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those belong, whom the unerring voice of prophecy has denounced as the destroyers of the earth.

To those who are actuated by this solicitude I observe, that as each of the six preceding trumpets foretold a mighty war', which was to be followed by some important event; so also does the seventh; and to their attention I recommend the observations of the following commentators, on the effect which is to be produced by this moft memorable of the trumpets. The events it foretells, they unite in asserting, belong to the Western part of the Roman empire, or the dominions of the tenhorned Beast. • The third woe,' says bp. Newton, “ is * the ruin and downfal of the antichristian kingdom.' It does, says Mede, destroy the kingdom of the Beast". . * The fole object of the third woe,' declares Dr. Crefsener, " is the party of the Beast; and it ends with the

ruin of that party.' That it brings on the total ruin of the Antichristian power, is the statement of Mr. Pyle. The object of the third woe or seventh trumpet, says Mr. Durham, is the executing of God's vengeance upon • Antichrist and the kingdom of the Beast; the destroy.: ing of them that formerly destroyed the earth.' • The • seventh trumpet,' says Daubuz, is to have a mixture of woe for the corrupted Christians, and joy to the just, who are to be retrieved from that tyranny they have groaned under.' It will contain a Great Revolution, with amazing circumstances of suddenness and terror">.' But to multiply citations is needless. This is not a matter that rests upon the opinion of commentators. No attentive reader can peruse the account of the seventh trum.

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9 Employed in the field of battle, and in the proclamation of war, the trumpet is a natural emblem of the latter,

so P. 587, 591.
" Judgm. on the Rom. Ch. p. 245.
19 P. 451, 543


pet, without perceiving that this is the period, in which all despotic rule shall be abolished.

What words can be plainer and more decisive than those of the introductory verse: and the seventh angel founded : and there were great voices in heaven, saying, the kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Chrift? What language can be more expressive than that of the 18th verse already cited; that God will destroy them which destroy the earth ?

Let it not be supposed, that I am chargeable with inconsistency, because I here understand the word earth in its plain and literal sense, whilft elsewhere I have generally annexed to it a symbolic fignification. That there is a mixed use of the plain and figured Jyle in the prophecies of Holy Writ, bp. Hurd observes *3 *; and the observation admits not of dispute.

But though the seventh trumpet is undoubtedly to be levelled against the Gentile and antichristian part of mankind; though it is to bring ruin on the heads of those, who stand up to defend the different systems of tyranny; though its result will be assuredly joyful and beneficial to mankind, far beyond what language can express; yet, as it includes in it at least one hard-contested war, it is perhaps to be feared, that the evils inseparable from it may reach all descriptions of persons. Some passages of prophecy might indeed be alleged, which appear to countenance this gloomy idea.

The name of woes, says Sir I. Newton, is given to the wars to which the three last trumpets sound, to distinguish them from the wars, of the four first14.' But whether the third woe points to one great and eventful war, or to a succeffion of wars, it is not' now per. haps possible to ascertain.


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'Vol. II. p. 102.

14 P. '895.

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With respect to the persons who are to infli&t the third woe upon the antichristian part of the European world, I shall quote from Dr. Cressener, one of the many writers who declared it to be his opinion that France was the country, where the symbolic resurrection of the witnesses would probably take place. It is,' he says, to be concluded, that the executors of the third woe are the risen witnesses, and that they are altogether the agents in it.' Indeed, says he, the particular reason of interposing the account of the death and refurrection of the witnesses before the end of the second woe,

seems evidently to be to show what enemy it was that • should be the third woe, and who should be the objects of it'5.

