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render the body combustible. Another theory refers the combustion to the agency of electric fluid. It is difficult, however, on this hypothesis to explain the rapidity of the combustion, and the complete reduction of the body, or its parts, to ashes.

In the Emporium of Arts and Sciences, vol. i., will be found an art. by M. Pierre Aime Lair, On the Combustion of the Human Body by the long and immoderate use of Spirituous Liquors. This writer thinks that the phenomenon is occasioned by an alcoholic impreg nation of the body, and that actual contact with fire is then necessary to produce it. Other continental writers, as Maffie, Le Cat, Kopp, and Marc, attribute it solely to the agency of electric fluid.

Mr. Wyatt Papworth, in his Notes on Spontaneous Combustion, 1855, says, “The term has been generally applied to the wonderful ignition of the human body, the causes of which seem now to be fully understood." He treats of the subject in relation to F. ins.

Beck, in his Elements of Medical Jurisprudence (first pub. 1823), gives an epitome of a good many cases of this character, and he quotes the authorities from which he has derived them. This writer has pointed out that the cases here spoken of differ from ordinary combustion, which require large quantities of fuel to convert the body into ashes, and is also slow in its progress, and the heat required being high, extends itself to surrounding substances. It is often incomplete, and particularly so as to the bones. There will be blisters, scars, etc., on various parts of the unconsumed body.

Dr. Mitchell has also written upon the subject in the American Medical Recorder. Dr. James Bell Pettigrew, M.D., of Edin., in his able paper On the Presumption of Survivorship, pub. in the Brit, and For. Medico-Chirurgical Review for Jan., 1865, says: In death by spontaneous combustion the changes induced in the system by the free use of ardent spirits are such that a body, in a manner but little understood, becomes ignited and is with difficulty extinguished. As, however, the examples of spontaneous combustion are very rare, it may be passed over by simply remarking that it is most common among females, and when it occurs the trunk is usually completely destroyed, the extremities being only destroyed in part. In the 4th ed. of Wharton's Law Lexicon, 1867, there is a very learned art. upon the subject. The writer says a question may arise as to this being the cause having operated "where persons are found burnt to death." We think we should only resort to this theory when every other failed. He gives a very able summary of the deductions which have been drawn from the cases of this character already recorded:

1. The subjects were nearly all females, and they were far advanced in life. 2. Most of them had for a long time made an immoderate use of spirituous liquors, and they were either very fat or very lean. 3. The combustion occurred accidentally, and often from a slight cause, such as a candle, a coal, or even a spark. 4. The combustion proceeded with great rapidity, usually consuming the entire trunk, while the extremities, as the feet and hands, were occasionally left uninjured. 5. Water, instead of extinguishing the flames, sometimes gave them more activity. 6. The fire did very little damage to, and often did not affect, the combustible objects in contact with the human body, at the moment when it was burning. 7. The combustion of these bodies left as a residuum, fat, fœtid ashes, with an unctuous, stinking, and very penetrating soot. 8. The combustions have occurred at all seasons, but most frequently in winter, and in northern as well as in southern countries.

In the L'Union Médicale for 1870 is an article from the pen of Dr. Bertholle, wherein full details are given of a case of spontaneous combustion. The subject of it was a woman, 37 years old, who was addicted to alcoholic drinks. She was found in her room with the viscera and some of the limbs consumed, the hair and clothes having escaped. The very minute description of the state in which the deceased was found shows that ignition could not have been communicated from without, and, to all appearance, this is an additional case to those already upon record.

In the Scientific American, in 1870, appeared a letter from Mr. A. B. Flowers, of Alexandria, Louisiana, that a statement made in other recent articles on this subject to the effect that no one had ever witnessed a case of spontaneous combustion in the human body was a mistake, as he was himself, with several others, an eye-witness to a case of the kind. The person who was the victim was a hard drinker, and was sitting by the fire, surrounded with Christmas guests, when suddenly flames of a bluish tint gushed from his mouth and nostrils, and he was soon a corpse. The body, he states, remained extremely warm for a much longer period than usual. This hardly meets the case of entire consumption of the body, as stated in several instances above given.

