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1840, and therein he suggests an improved form of Joint L. Commutation T., such as was subsequently adopted by Dr. Farr in connexion with the English L. Table (No. 1). Prof. De Morgan had previously made the same suggestion in the Philosophical Mag.
In 1842 Mr. Peter Gray contributed to the Mechanics' Mag. a paper, On the Construction and Use of Commutation T. for Calculating the Values of Benefits depending on Life Contingencies. He, following the belief then prevalent, says :—“It is to a Mr. George Barrett, of whom nothing besides is publicly known, that we are indebted for the principle of the commutation T., and for the method of computing by means of them the values of benefits depending on the contingencies of human life.' 'By far the most valuable papers on the subject are two in the Companion to the Almanack, for 1840 and 1842, by Prof. De Morgan, which contain the materials of many thousand formulæ, applicable to almost every case that can occur." He points out the want of an elementary and systematic treatise upon the subject; and then proceeds to supply this want with remarkable clearness and ability. He reviews the peculiarities of the old and the new methods thus:
In the old method we are presented with a T. of the values of annu. at all ages, which of themselves are rarely wanted, but from which, by operations more or less complex, the values of benefits of all other kinds may be computed. In the new method, on the other hand, we are presented with a T. which by the mere inspection tells us nothing; but from which, while the values of the ordinary benefits can be found by a simple division, those of benefits of the most complex description are found by operations consisting usually of nothing more than one or two subtractions and one division. In point of simplicity, moreover, in the deduction of the various formulæ, the methods admit of no comparison. For the estab, of what, according to the old method, required chapters, a few pages will suffice according to the new.
Mr. Gray also points out the great facilities afforded by commutation T. for reducing single into ann. prems., as first indicated by Prof. De Morgan, and continues :
The principle upon which the application of the T. that we are now describing depends is so simple, that some may be disposed to award but a small portion of merit to the person by whom it was first pointed out. But as we are of those who believe that the merit of a contrivance is to be estimated in proportion to the utility of the object it has in view, and the simplicity and efficiency of the means by which that object is attained; and as the possession of those, in an eminent degree, by the contrivance in question, cannot be gainsaid, we take a very different view of the matter, and presume to think the contrivance one of very great merit.
In 1843 was pub. [under the superintendence of the So. for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge] Mr. David Jones's work, On the Value of Annu. and Rev. Payments, in the preface whereof is the following:
In the part which treats of L. contin., resort has been had to Mr. Griffith Davies's mode of constructing T. of the value of annu., pub. by him in a small tract in 1825, and a variety of formulæ have been deduced therefrom of considerable utility in working numerous cases connected with L. annu. and assu. The advantage of this method is the use which is made of the elements employed in the calculation.
Mr. E. J. Farren, in his Historical Essay, etc. (1844), says:
It may be here allowable to incidentally notice that the original framing of the column system of calculation referred to has generally been attributed to the late Mr. Barrett, whose method was pub. in the form of an appendix to Mr. Baily's Treatise on Annuities, as re-issued in 1813. That we are principally indebted to this source for the prevalent adoption of the system is undoubted, but a prior embodiment of it will be found in the treatise of the late Mr. W. Morgan, published as early as the year 1799. The reader generally conversant with such matters will at once admit the correctness of this assertion by consulting p. 64 of Mr. Morgan's treatise, in which will be found a T. [this we have already given], which, though primarily offered merely for the purposes of rectification, has nearly all the inherent qualities of modern arrangements. In page 70 the tabular values are adapted
to the common denominator 1000, etc.; and in page 74 the system is extended to joint lives. Mr. Barrett appears to have pursued this recommendation, and to have incidentally detected that the system was capable of further extension and uses, though his unnecessary adoption of the reversal of ages clearly indicates Mr. Morgan's treatise to have been the suggestive source. For the re-arrangement now current, and the addition of a decremental series (col. M), we are indebted to the discrimination of Mr. Griffith Davies, as instanced by his Treatise on Life Contin. (1825), of which the system referred to forms the leading characteristic.
In 1845 Dr. Farr appended to the 6th R. of Reg.-Gen. a Summary of Results deduced from the English Life T. That T. [No. 1] had appeared in the preceding Report. Dr. Farr, in the arrangement of that T., followed Barrett's method; but he enlarged upon it by adding col. Y, which possesses several curious properties. It is intended to throw light upon the progress of a pop. which grows partly by immigration. Its purposes are very fully set forth by the accomplished author.
