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templation of more sublime speculations, an inheritance entailed only upon the industrious sons of art. Therefore, courteous reader, if thou intendest to be a proficient in the mathematics, begin cheerfully, proceed gradually, and the end will crown thee with success. Cry not out at difficulties, ne plus ultra, for diligence will overcome them all.
The 6th ed. was pub. in 1729. It is dedicated to the Right Worshipful Sir Peter Daniel and Peter Rich, Esq., Aldermen of the City of London, and Thomas Lee and James Reading, Esqs., Justices of the Peace.
In the Vulgar Arithmetic there is a page recommendatory, declaring, on the faith of the witness, that Edward Cocker was studious and accomplished in the mysteries of numbers and algebra, of which he had a great collection of choice MSS. and printed treatises in several languages, and that his arithmetic was worthy of all acceptation.
Ingenious Cocker! now to rest thou'rt gone,
No art can show thee fully but thine own!
Thy rare arithmetic alone can show
The vast sums of thanks we for thy labours owe.
COCKREL, J., was Man. of Aberdeen Marine about 1844.
CODE.-A collection or system of Laws. "The Code" is a designation frequently applied
CODEX VISIGOTHORUM.-A Code of laws promulgated by the Visigoths, while in possession of Spain, after the fall of the Roman Empire of the West. This Code is still held in estimation in Spain under the denomination of FUERO JUZGO. In this Code we find nothing relative to maritime commerce, except the earliest testimony of the right granted during the middle ages to seafaring strangers or foreigners of being judged by the magistrates and arbiters of their own nation, and according to their own laws. From this Pardessus infers that the countries from which these foreign navigators came, and which could be no other than the south of Gaul, Italy, and the Greek Empire, had maritime laws or usages formed from the remembrances and traditions, if not from the documentary records, of the Roman law.-Reddie. [CONSULAR COURTS.]
CODICIL.-A supplement to a will, containing anything which the testator wishes to add, or any explanation or revocation of what the will contains.
CODIGÓ DE LAS COSTUMBRES MARITIMAS.-A work pub. by Capmany in 1791, being
COLD. A popular name for catarrh, derived from its cause rather than its symptoms.
men that cold has only a negative sense, implying a greater or less privation of heat.
We believe the first writer who called scientific attention to this fact was Heberden the younger, who compared the mort. from all causes in the first 5 weeks of 1795 with that of the same 5 weeks in 1796. The temperature in 1795 ranged between 23 and 29°; in 1796 between 43° and 50°. In 1795 the total deaths were 2823; in 1796, 1471-or nearly twice as many in the cold as in the mild winter. How fatal this cold was to aged 39
persons may be inferred from the fact that while the cold weeks of 1795 destroyed 617 children under two years old, and the warm weeks of 1796, 506, or 6 deaths in the first to 5 in the last; the deaths above 60 were 717 in the cold year, and only 153 in the milder one, or something approaching 5 to 1. Comparisons between cold and warmer weeks of the same year yielded similar results. His obs. were based upon the London B. of Mort.
The most intense cold ever recorded in Lond. was on the 25th Dec., 1796, when the thermometer was 16 degrees below zero. On the 3rd Jan., 1854, the thermometer marked 4° below zero, Fahrenheit; on 25th Dec., 1860, it fell in some parts of England to 18, in others to 15°, below zero; at Torquay, Devon, to 20° below zero. The cold was excessive for several days before and after that date. In Jan., 1864, the cold was very severe. On 4th Jan., 1867, the thermometer stood at 3° below zero at Hammersmith and Hornsey [suburbs of London]; on 7th Jan. following at 55° above. [CLIMATE.] Sir Henry Halford, an eminent physician of the present century, in his well-known brilliant essays, delivered in Latin, and pub. in 1831, included one "On the Effects of Cold." The Reg.-Gen., in one of his quarterly R. for 1864, said:
When the thermometer falls to the freezing-point of water, the mort. is raised all over the country; and the pop. of Lond. is excessively sensitive to cold; thus the corrected average deaths of the 2nd week of Jan. are 1550, but the actual number of regis. deaths this year was 2427. The mean temperature of the preceding week, instead of 37°8 had fallen to 26°7; and the temperature of one chill night [Thursday, 7th Jan., 1864] had descended to 14°*3, or to 1707 below the freezing-point of Fahrenheit; and 877 lives were extinguished by "the cold wave of the atmosphere." The excess of the rate of mort. during the months of Jan., Feb., and March, 1864, was 228 in the country districts and small towns; 284 in the large town districts, exclusive of Lond.; and 511 in Lond. above the average.