The ins. offices which might be prejudicially affected by deaths of this character are L. cos. and accident cos. We do not think they need raise their rates in consequence. COMBUSTION, SPONTANEOUS (Fire).-The power of ignition inherent in animal and vegetable substances; or combustion that is set up between two bodies at common temperatures with any application of artificial heat. It has long been known that vegetable substances, when either highly dried, or insufficiently dried, and closely packed, will ignite by their own spontaneous action. But it is also known by the experience of fire ins. offices that many other substances are endowed with the same dangerous properties. We intend noting various well-authenticated examples, as one of the best means of furnishing practical instruction.

In our art. on COALS, we have given some scientific evidence regarding their liability to spontaneous ignition.

Oil has always an affinity for the oxygen of the atmosphere, but when the former is in a body, leaving only a small surface exposed, scarcely any action can take place; it is only when vegetable substances, as flax, cotton, and such loose fibrous materials, are

mixed with it (other conditions being favourable), that ignition takes place. It is also most certain to be effected when the situation of the heaps is rather confined, or at least not exposed to any great currents of air by which the temperature can be rapidly reduced. There is no doubt that many fires in former times could have been attributed solely to such an origin. It has been noticed that most if not all the experiments and disasters arising from contact of combustible materials have been accompanied by a very offensive smell.-Papworth.

The first recorded case of fire from spontaneous combustion-there must have been many previous cases unrecorded-arose in 1781 at Cronstadt, on board a frigate in that harbour. At the time of the frigate taking fire, there were several packages of matting tied with packthread, in which the soot of burnt firwood had been mixed with oil for painting the ship, and had been lying for some time on the floor of the cabin, where the fire was first perceived. In consequence a trial was afterwards made of 40 lbs. of firwood soot, soaked in about 35 lbs. of rape oil varnish. It was tied up in a bass mat and placed in the cabin of a ship. In 16 hours it heated and smoked, and until 20 hours kept steadily increasing in heat, when air was admitted into the cabin, and the whole heap burst into flame.

The scene of the experiments was varied. The materials experimented upon were placed in houses, in chests, in vaults; and with similar effect, for as soon as air was admitted, flame was produced. They all succeeded better on bright than on damp or dull days. It was found that the soot of wood was not requisite to produce flame; it only increased the power of combustion. Chimney-soot used instead of lampblack or wood-charcoal was found to retard the action.

It will be remarked that it is nearly a century since these experiments were made. Is the knowledge of these facts general among ins. agents?

In 1793 the Rt. Rev. Richard Watson, Bishop of Llandaff, pub. Chemical Essays, and therein he narrates the following experiment by Mr. Lemery, respecting the origin of subterranean fires. We quote it, because we think it illustrates our subject:

He mixed 25 lbs. of powdered sulphur with an equal weight of iron filings, and having kneaded the mixture together, by means of a little water, into the consistence of a paste, he put it into an iron pot, covered it with a cloth, and buried the whole one foot under ground. In about 8 or 9 hours the earth swelled, grew warm, and cracked; hot sulphurous vapours were perceived; a flame which dilated the cracks was observed; the superincumbent earth was covered by a yellow and black powder; in short, a subterraneous fire, producing a volcano in miniature, was spontaneously lighted up from the reciprocal actions of sulphur, iron, and water.

In another place the learned author says, "Half a pound of steel filings, half a pound of flour of brimstone, and fourteen ounces of water, will, when well mixed, acquire heat enough to make the mass take fire."

Murray, in his System of Chemistry, 1806-12, says:

This absorption of oxygen by fixed oils may, under certain circumstances, be so rapid as to evolve heat sufficient to cause them to burn. Many instances of spontaneous combustion had occurred from this cause. It appears from these that if hemp, flax, or linen cloth, be steeped in linseed oil, if it lie in a heap, and be somewhat pressed together and confined, its temperature rises, a smoke issues from it, and at length it takes fire. The same thing happens with mixtures of oil and fine charcoal, as lampblack, wrapt up in linen. In one experiment, a mixture of this kind became warm in about 16 hours, and emitted steam; in two hours more it emitted smoke, and immediately took fire. In another the combustion happened in nine hours. The experiment succeeded only when drying oils

were used.

Henry, in his Elements of Experimental Chemistry, 1810, said:

The fixed oils, such as are obtained by pressure from certain vegetables, as the olive, almond, linseed, poppy seed, rape seed, etc., have a singular property, which has led sometimes to serious accidents. When mixed with lampblack, or with any light kind of charcoal, and even with vegetable substances, as cotton, wool, or flax, the mixture after some time heats spontaneously, and at length bursts into flame. This combustion has sometimes been observed to take place in the waste cotton employed to wipe the oil from the machinery, and has prob. occasioned many of the dreadful fires which have happened in cotton mills, and for which no adequate cause could be assigned.

