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Saviour, and from the nature of the atonement. The Saviour, as has been already obferved, was in his divine nature God over all, one with the Father, and equal with him in all divine perfection. And being thus a perfon of infinite dignity and worth, it gave an infinite value or efficacy to his obedience, fufferings and death, and thus rendered his atonement infinitely full. The obedience, fufferings and death of fuch an infinite perfonage did more to magnify and fupport the law and government of God, and to manifeft his abhorrence of fin, than would the eternal punishment of all the finful race of man. It is therefore evident, that this atonement must be abundantly fufficient for the fal

was defigned to prevent thofe | finite dignity and excellence of the dreadful confequences by anfwering the fame important purposes, which would have been answered by the punishment of finners themfelves, and thus to open a way, in which God could, confiftently with the authority and honor of his law and government and the good of his kingdom, fhew mercy to whom he faw fit, and pardon the penitent and believing finner. These important ends have been effected by the obedience, fufferings and death of the Lord Jefus, who was one with the Father, and thought it not robbery to be equal with God. By affuming our nature, fubmitting to the greatest abasement, sufferings and moft painful death in the ftead of finners, and thus bearing their fins in his own body, he striking-vation of mankind, if they would ly fupported and magnified the law, and made it honorable. It fhewed, that the Father would inflict all these fufferings on his well beloved Son, and that the Son would voluntarily fubmit to them, rather than the divine law fhould be weakened and difhonored in the pardon of finners. In this way Jehovah has manifefted the highest refpect for his holy law, and his fixed determination to fupport the authority and dig-lieveth in Jefus." nity of his moral government. And by sparing not his own Son, when in the room of finners, he has clearly evinced his inflexible, impartial justice and oppofition againft fin, and his determination to punish and discountenance it.

Having made these observations upon the nature and defign of the atonement, we fhall proceed to fhew, from various confiderations, that this atonement is infinitely full or fufficient for all mankind.

1. This is evident from the in

but receive it. To deny its infinite fullness or efficacy, muft be derogating from the infinite dignity and excellence of the Saviour. The atonement does not lay God under obligations to finners to fave any of them; but it opens the way, fo that he can, confiftently with his law and government, difpenfe his grace, to whom he pleases, and can be just, and yet "the juftifier of him which be

2. It appears from exprefs declarations of feripture, that Chrift has died for all mankind, or has made an atonement fufficient for all. Thus it is declared, "That he by the grace of God fhould tafte death for every man, and that he is the Saviour of all men, especially of thofe that believe." Thefe paffages clearly teach, that the Saviour has died or made atonement for all mankind, and it feems, that the laft of them caunot rationally be understood in any

other fenfe. For it exprefsly declares, that he is the Saviour, not of those who believe only, but of all men in diftinction from these. Therefore his atonement muft have had respect to all the human race. Accordingly Chrift is called "The Lamb of God which taketh away the fia of the world; and the Saviour of the world." The apostle John, addreffing Chriftians, fays, "He is the propitiation for our fins, and not for ours only, but alfo for the fins of the whole world." Here alfo Jefus Chrift is declared to be the propitiation for the fins of the whole world, in diftinction from thofe of believers.-Thefe, and other fimilar paffages teach in the clearest manner, that Chrift has made an atonement for all mankind, or for the whole world. It feems hardly poffible for words to exprefs this fentiment more clearly than it is expreffed in thefe paffages; and fome of them will not admit of any other fenfe, without a very forced, unnatural conftruc


Should it be faid, that such expreffions as all men, the world, &c. muft fometimes be understood in a limited or reftricted fenfe; it may be anfwered, that it is an eftablished, invariable rule, that all phrafes or paffages of feripture are to be understood in their moft plain, eafy and literal import, unlefs the connection, the general analogy of faith, or some other neceffary confiderations require a different fenfe. But in the prefent cafeit does not appear, that any of these confiderations require, that these paffages fhould be underflood in any other than their plain, natural meaning. On the contrary, there are many weighty, unanfwerable reafons for understanding them in their moft plain and literal import.

And it is with great difficulty, that some of these paffages can be understood in any other fenfe.

