring fellow-creatures with that unfeeling

cruelty and inhuman hardness of heart, with which the • intolerant zeal of antichristianism hath, at all times, in• spired its bigotted votaries. But it is by no means requi• site that similar ends should always be effected by simi·lar means. The utter destruction of the antichristian

church, and the offering personal violence to any of its * members, are very diftinét things; and the latter is far • from being, in the least degree, necessarily implied in • the former 18! Another writer, alike diftinguished by the depth of his learning, and his independent spirit, after quoting the first of these verses, says, if, upon deliberate examination, we should unexpectedly find ourselves

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» Vid. diploos in Scapula.

18 Let. to Hurd, p. 131.



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