On the 8th July, 1815, about 25 pieces of cloth, each of which contained nearly 30 ells, were deposited upon wooden planks in a cellar at Lyons, for concealment. In their manufacture 25 lbs. of oil had been used for a quintal of wool. The cloth was quite greasy, and each piece weighed from 80 to 90 lbs. The cellar had an opening to the north, which was carefully shut up with dung, and the door was concealed by bundles of vine-props, which freely admitted the air. On the morning of the 4th Aug. an intolerable smell was observed, and the person who entered the cellar was surrounded with a thick smoke, which he could not support. Entering afterwards with a lantern, he perceived a shapeless, glutinous mass, apparently in a state of putrefaction. He then removed the dung from the opening, and as soon as the circulation of air was estab. the cloth took fire. In another corner of the cellar lay a heap of stuffs which had been ungreased, and prepared for the fuller, but they suffered no change.-Quarterly Journ. of Arts, Oct., 1820. Fyfe, in his Elements of Chemistry [about 1820], says:

The fixed or unctuous oils absorb oxygen; linseed oil, for instance, when spread on paper, has been found to imbibe not less than twelve times its weight of it. Under certain circumstances the absorption goes on so rapidly that the heat generated is sufficient to cause combustion. When, for instance, tow or cloth is soaked in oil, and heaped together, its temperature very soon rises, and it at last takes fire. Hence the necessity of being cautious in throwing aside tow or other matters which have been used for cleaning the oily parts of machinery, as instances have occurred of fires being occasioned this way.

It ought, from this explanation, to have been understood how it was that shoddy mills were found to be such dangerous risks for fire offices.

On the 10th Aug., 1833, a memorable fire occurred at the north-west stores of the Dublin Custom House. The property destroyed was estimated at £300,000. The cause of the fire being involved in some mystery, the Gov. offered a reward, first of £300, and afterwards a further sum of £1000, but no satisfactory information was obtained. An inquiry was then instituted. It was proved that there were stored at the time of the fire a number of bales of carded Leghorn rags, some of which had been used by the porters to cleanse their oily hands. Also a quantity of bark, tallow, valonia, old ropes, 36 bales of cotton-wick, a lot of empty puncheons, etc. There were also some palm-oil, cotton and wool, two bales of hemp, etc. The palm-oil was said to be "as solid as butter." These were stowed where the fire was first seen. The result of the inquiry showed that there were abundant materials from which the fire might have originated through spontaneous ignition, to which no doubt it owed its origin.

Caunter, in his Handbook of Chemistry, pub. 1840, says:

The other point I have to mention is the combustion of vegetable substances, said to be caused by fermentation. The theory of this phenomenon does not seem properly understood by those who have not made natural science an object of particular study. When masses of vegetable products are put together in a confined place, without being sufficiently dry, they ferment or heat, as it is called, until they take fire. Such is the case, for instance, with wet hay made into a rick or mow, and damp cotton stowed away in the hold of a ship. The fermentation which thus occurs is no other than the vinous, arising from the joint action of the sugar and zimomin contained in these vegetable products. Carbonic acid, by its formation, raises the temperature very high, if the mass be large; but not high enough to produce combustion, as it is supposed to do in these cases. I have before said that liquidity is indispensable for fermentation. The limited quantity of moisture existing in a half-dried vegetable product is therefore the occasion of only an imperfect fermentation; but there is a liberation of the elements, oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon, besides the formation of carbonic acid. There may be, and there no doubt is, carburetted hydrogen, because it exists, ready formed, in the vegetables. These elements are naturally under very considerable pressure, which increases as they are liberated, because there is no outlet for their escape. When, therefore, the pressure has reached a certain point, the oxygen and hydrogen are forced to obey their affinities: a partial, and perhaps slight explosion takes place; the gases are kindled, in the formation of the water, and the whole mass of vegetable substance is ignited. If a hay-mow, however wet, were perforated with stakes or poles to make holes for the escape of the gases, no combustion could take place.