3. That the atonement is sufficient for all mankind, is evident from the confideration, that the calls, invitations and offers of the gospel are addressed to all, without exception, in the most extenfive language. It is faid, "Look unto me, and be ye faved, all the ends of the earth. Whofoever will, let him take the water of life freely. Ho, every one that thirfteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money: come ye, buy and eat, yea, come, buy wine and milk without money, and without price. Go, and preach the gospel to every crea ture." The preachers of the gofpel are directed to tell their hearers, that all things are ready

that all may come, who will, and are to invite and urge all, to come to the gofpel feaft and freely partake of the bleffings of falvation. But how could the offer of falvation be confiftently thus made to all without any limitation; if the atonement was fufficient but for a part or for the elect only? On this fuppofition it could not with truth and pro. priety be faid to all, that all things are ready, plentiful provifions are made for all, and whofoever will, may come. Were a feast, sufficient but for 50 provided; could we confiftently fend invitations to a 1000, and tell them that a plentiful feaft was prepared, and that all things were ready for their entertainment, if they would but come? Would not fuch an invitation appear like a deception? If fo, then the offer and invitation of the gofpel could not have been made to all without diferimination, as they are; if there was no atonement but for a part. As there

fore the invitations of the gofpel are thus addreffed to all, it is a proof that Chrift has made an atonement for all mankind.

Again, the scripture represents, that there is no difficulty in the way of the falvation of the impenitent, but what arises from their -own oppofition of heart or will. Thus the Lord Jefus fays to the unbelieving Jews, "Ye will not come unto me, that ye may have life. O Jerufalem, Jerufalem, how often would I have gathered thy children—and ye would not." In the parable of the marriage fupper, it is reprefented, that there was no difficulty in the way to prevent those who were invited, from partaking of the feaft, but their own unwillingness to come. But if there was no atonement made but for thofe only who are faved; then there would be an infurmountable difficulty in the way of the falvation of all others, afide from the one arifing from their own oppofition of heart. As therefore the fcripture teaches, that there is no difficulty in the way of the falvation of any under the gofpel, but what arifes from their own unwillingness, or wicked oppofition of heart, it is manifeft, that there is an atonement for all.

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But on the fuppofition, that Christ has made no atonement for thofe, who perish; how can it be their duty to believe on, and receive him as their Saviour? Or, how can they be justly condemned for not doing it, when he has | made no atonement for them?

Further, if the atonement is made for the elect only, how can a preacher be warranted to make the offers of falvation to any, or to urge them to receive the Saviour; unless he knows, that they are of that particular number, for whom Chrift died? Or how can any, unless they know, that they are of this number, be authorised to truft in him for falvation? The fubject, upon the fuppofition of a partial atonement, certainly ap.. pears to be attended with fome difficulties in these respects.-Thefe confiderations afford additional proof, that the atonement was made for all mankind.

It is manifeft from the various reafons which have been fuggested, that the atonement of Jesus Christ is infinitely full, or fufficient for the falvation of all mankind, if they would but cordially receive it, and that the want of fuch an atonement, is not the reason, why all are not faved.

But it may be here remarked, that it will not follow, that becaufe the atonement is fufficient for all, therefore all will be faved. -The atonement does nothing more than merely open a way of

4. The word of God teaches, that it is the duty of all, who are acquainted with the gofpel, to believe in the Lord Jefus, and trust in him as their Redeemer, and that they are very criminal for neg-falvation, fo that God can confiflecting to do this. It is therefore declared in the facred fcriptures, that it is the command of God, "that we fhould believe on the name of his Son Jefus Chrift, and that thofe, who believe not, are condemned already, because they have not believed on the name of the only begotten Son of God." VOL. III. No. 9.

tently fhew mercy to whom he pleases, and justify all, who be lieve in Chrift Jefus. But it does not enfure the falvation of any, unless they comply with the terms of the gofpel. It will no more follow, that all will be faved, because the atonement is fufficient for all, than it would, that all U u

would eat of the marriage fupper | der it confiftent for him to par

in the parable, because it was fufficient for all, and all were invited. This parable was defigned to reprefent the gofpel and its invitations. As thofe, who neglected the invitation, never tafted of the fupper, altho' the provifions were plentiful for all; fo the fcriptures teach, that many will not comply with the terms and invitations of the gofpel, and partake of its bleflings, altho the atonement is abundantly fufficient for all. For the Saviour declares, that " many are called, but few are chosen, and ftrait is the gate and narrow is the way which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it."

Neither will it follow, that part of the atonement will be loft, if it is fufficient for all mankind, and yet but part are actually faved.