The Reg.-Gen. for Scotland, in one of his reports a few years since, said the descent of temperature below freezing-point in Scotland caused "a greater increase in deaths than the most deadly epidemics to which the inhabitants are liable." [HEAT.] [TEMPERATURE.] COLE, GEORGE, was Sec. of Birkbeck in 1852.
COLEMAN, J., was Joint Sec. of Norwich Mut. Marine during its short career-1846-54. COLES, JOHN, Stockbroker, was trained to L. ins. bus. in the office of the Legal and Com mercial, which he entered in 1850. He passed into the Victoria Life on the amalg. of the L. and C. with that Co. in 1859, and he retired from ins. pursuits in 1863.
In 1857 he contributed a letter to the Assu. Mag., On the Method of Valuing Whole-term Assu. on Single Lives by Classification.
In 1868 he read before the Inst. of Act. a paper: Railway Debenture Stock considered as a Security for the Investment of the Funds of a Life Assu. So. This is a practical and useful résumé of the facts and considerations relating to the subject.
COLIC (scientifically Colica [or Kolica], from the Greek, signifying the colon). -A painful contraction of the muscular coat of the colon, without inflammation or fever. It has various sub-distinctions among medical practitioners, implying the cause of the ailment. Then there are several popular distinctions, as Devonshire colic, painters' colic, etc., etc. Colic was termed by Sydenham, and other old English writers, the Dry Belly-ache. COLLAPSE (from the Latin collapsus, a falling together).—Prostration, or shock to the nervous system; interruption of the powers and actions of life, immediately following any severe injury.-Hoblyn. COLLATERAL.—Indirect, sideways, that which hangs by the side; as "'collateral security"-something added to or placed alongside the chief or orig. security. COLLECTANEA MARITIMA, being a collection of public instruments, etc., etc., tending to illustrate the Hist. and Practice of Prize Law, by Chr. Robinson, London, 1801. COLLET, THOMAS WILSON, Sec. of the St. Katherine Docks, gave evidence before the Select Parl. Committee on Fires in the Metropolis, in 1862. The substance of his evidence will be found under DOCKS. He explained to the Committee that in the event of a fire the Dock Co.'s certificate was the only document upon which the merchant or owner could recover from the ins. office. [CLAIMS, Fire.]
COLLIER, NOAH, was Sec. of Consolidated during the years 1850-53.
COLLIERIES, ACCIDENTS IN.-Under this head may be classed two descriptions of casualty, viz. (1) loss of life to the workmen; and (2) damage to the mine by explosion or otherwise. The former we shall treat of under MINERS; the latter under COLLIERIES, EXPLOSIONS IN, and COLLIERIES, INS. OF.
COLLIERIES, EXPLOSIONS IN.-Explosions in collieries are caused by reason of the FIREDAMP, to which coal mines in some districts of Gt. Brit. are peculiarly liable, coming into direct contact with flame. The peculiar merit of the miner's lamp, invented by Sir Humphry Davy, is that while it furnishes light sufficient for the purposes of the miner in his work, it prevents, so long as it is kept properly closed, the contact of fire-damp with the flame. But the miners, prob. from the want of correctly understanding the principle of the lamp, disregard all injunctions regarding its use; or if this be rendered impossible by the vigilance of the overseers, they introduce light by other means, as by igniting lucifer matches for the purpose of smoking, and hence, from time to time, arise those serious casualties to property, as well as life, to which collieries are still, although not necessarily so, subject.
Much scientific attention has of late been drawn to the subject of colliery explosions; and it is found that nearly all serious casualties from fire-damp have arisen when great
depression of the barometer has been observed. At such times there is considerable difficulty in obtaining proper ventilation, and as a rule a more than ordinary amount of air should be sent down into the mines. The managers, especially in very gaseous pits, should take care that this precaution is attended to, the neglect of which, under the circumstances indicated, is almost criminal. The terrible accidents at the Oaks and Talk-o'-the-Hill collieries in 1866 happened after a sudden fall of the barometer. On the 10th of Dec. the mercury stood at 30'40; on the 11th there was a fall of nearly one inch, and that fall continued till the 13th. During that interval the explosions at the above-named collieries occurred.