In the Illustrated Lond. News, 28th May, 1842, there is the following narrative :

A few days since a remarkable case of spontaneous combustion of a bed occurred at Leamington, in one of two bedsteads in a bed-room, one on which there were two beds-the one a palliasse, and the other what was supposed to be a hair-mattress. It was promptly extinguished by the application of water, when it was ascertained that a hole about 8 inches in diameter had been burned completely through the floor under the bed; and on examining the bedding, a corresponding circle of combustion was found both in the mattress and palliasse. The former turned out on examination, instead of hair, to have merely a thin superficial covering of this substance, the interior being made up, amongst other things, of roughly broken flax, tow, and oakum, which substances only required the contact of oil or grease to ignite of themselves. The fire, after having commenced in the tow or other contents at the under-side of the mattress, thence burned downwards through the palliassethe straw and ignited materials setting fire to the floor, and thence to the curtains and hangings. . The Times of 8th July, 1853, contained a letter from a correspondent, who gave his name and address, and set forth the following facts:

Yesterday I had about 20 yards of stout unbleached calico sewn together in three lengths, for the purpose of making a sort of tarpauling; and, to make it water-proof, I placed it in a large earthen pan, and poured a quantity of boiled linseed oil over it. To avoid the smell, I directed the servant to take it into the saddle-room last night. This morning I was surprised to find it smoking hot, quite black, and just ready to burst quite into a flame. The servant says it was very hot last night, but he did not think of mentioning it. I have tried the same operation before with smaller pieces of calico, without any such result.

On the 5th Sept., 1853, a fire occurred in Cannon-street West. On the circumstances of the fire becoming the subject of a judicial investigation, Dr. Letheby, Prof. of Chemistry at the Lond. Hospital, was examined and said:

I procured samples of the different kinds of lucifer matches sold at the defendant's warehouse. I now produce some, but not the whole, as some of them had spontaneously ignited as they lay on my laboratory table. I have analysed the chemical materials of which they are composed, and find them to be chiefly phosphorus and chloride of potash, glue, and red oxide of iron. I have made experiments for the purpose of ascertaining the conditions under which they will prob. ignite, and find that the phosphorus, itself one of the chief constituents, takes fire spontaneously when in fine powder and exposed to the air. The temperature of this or of any other room is sufficient to fire phosphorus spontaneously when in a powdered state on the surface of the lucifers. [The witness here showed the experiment.] When I put this liquor on a piece of paper it evaporated, and there was left a fine powder, which ignited spontaneously. I then made another experiment with the lucifers. I exposed them to a temperature of 140 degrees, and found that they then fired. Such a temperature is very likely to exist in a window in summer time, unless the atmosphere is excluded, and then it requires a higher temperature, viz. one of 220 degrees. Slight friction will also set lucifers on fire: for example, the shaking of a parcel containing them, or the box being knocked down by rats, or other cause.

The Builder for 1854 contains an account of a fire at Gloucester Cathedral, from which we take the following passages:

Shortly before the occurrence of the fire, the workmen, who had been engaged in polishing the throne and other carved woodwork in the choir, left off, it being 6 o'clock P.M. The men had been employed in applying boiled oil and turpentine in equal proportions to the woodwork, rubbing it dry with cotton rags, chiefly portions of old cotton stockings. Then after use they placed them in a rush basket, and set it in the pew in front of the throne. This was exactly the place where the fire broke out three hours afterwards. It was supposed the men had used fire; ... all denied that any fire

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or match had been used by them on that day. Experiments were therefore made with the view of ascertaining distinctly whether the fire might have been caused by spontaneous combustion. The men employed placed their rags (saturated with oil and turpentine) in a rush basket, as before. In an hour the outside of the basket was found to be warm, and soon after the rags began to smoke. In two hours a continuous and strong cloud of smoke escaped from the basket, and in three hours the whole burst into a flame.

A second experiment was tried with a like result. Hence fires in cabinet-makers' risks. In 1855 Mr. Wyatt Papworth, Surveyor of Alliance F. office, pub. a little pamphlet, Notes on Spontaneous Combustion: an Appendix to Notes on the Causes of Fires in Buildings. The author says:

By far the most important of all natural causes of fires, and the one which is chiefly referred to in works on chemistry, is the combustion which is now most satisfactorily ascertained to take place where lumps of hemp, flax, or cotton, more or less oiled or greased, are thrown down or placed carelessly together. This question materially affects the preservation of all manufactories, particularly where machinery is employed; for it will be seen herein that even soiled rags used by engravers and printers in cleaning their printing plates are subject to spontaneous combustion if allowed to remain heaped together for a few hours. The natural ignition of vegetable bodies, however, does not appear to have met with much popular attention.

We have in this art. quoted many of the examples given by this author.