Forit appears from the nature of fin, and of the atonement, and from the character of the Saviour, that the fame infinite atonement, which is neceffary for the pardon of one finner, will answer for the falvation of the whole human race. It is certain from feripture, that fin is infinitely evil and criminal, because it is threatened with an everlafting or infinite punishment. Not one finner therefore could be pardoned without an atonement of infinite value and efficacy, or without the fufferings and death of the Lord Jefus, a perfon of infinite dignity. And his obedience, fufferings and death, have done more to magnify and fupport God's law-to establish his moral government, and to condemn and difcountenance fin; than would the everlafting fufferings of all mankind. This fame infinite atonement therefore, which was neceffary, that God might confiftently pardon one finner, would alfo ren

don and fave all the numerous millions of Adam's race, if he saw fit. It cannot then be said, that fome part of the atonement is loft, if all are not saved, fince the fame infinite atonement which will answer for all, is neceflary for the falvation of but one.

Or even if this were not the cafe, yet it would not follow, that part of the atonement was loft or useless, because all were not faved. For the infinite fulness or fufficiency of the atonement may anfwer other important ends befides the falvation of finners. It may tend to display the infinite riches of divine grace-to manifeft the infinite dignity and worthinefs of the Saviour to render it confiftent for the invitations of the gospel to be addressed to all, and thus to fhew the exceeding evil and obftinate nature of fin, and the great depravity of the human heart, in rejecting the Sariour, and to render the impenitent wholly inexcufable, fince there is now evidently nothing in the way of their falvation but their own wilful oppofition of heart. And in this way it will tend to glorify the juftice of God in the everlaing condemnation of the wicked, and to magnify his grace in the falvation of the elect. Thefe and other important ends are anfwered by the infinite atonement of the Lord Jefus; and therefore it will not be loft or useless, tho but part of mankind are faved.

Defeription of Saints.
[Continued from page 293.1

HE enquiry may now be,.


in what fenfe may true Chriftians be faid to be dead? The apoftle fays of himself, when the commandment came, fin re

fin-that is, he who is dead to it, as all true faints are, is freed from its rule and dominion; as the fervant who is dead, is freed from his mafter. In a word, all fuch hate fin; it has been fo effectually im bittered to them, that they never more return to the conftant prac tice and fervice of it.

2. The true believer is also dead to the world. The apoftle fays, by Chrift, or by the cross of Chrift, the world was crucified to him, and he to the world, Gal. vi. 14. And this temper of weanednefs from the world was not peculiar to the apostle; tho he, doubtlefs, poffeffed it in an eminent degree; but it is the temper of all the godly more or lefs. The term world, ufed by the apoftle, may include fenfual pleaf

vived, and I died. Again, I am crucified with Chrift. In his Epiftle to the Chriftians at Coloffe, he fays, ye are dead, &c. Now all true Chriftians may be faid to be dead to fin. They are dead, as the old man, the body of fin, is crucified, Rom. vi. 6. Know ing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of fin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not ferve fin. Not that the body of fin is entirely deftroyed, immediately upon believing in Chrift; but it has received its death's blow; a fatal wound. The death of the crofs was a flow, lingering, but fure death; fuch is the mortification of fin in believers; though the body of fin will have life to frug. gle and strive againft grace in the foul through life, yet at the natu-ures, and the riches, honors and ral death of the body this will be completely deftroyed, forever done away. And then, fuch are dead to fin, as they do not live any longer in it, as the apoftle declares. It is true, they do not live without fin; but they do not live in fin—which as obedient children they that is, they do not live in it as hearken, 1 John, ii. 15-Love not their element, as once they did. the world, neither the things that The ax is fo laid at the root of are in the world; for if any man corruption, that they not only love the world, the love of the cease from the allowed acts of Father is not in him. Our Savfin, but have the vicious habits iour fays, ye cannot serve God and inclinations weakened, and, and mammon. The faints love in a fense, destroyed. And in- God fupremely; which fhews, deed, when grace is in due exer- that they are, in fome good meafcife, and fo far as they are fancti-ure, dead to the world. The "fied, they are as indifferent to the apoftle gives it as the undoubted pleafures and delights of fin, as a character of all real Chriftians, man who is dying is to his former that they overcome the world, diverfions. This may be laid and fays, this is the victory that down as a fure maxim, that tho overcometh the world, even your fin may remain as an outlaw, faith. Faith, which is a ruling tho it may opprefs as a tyrant, yet principle in them, works in and it does not reign as a king, who by love to God and Chrift, and is cheerfully obeyed, in any fanc- thus withdraws them from the tified foul. The Holy Ghoft love of the world. It is to be fays, he who is dead, is free from acknowledged, that faints, in gen

dignities of the world; and to
these they are all fo far dead, that
they do not place their fupreme
affections on them.
This may
appear from the apostle's particu-
lar direction and injunction, to

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