In 1849 Mr. Peter Gray pub. his Tables and Formula for the Computation of Life Contingencies [first issue]; and in chapters 7 and 8 will be found a most learned analysis of the Columnar method. He says that Mr. Morgan's cols. possess the whole of the inherent qualities of cols. D and N in modern T.; but he adds, "Not only does he show himself unacquainted with the principal and most valuable properties of his cols., but we have no evidence that he arranged his materials in cols. at all, except merely for the purpose of exemplification." Finally, his making no claim to the discovery in the 2nd ed. of his work, pub. 1821, Mr. Gray considers conclusive against him. Regarding Mr. Griffith Davies he says, "The propriety of, or at least the necessity for, some of the modifications introduced by Mr. Davies may be questioned; but it is not denied that the method owes much to him." Finally, comparing the old method with the Columnar, he says, "In every instance the superiority belongs to the new."
In the Student's T. pub. in 1849 by Mr. W. T. Thomson, an excellent exemplification is given of the advantages of the Columnar system.
The first paper in the 1st vol. of the Assu. Mag.  is a Memoir of the Early Hist. of Auxiliary T. for the Computation of Life Contingencies, by Mr. Frederick Hendriks. That learned writer there says, "The method was arrived at separately by English and by German authors, but the priority in the respective dates will be seen fairly to belong to the latter." He proceeds:
The circumstances to be brought forward in support of this view appear to have hitherto escaped any notice in England. There can scarcely be a doubt that when the late Mr. Francis Baily drew up his well-known Memoir on Barrett's Formula, which was read to the Royal So. in June, 1812, his practical mind and honourable endeavours to prevent, as he says, "Mr. Barrett's astonishing labours sinking into oblivion," offered a guarantee of his being perfectly unaware that formule, applicable to the same purposes and in a more complete form, had been pub. (though net in England) some 27 years previously; otherwise it may be justly presumed that he would not have characterized Barrett's invention as an entirely new one, or its principles as "opening a new and wide field to the analyst," without adding parenthetically-at least new in England.
In 1851 Messrs. Gray, Smith, and Orchard pub. Three p.c. Assu. and Annu. T. These were accompanied by auxiliary T. arranged on the commutation plan.
In 1853 Mr. W. T. Thomson pub. Actuarial T. Carlisle Three p.c. single lives and single deaths, with Auxiliary T. In this work will be found much practical and valuable information regarding the Columnar system.
In the 4th vol. of the Assu. Mag. (1854) there appears an art. by Prof. De Morgan : Account of a Correspondence between Mr. Geo. Barrett and Mr. Francis Baily. This profound scholar says therein, in his characteristic style:
It is as certain as anything can be that Barrett was a perfectly independent inventor. He knew neither French nor German; his own method was described by himself in 1811, when there was no question of a competitor, as having been worked at for 25 years-which brings the invention back to about the time when Tetens pub. The chance of a work like that of Tetens finding its way
into the hands of a Surrey yeoman, farmer, or country schoolmaster, in or about 1786, is very small indeed. Further, the work of Tetens acquired no notoriety in England. Milne, who knew the continental authors better than any one of his contemporary writers, does not allude to it in the summary given in the art "Annu." in the Ency. Brit.; nor is the book itself, to a cursory examiner, suggestive of anything new.
Tetens, as Mr. Hendriks has remarked, described the use of the cols. C and M, which Barrett did not do. [The M col. was first introduced by Mr. Griffith Davies.] It may reasonably be supposed that he saw the application of his own method; but he makes no incidental remarks: even when he forms his cols. for the expectation of life, in explaining his method to Baily, he does not drop a word on the facility with which the temporary or deferred expectations may be found. The points of view of the two men differed greatly. Barrett was occupied with the production of vast results, and valued his method because it produced those results. Tetens exhibits an easier method of doing what others had already done, and does not seem greatly struck with the power of doing more which that method would give. Hence prob. the reason why Barrett did not care for such cols as C and M and R. He could not hope to repeat them in a T. of three joint lives: so that he was content with the facilities which his own D and N cols. gave to problems of rev. as well as to problems of annu. Again, part of the merit of an invention consists in its mode of introduction. Barrett introduced his method by using the proper means: Tetens so completely failed in introduction, that in all prob, he never would have been heard of in the matter if it had not been for Barrett's success.