In the 8th ed. of Encyclo. Brit., vol. 14, pub. 1857, there is the following: Spontaneous combustion may arise in inert matter from-1. Friction or percussion, by which the latent heat of bodies is suddenly converted into sensible heat. 2. By fermentation of vegetable matter, as in the firing of new hay, of collections of linen rags, roasted bran, and powdered charcoal; in which the heat excited appears to be owing to the rapid absorption of watery vapour, which, when condensed, gives out its latent caloric in sufficient quantity to cause ignition. 3. By chemical action-as in the effect of drying oils on hemp, flax, cotton, and on some powder-as on that of charcoal and black oxide of manganese; the action of nitric acid on essential oils, indigo, etc., or the mixture of oil

with wool.

In the 6th ed. of Ure's Dict. of Arts, etc., pub. 1867, and edited by Robt. Hunt, we find the following:

Cases of spontaneous combustion are by no means uncommon. Some years since the ed. investigated the conditions under which H.M. ships, the Imogen and Talavera, were burnt in Devonport dockyard, and he was enabled to trace the fire to a large bin, in which there had been allowed to accumulate a mass of oiled oakum, pieces of old flannel covered with anti-attrition, sawdust, shavings, and the sweepings of the painters', wheelwrights', and some other shops.

In 1868 was pub. Watts' Dict. of Chemistry, wherein this subject is treated of in considerable detail.


One of the articles which has lately [1872] shown a considerable tendency to spontaneous combustion is manufactured silk. The reason has since transpired. Many of the silks manufactured in France and Belgium go through the process of being charged "-that is, they are treated with grease or oil for the purpose of increasing their weight and apparent value. These "charged silks" are now known to be so combustible that the German Railways have refused to receive them for transportation. It is to be hoped their fraudulent manufacturers may find "transportation" more readily.

The burning, in 1872, of the Continental Sugar House and Refinery in South Boston, U.S., was believed to be due entirely to spontaneous combustion in a lot of sugar boxes which had been stowed away uncleaned.

Charcoal alone, in some states, appears to be susceptible of spontaneous inflammation, when it is laid in heaps or subjected to trituration, of which Sager has given examples.— Nicholson's Journal. [CHEMICAL PRODUCTS.] [COALS.] [FIRE ANNIHILATORS.] [GUANO.] [LIME.] [LUCIFER MATCHES.] [OILS.] [SOLAR IGNITION.] COMETS. It is and long has been a popular notion that Comets have an influence in promoting epidemic diseases. Hippocrates appears to hint at comets being attended by physical convulsions of the earth; and it has since been ascertained that each of two comets which appeared in his time was attended by an earthquake. [EARTHQUAKES.] It is recorded that fearful earthquakes, fiery meteors, and terrestrial commotions of all descriptions preceded the plague of 1348. [PLAGUES.] Hecker, in his hist. of Epidemics of the Middle Ages, states that comets were seen in 1505 and 1506, and that an eruption of Vesuvius took place in 1506, the year of the second visitation of the sweating sickness in England. The third visitation of this sickness was in 1517-a comet appeared in 1516. Other serious epidemic diseases occurred in Europe in 1517. In the year 1529 sweating sickness occurred for the 5th time in England. Hecker says, 'Comets appeared in the course of this year in unusual numbers." Dr. Theophilus Thompson, the ed. of the Annals of Influenza, remarks that comets repeatedly attracted attention about the time of catarrhal epidemics, especially near the visitations of 1510, 1557, 1580, 1732, 1737, 1743, and 1762. It is certain that in the pestilential year 1854 a comet appeared on 29th March. "How comets should influence epidemics is by no means a question likely to be solved yet."-Haviland. Halley, of ins. fame, first fixed the identity of comets, and predicted their periodical return. [EPIDEMICS.]


COMITY OF NATIONS.-The most appropriate phrase to express the true foundation and extent of the obligation of the laws of one nation, within the territories of another.—Story.