One principal design of the with chapter, says Dr. Goodwin, is to give the immediate tokens or signals

that shall fore-run the ending of the times of the Beast"6. And he elsewhere says, 'in this their resurrection, there is a fore-running shadow of that last great victory, which

brings in the kingdom of Chrift,--for the Thousand Years. Of the glorious beginning whereof, under the • seventh trumpet ensuing, v. 15, this is ordained to be the

dawning *7.' That by writers of all ages the symbolic refurrection of the witnesses has been viewed in this light, he indeed declares 18; and a little farther obferves,' that • the true reason, why this particular occurrence, though • falling out but in a tenth part of Europe, is here made * mention of rather than any other,' is on account of its peculiar fitness to presignify what is destined to follow. The resurrection of the witnesses, says Mr. Haughton, is a hgn, “ that Antichrit's utter ruin is near, even at the door 19.

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25 Judgm. on the Rom. Ch. p. 142, 143. 36 P. 108.

59 P. 169. ng On Azicbrift, p. 125.


18 P. 179.


When it is said in v. 14, that the second woe is past; and, behold, the third woe cometh quickly; the meaning appears to be this : the career of the Turkish victories is now arrested, to their invasions a bar is set, and experiencing a sensible declension of power, no longer are they a scourge to the Christian world ; this woe is passed by 20; and, behold, the Revolution in the Tenth Part of the city having been accomplished, another memorable period enfues, denominated the third woe.

A remarkable clause of the 18th verse has been twice quoted. The whole of it is important. It needs eluci. dation, and the whole shall be cited. And the nations were angry: and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead that they should be judged(or rather vindicated); and that thou shouldst give reward to thy servants the prophets, and to the faints, and to them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldst destroy them which destroy the earth. That this verse cannot possibly refer to the Day of Judgment may be seen in any of the best commentators, and is undeniably proved by Vitringa.

The nations, or, as I think it ought rather to be rendered, the Gentiles?' were angry. The Gentile part of mankind, the advocates of abuses and antichristianism, were


so Dr. Cressener long ago observed, that he did not apprehend it to bic necessary, that the end of the second woe should be the utter ruin of the • Turkish empire.' • For,' says he, ' I see that the Saracens, who were • unquestionably the first woc, are said to be passed away, as they were the first woe, long before the end of the Saracen empire, that is, at the time when they ceased to be any longer a torment and vexation to the • Roman empire, which was near 200 years before the last end of their

own empire.' Judg. On the Rom. Ch. p. 132. See similar observations in the more easly commentaries of the no less learned writers, Brightman and More.

** Often is ta zhrn thus rendered in our English Tranflation, as for in. ftance in v. 2 of this ch, and as it is in this place by Brightman. Mede, on this verse, expressly ftyles them the pleadochristiani, p. 1113.


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offended at the Revolution which happened in the Tenth Part of the symbolic city, and at the progress of knowledge, which portended a change in other countries. This anger of theirs, says Daubuz, imports resistance ' and war, to oppose the kingdom of God and his Chrift. • —But this anger or resistance, will prove their third

woe, or utter destruction. Whether those who are now angry at the French revolution be among the Gentiles here spoken of, and whether those who have kindled the war against France be in any respect alluded to, are points . which I shall leave to the reader's own judgment, that he may decide upon them for himself. A quotation or two on this subject I shall, however, allege. That which follows is from that diligent reader of commentators and of prophecy, Dr. Henry More. And the nations were angry.

Which anger, according to the sense of ALL EXPO"sitors, is their anger and envy conceived at the rif

ing of the witnesses22' In the opinion of Dr. Priestley, this prophecy is now fulfilling. Apprehending this to be a sign of the times, and one of the signals which indicate that the period of the seventh trumpet has recently commenced, this celebrated writer asks, when have we seen, or heard of, such anger and rage in nations, such vio. lence in carrying on war, and such destruction of men, * as at this very time? It is thought that the last campaign only has destroyed many more men than all the eight years of the American war, and probably more than

the long war before it; and from the increased arma• ments of the belligerent powers, and their increasing * animosity, it is probable that the approaching campaign ' will be more bloody than the lastạ3.' That the revolu. tion in the Tenth Part of the symbolic city would be ac.

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11 Answ. to Remarks, &c. 1684, 4to. p. 307. 13 Faft Sem, for Feb, 28, 1794, p. 10, 13.



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