In the present case, I have no doubt that to Barrett is due an acknowledgment of a much higher order than to Tetens. The first was a self-educated country farmer; the second was a highlycultivated prof. of mathematics. The first invented his means of pub.; the second used those presented by his position. The first sacrificed a quarter of a century to his determination that the public should not only have the discovery, but the benefit of it; the second gave them the discovery, that those who pleased might benefit the public by it. The first succeeded in making his method of daily use, and of such notoriety that in process of time the discovery of the second was itself discovered; and the discoverer of the discovery deserves no small credit for his unusual research.
We should have been glad to hear De Morgan's views regarding Dale.
There is yet another passage in this paper which we must quote. It is a remarkable one: The rejection of Baily's paper on Barrett's method by the Royal So. is one of those unfortunate instances which create a fear lest there should be other communications as valuable which have been also rejected, but have never found such a champion as Baily. It is usual to attribute this rejection to the late William Morgan, who was at that time a member of the Council, and must doubtless have been on the Committee of Reference, unless his own sense of his peculiar position with respect to his assailant induced him to decline the office. But it must not be forgotten that the celebrated Thomas Young, an acute writer on annu., was also on the Council, and as prob. on the Committee. Morgan and Price, as is well known, had at one time possessed a mastery over the subject of L. contin. which was almost (may I not say quite?) peculiar to themselves. Morgan himself, in spite of the occasional errors so sharply attacked by Baily, had greatly contributed to the advance of the science by his papers, and to the estab. of public confidence in it by his management of the Equitable So. I think it may be said to be pretty well known that he had acquired a kind of feeling, that to meddle with the subject of annu. and assu. was to poach on his manor. This weakness may have biassed him in his judgment of a new and strange method; but he must not bear the blame alone: it is the business of a so. to counteract the known bias of each individual member. In the present case it was notorious that the author of the paper under discussion [Baily] had given great offence to the member of the Council who, under ordinary circumstances, would have been the best judge of its merits. If the remembrance of that offence contributed to the rejection of the paper, the parties who permitted the result were more to blame than the individual whose natural anger had originated it.
In 1856 Mr. W. T. Thomson pub. his Proof-sheets [from which the art. L. Assu., in the last ed. of the Ency. Brit., was moulded into form], and he entered with some ardour into the investigation now before us. Regarding Dale he says, The arrangement of his calculations in a columnar form is "such as to render it extremely doubtful whether strict justice would not give him a share in the invention of that method." Then reviewing Dale's formulæ, he further says, "There is no doubt that he thus produced a D and
N col., but unfortunately only applicable to one age. Had he, too, made the calculation for every age till birth, he might have discovered the D and N process." Mr. Thomson was one of the first writers who drew attention to Dale in this connexion.
He considers Mr. Morgan "may be almost said to have discovered the D and N system without knowing it. He uses the discounted values, however, merely as a method of check, and those who peruse his explanations on the subject must feel convinced that he did not know the power of the D and N columns."
Regarding Tetens, reviewing the example of his arrangement we have already given, he says:
It is quite evident that these tables are computed on the D and N system, as contained in the works of Griffith Davies. Column C is identical with column D, and column E with column N, with this exception, that the summations are placed differently, agreeing in this respect with the arrangement of Barrett, as followed by Dr. Farr.
Of Barrett he says, "He has all the merit of an originator: his discovery having been entirely independent." Again, “Barrett and Tetens are the true originators of the system." Then he turns to Griffith Davies: "Without his inventive genius the system of Barrett might have remained long unimproved; but he re-modelled it, and although the principle is the same in both, he has so arranged his T. that they may almost be said to be a new discovery.