COMMANDITE [or in commendam].-A form of limited partnership, very prevalent in France. The principle applies to cases where the contract is between one or more persons, who are general partners, and therefore jointly and severally responsible, and one or more other persons who merely furnish a particular fund or cap. stock, and hence are called commandataires or commendataires, or partners in commandite; and who are liable only to the loss of the actual capital they have advanced. The bus. is carried on by the original firm independently of the persons so contributing cap. The Joint-Stock Cos. Act, 1867, enabled limited partnerships of an analogous character to be estab. in the U.K. COMMENCEMENT OF INSURANCE RISKS.-Questions not unfrequently arise regarding the actual commencement of risk-that is to say, the moment upon which the insurer steps into the position of the insured, regarding the contingency insured against. The practice varies with the varying nature of ins. contracts. Speaking generally, it cannot commence until the office, or the underwriter, has done some act by way of assent, capable of proof. In Marine ins., the "initialling the slip" is such an act. In Fire ins. the issuing of a "provisional receipt" by the co. or its duly authorized agent suffices. In Accident ins., Glass ins., Hail ins., and Carriage ins. the same. In each of these cases it is usual, if not absolutely essential, that a deposit on account of prems. be paid by the ins. A "consideration" is thus provided. In Life ins., in Fidelity ins., in Cattle ins. provisional receipts do not usually apply. The agent cannot commit the co., otherwise than by the express authority of the co., after proper forms shall have been filled up, examinations made, and an “acceptance" issued from the chief office. Even then the co. will not be upon the risk until the prem. shall be actually paid. The reasons for these distinctions will be obvious to our readers. In Marine ins. special considerations arise, which we shall notice under COMMENCEMENT OF VOYAGE. In Fire ins. a survey is generally necessary, in many classes of risks absolutely indispensable, for the safety of the office. The "provisional receipt" is therefore so shaped that if the risk be not regarded as satisfactory, the return of the prem. (less a proportionate deduction for the time the co. has been upon the risk, if originally so stipulated) by the co. terminates the transaction. The same regulations apply to Glass ins. and to Carriage ins. In Life ins. the acceptance or rejectance of the risk depends upon medical examination, and a consideration of "friends' reports," etc. In Fidelity ins. the acceptance or otherwise depends upon the combined result of a series of inquiries. In Cattle ins. the inspector must issue his certificate of health and value. Other branches of ins. have to be dealt with according to their peculiar requirements. In every case the contract can only be finally completed by the issue of a duly stamped pol. ; and all previous dealings will be held to be subject to the usual conditions of such pol., plus any special negociations or requirements in the particular case. [DURATION OF RISK.]

COMMENCEMENT OF VOYAGE, OR RISK.-In marine ins. the question of when the voyage, or the risk, actually commences or commenced, has often become a point of much importance. The matter is further complicated by the fact that the ins. on the ship may commence at one period; the ins. on the cargo at another; and the ins. of the freight [i.e. rent or earnings of the ship] at a third. We will treat these under their separate heads. 1. Ship. It seems to be clearly decided now that the risk on the ship commences at the port of departure, from the time of the ins. being effected, if the ship be there; if not there, then as soon as she arrives there, in view of commencing her insured voyage. [AT AND FROM.] It is thus seen to be of the highest importance to specify the place at which the risk commences, as also that at which it terminates.

2. Cargo. The words in the ordinary form of marine pol. are, “Beginning the adventure upon the said goods and merchandizes from the loading thereof aboard the said ship.” Mr. M'Arthur has pointed out that the protection afforded by this clause is incomplete, when, as is frequently the case, vessels lie at a distance from the shore, and the goods are conveyed to them in boats, lighters, and other craft which are liable to be wrecked or damaged on the passage. The pol., he considers, should contain the words "including risk of craft," in order that the goods may be covered from the moment they leave terra firma. Some cos. have remodelled the clause as follows: "The ins. aforesaid shall commence from the time when the goods and merchandizes shall be laden on board the said ship, or vessel, craft or boat, as above."

It is generally understood as implied that the port of departure [of the ship] and the port of loading are identical [unless otherwise expressed]; but in the case of Carr v. Montefiore, decided in the Exchequer Chamber, May, 1864, it was held that where the cargo had been laden at a previous port to that named in the pol. of ins. of cargo, but the ship had called at the port specified, and by reason of an accident had unladed a part and reladed her cargo, that was a sufficient compliance with the requirements of the pol.

In the case of Jones v. Neptune Marine Ins. Co., before the Courts in 1872, where the question of freight was involved, some important points regarding cargo were raised. The case will be given under our next head.

3. Freight.-Freight is of two kinds, viz.: 1. Bill of lading freight, which may generally be considered as coincident with the risk on goods. 2. Chartered freight, which commences immediately the ship commences the voyage on which the freight is ultimately to be earned. These will be discussed in detail under FREIGHT. For our present purposes

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