In 1858 Mr. David Chisholm pub. his well-known work, Commutation Tables, etc. The introduction to this work contains a most elaborate exposition of the advantages of the Columnar system, and its application to the solution of all the more generally required problems in L. contingencies. In the advertisement of this work, Mr. Chisholm said:
Since the introduction of Mr. George Barrett's method of constructing life T., and the subsequent improvement thereof by Mr. Griffith Davies, the peculiar advantages of commutation T., and the facilities which they afford to the computer, have never been so fully exhibited as they might have been had we possessed commutation cols. for two lives, corresponding in number and character to those now used for single lives. The only commutation T. pub. for two lives, to any extent, are the D and N cols. of joint annu. by Mr. David Jones. . But these, being adapted only to questions of annu., are of little use in the solution of assu. questions, except by means of intricate formulæ, whose chief merit consists in producing a result only a little more exact than by the old method, and by a somewhat easier process. ... The advantages of the commutation system, when confined to the latter cols. only [D and N], must consequently be greatly diminished, and the extent of its operations circumscribed and restricted so long as we do not possess the necessary M and R cols. for two lives for the cognate branch of assu.
He then announces that he has prepared a series of T. to supply this want, adding, "The value of survivorship commutation T. is, however, much greater than can be here shown, and they will be found particularly useful in all problems involving a return of prems. paid, either in whole or in part, should the contin. provided against not happen.' In 1863 Mr. Samuel Brown pub. Report on Madras Military Fund. The auxiliary T. were arranged on the Columnar method.
In 1868 Mr. James Chisholm read before the Inst. of Act. a paper, On the Arrangement of Commutation, or D and N Tables; and the same is printed in vol. xiv. of Assu. Mag., p. 200. This is an especially useful and practical paper. It explains the discrepancies of previous computers on the Columnar method, and accounts for them. In this way it forms a connecting link between all the British computers on this method, except Dale. To the student such a paper is of the greatest value.
The Columnar Method may now be said to have entirely superseded all other modes of constructing auxiliary or preparatory T.; and that it has abridged [commuted] the labour of many processes of the actuary, and so aided in the practical development of the science of L. contin., is admitted on all hands. [AUXILIARY T.] [COMMUTATION T.] [PREPARATORY T.}
COLVIN, ALEXANDER, Actuary and Journalist.-In 1852 he pub., Actuarial Figments Exploded; Letter to the Rt. Hon. J. W. Henley in Defence of the Life Assu. Offices. In 1853 he was Act. of the United Mut. Mining. In 1854 he found himself in a dispute with the Inst. of Act., in which he was considerably "worsted." About 1855 he became editor or joint editor of the Weekly Chronicle and Register, a journal which devoted some attention to ins. matters. In 1856 he was Act. and Sec. of the Brit. Exchequer. In 1858 he became Sec. of the Brit., Foreign, and Colonial. He has now, we believe, retired from ins. pursuits.
COLVOCORSSES' INS. CASE.-The case of Captain Colvocorsses, of Litchfield, State of Connecticut, who was found dead in the street at Bridgeport, in the same State, on the night of 3rd June, 1872, is at the present moment engaging much attention. He was ins. at the time of his death for about £39,000 ($ 195,000)-the pol. being in many of the best ins. offices of the U.S. His means were slender; the ins. only quite recently effected. All the main circumstances point to this being a most elaborately arranged suicide. [INS. FRAUDS.]
COMA (properly Koma, from the Greek, drowsiness, and to lie).-Drowsiness; lethargic sleep; dead-sleep; torpor.
COMATOSE [Komatose].-In deep sleep; a term implying a morbid condition of the brain, attended with loss of sensation and voluntary motion.
COMBINATIONS.-A term used in algebra, to designate the different arrangements of a number of objects (letters) into groups of a given nature. The theory of Combinations
is closely connected with the theory of Prob. The earliest reference to combinations is contained in the works of William Buckley, who lived in the time of Edward VI.
A book was pub, in Antwerp, in 1617, by Erycius Puteanus, under the title, Erycü Pateani Pietatis Kaumata in Bernardi Bauhusii Jesu Proteum Parthenium, from which it appears that Bernardus Bauhusius had composed the following line in honour of the Virgin Mary :
"Tot tibi sunt dotes, Vergo, quot sidera cælo."
This verse had been arranged in 1022 different ways, and had drawn much attention. The modes of arrangement had not all been exhausted, because Bauhusis expressly rejected all those which would have conveyed a sense inconsistent with the glory of the Virgin Mary. What came of all this in relation to the development of the theory of combinations is well told by Todhunter in his Hist. of the Mathematical Theory of Prob.
James Bernouilli, in his Ars Conjectandi, says he found there could be 3312 arrangements of the preceding without breaking the law of metre.
In the work of Schooten, pub. 1658, some very slight remarks on combinations and their applications are given.
The earliest treatise on combinations now generally known is that of Pascal, given in his Arithmetical Triangle, pub. 1665.
In 1666 Leibnitz pub. a work, Dissertatio de Arte Combinatoria.
In 1693 Wallis's Algebra was pub. Appended thereto was a tract, A Discourse on Combinations, Alternations, and Aliquot Parts, wherein he quotes the passage from Buckley already noticed. Wallis's work was reprinted by the Baron Maseres in his collection of reprints, 1795, pub. under the title of The Doctrine of Permutations and Combinations, being an Essential and Fundamental Part of the Doctrine of Chances.
Simpson's Nature and Laws of Chance, pub. 1740, contains a chapter, "The Doctrine of Combinations and Permutations clearly deduced.'
In preface to 3rd ed. of De Moivre's Doctrine of Chances, pub. 1756, the author says: Having explained the common rules of combination, and given a theorem which may be of use for the solution of some problems relating to that subject, I lay down a new theorem, which is properly a contraction of the former, whereby several questions of chance are resolved with wonderful ease, though the solution might seem at first sight to be of insuperable difficulty. Todhunter says this new theorem did not amount to much.
COMBINED EXPERIENCE TABLES.-See EXPERIENCE TABLE OF MORT. (Nos. 1 and 2.) COMBINED LIFE AND ACCIDENT POLICIES.-It has been one of the wants of the present age, and is, indeed, the completing link to the usefulness of both accident ins. and life assu., that they should offer their combined advantages in one pol. Life assu. is a thing for the future, accident ins. for the present. A combination reaches both the present and future. A man may have his life assured, but if a serious injury happen to him his income may cease, and his L. pol. lapse by reason of non-payment of prem. But if his pol. secure him an income while disabled from work, it provides the means for keeping itself in force. Our American cousins have been shrewd enough to discover this, and combined life and accident ins. is now a leading and settled fact there. In England we are more slow. At last the advantage may be secured here. The Colonial Assurance Corporation has prepared tables, and, indeed, perfected a scheme of combined accident and life assu. which appears perfect in its details, and which is already receiving considerable support. The additional prem. required for the accident portion of the risk is so small, and the advantages offered so considerable, that the project must command attention.-Accident Record. COMBUSTIBLE (from comburo, to burn; or, I set on fire).-The designation of a body which is capable of combining with oxygen, with the evolution of heat and light. Noncombustibles are, in conventional language, bodies which do not burn, but support the combustion of other substances.
COMBUSTION.—This word, in its direct sense, means burning; but it is frequently used in another sense, viz. instead of ignition, which signifies the property of taking fire. This distinction is material; but having noted it, we must proceed to speak of combustion in the sense generally understood. It resolves itself under two heads, so far as our subject is concerned, viz. COMBUSTION, HUMAN; COMBUSTION, SPONTANEOUS. COMBUSTION, HUMAN (sometimes designated "Præternatural Combustion of the Human Body"). Among the many "causes of death" which we have occasion to review in this work, none presents such remarkable features as that of the so-called combustion of the human body. Our first idea was to discard it as altogether improbable; but upon looking into the authorities, they seem too strong for such a course. Our next duty, therefore, is to present a very brief outline of the cases recorded, and the opinions of the principal writers on the subject. We do not find any such deaths recorded in our own Reg.-Gen. reports.
The first discoverer of this phenomenon is said to have been Andrew Vulparius, Prof. of Anatomy at Bologna in 1669; but this can hardly be reconciled with the fact that Lord Bacon, in his Universal Nat. Hist., pub. 1622, says, "Such flames would often arise in us if the natural moisture did not quench them."
In the German Ephemerides, pub. 1670, there occurs under observation 77 the following: "Very strong fires may be kindled in our bodies, as well as in other animals of a hot
temperament, not only by nature, but by art, which being able to kill, will serve for a better proof of my argument. Again: "In the northmost countries flames evaporate from the stomachs of those who drink strong liquors plentifully."
Marcellus Donatus says that in the time of Godfrey of Boulogne's Christian war in the territory of Nivera, "People were burning of invisible fire in their entrails, and some had cut off a foot or a hand where the burning began, that it should not go further!"-Mirab. Hist. Medic., where other equally extraordinary, and we may add incredible, instances are given.
In the Hist. Royal Academy of Sciences, 1706, p. 23, it is stated, upon the authority of M. Litre, such a drying up may be caused in our body by drinking rectified brandy and strong wines, if mixed with camphor. He was speaking of the dissection of a woman, aged 45, who was said to have been so consumed.
Sanctorius stated that numbness is an effect of too much internal heat, and also that the friction of the palms of the hands, or of any other parts of our body, may produce those fires, "commonly called" ignes lambentes!
In 1763 Bianchini, prebendary of Verona, pub. An Account of the Countess Cornelia Bandi. of Cesena, who was Consumed by a Fire kindled in her own Body; with an Inquiry into the Cause, supported by instances of a like nature. The lady was in her 62nd year, and well until the incident narrated. "The fire was caused in her entrails by inflamed effluvia of her blood, by juices and fermentations in the stomach, and many combustible matters abundant in living bodies for the uses of life; and lastly by the fiery evaporations which exhale from the settling of spirits of wine, brandies, etc." The writer adds, "Although the salts in living and vegetable creatures are not naturally inclined to kindle, they often contribute to it when joined by a strong fermentation."
In the Gents. Mag. for 1763, it is recorded of three noblemen of Courland, who drank by emulation, strong liquors, that two died "scorched and suffocated by a flame forcing itself from the stomach."
In the Phil. Trans. for 1775 will be found An Account of a Woman accidentally burned to death at Coventry, by B. Wilmer, Surgeon at Coventry, in a Letter to Mr. William Sharp. Mary Clues, aged 52, was much addicted to drinking. She would drink as much as four half pints of rum undiluted in a day. Her health declined; she had jaundice; took to her bed, but still drank. She was found one morning in bed, entirely consumed except a portion of her legs. "There were not the least remains of any skin, muscles, or viscera. The bones of the skull, thorax, spine and the upper extremities were completely calcined, and covered with a whitish efflorescence !"
Many details of this case will be found in the Ann. Regis. for the year named. The writer there says the only way he can account for her death is that her clothes accidentally caught fire, and "that her solids and fluids were rendered inflammable by the immense quantity of spirituous liquors she had drunk; and that when she was set fire to she was probably very soon reduced to ashes, for the room suffered very little!"
In the Quart. Journ. of Science and Art, for 1829, pub. by the Royal Inst. of Gt. Brit., there appeared the following:-"Human combustions do not depend upon the combination of the oxygen of the atmosphere, because, 1st, there is not sufficient heat evolved; 2nd, there is not the production of a charcoal requiring a high heat for its incineration; 3rd, there are no ammoniacal products formed. The effects appear to depend altogether upon a new arrangement of the elements previously existing in the human body.'
The following instance is recorded in the Encyclo. Brit. 8th ed. (1854):
A woman about 60 years of age, in the county of Down, Ireland, retired to bed one evening with her daughter, both in a state of intoxication, as was their constant habit. A little before day-break some members of the family were awakened by an extremely offensive smell that pervaded the house, and which was observed to proceed from the apartment in which the old woman and her daughter lay. The smoke was found to proceed from the body of the old woman, which appeared to be burning with internal fire. The body was as black as coal, and the smoke appeared to proceed from every part of it. The combustion was arrested with difficulty, though there was no flame. Her daughter, who slept in the same bed, sustained no injury, nor did the combustion extend to the bed or bed-clothes, which were quite uninjured, though stained with the smoke. This case is related by Dr. Apjohn.
The writer of this art., after reviewing the several theories which have been put forward on this subject, concludes, "It must, however, be confessed that as yet the cause of this strange occurrence has not been satisfactorily ascertained."
M. Marc, a French physician, supposed the phenomena to be caused by the generation of inflammable gaseous products within the tissues of the body; and provided one of these gaseous products were oxygen, it is quite conceivable that such might lead to the combustion of the body. As phosphorus occurs as a large constituent of some of the tissues, if we suppose that phosphuretted hydrogen (a gas which takes fire whenever it comes in contact with the oxygen of the air) is the inflammable gas generated, and that it fills the bowels and pervades the tissues, it would both account for the rapidity and spontaneity of the combustion.
That great authority, Dunglison, speaking of the cause of this combustion, says, some suppose that there is an atmospheric impregnation of the body, and that the actual contact of fire is necessary to produce it. But there is, he remarks, no proof of such a saturation of the organs; and if it were so, it would not-judging from experiments