It is believed that these variations in the pressure of the atmosphere occur periodically; and as they are always immediately indicated by the barometer, the most simple test is ready at hand. Mr. G. J. Symons, in a letter quoted in the Times, 21st Jan., 1873, said that on the 12th of Feb., 1866, he reported that at 4'30 P. M. on the previous day the barometric pressure at his station, reduced to sea-level, was only 28 606 in. In 1872 he had similarly to report an even lower reading-viz. 28.332—at 4'47 P.M. on the 24th of Jan. He now adds a few data respecting the depression of Sunday (19th Jan., 1873), which was greater than any except that of 1872. Before doing so, however, he calls attention to a fact which is either a singular coincidence, or, perhaps, something of more importance. The interval between the first two depressions is, roughly, six years, accurately 2173 days, which, divided by the six years, gives 362 days and an hour or so; and the interval between the depression of 1872 and that of Jan. 20, 1873, is almost the same. It seems to him remarkable that, out of a series of obs. extending over 16 years, three out of the four lowest points fall into a regular period; but he is far from asserting that it is more than a coincidence.
Messrs. Negretti and Zambra, in the same issue, call attention to the very low state of the barometer, which, within 48 hours, had fallen nearly 1 inches, "indicating a change of atmospheric pressure which may be called almost unprecedented." They remark that an enormous amount of gas must have escaped during this time, and that mines in which fire-damp exists, and which would be perfectly safe with the barometer at 30, are now highly dangerous. They add that an Act was passed for compelling proprietors of mines to have a barometer, but that it unfortunately cannot compel miners to be cautious, or even to look at the barometer. Perhaps it may be due to this timely warning that no serious colliery explosion has occurred on this occasion.
The following are the lowest readings since January, 1857 :
It is in this manner that scientific observation and research is coming to our aid in practical every-day life.
Mr. H. W. Porter, B.A., in his obs. on the Reports of the Reg.-Gen., 1860, speaking of the number of persons annually killed by explosions, etc., in coal mines, says:
A great proportion of these accidents-prob. the whole number caused by explosions-may be considered to be preventible; and that this is the fact may be fairly assumed from the circumstance of the death-rate in different mines varying considerably, according to the precautions taken in each. [COLLIERIES, INS. OF.] [FIRE-DAMP.] [MINERS.]
The following is a list of the principal colliery explosions in Gt. Brit. of which we can obtain any record at the present moment:
1857-Feb. 19th, Lund Hill, near Barnsley; 180 miners perished. The discipline of the pit had been very lax.
1858-A number of explosions occurred. The chief were at Bardsley, at Duffryn [near Newport, Mons], and at Tyldesley, near Leeds.
1860-March 2nd, Burradon, near Killingworth; 1st Dec., Risca, near Newport, Mons; 22nd Dec., Hetton, Northumberland.
1862-Feb. 19th, Gethin, near Merthyr Tydvil; 22nd Nov., Walker, near Newcastle-onTyne; 8th Dec., Edmund's Main, near Barnsley.
1863-March 6th, Coxbridge, near Newcastle; 17th Oct., Margham, S. Wales; 26th Dec., Moestig, S. Wales.
1865-3rd May, Claycross; 16th June, New Bedwelty pit, near Tredegar, S. Wales; 20th Dec., Gethin, Merthyr Tydvil.
1866—Jan. 23rd, Highbrook, near Wigan; 14th June, Dunkinfield, near Ashton; 31st Oct., Pelton Fell, near Durham; 12th Dec., Oaks colliery, near Barnsley [350 miners killed]; 13th Dec, second explosion in same pit [28 searchers, including Mr. Parkin Jeffcock, mining engineer, killed]; 13th Dec. also, Talk-of-the-Hill, Staffordshire.
1867-27th Aug., Garswood colliery, near St. Helens; 8th Nov., Ferndale, Rhonnda Valley, near Cardiff, about 178 lives lost. Attributed to naked lights.
We regret that we cannot supply the data for a more complete T. It seems clear that a more perfect set of obs. would at once indicate the most dangerous districts, as well as the most dangerous periods of the year. December claims a fatal pre-eminence in the above list; and this is in accordance with the scientific obs.
The Inspection of Collieries was provided for in 1850 by 13 & 14 Vict. c. 100. New provisions were introduced in 1855 by 18 & 19 Vict. c. 108; and again in 1860 by 23 & 24 Vict. c. 151. By 35 & 36 Vict. c. 76 (1872), the regulations of the preceding measures are amended, and boys are prohibited from working in collieries. An Act rendering it incumbent upon colliery proprietors to provide duplicate shafts was passed in 1862. COLLIERIES, INS. OF.-The liability of Collieries to explosions and other casualties has naturally drawn the attention of owners, occupiers, and others to the question of ins. in relation to risks of this character.
The first attempt of this kind of which we have any knowledge occurred in 1858 There had been about that period a continued series of casualties beyond the average in severity. A number of gentlemen in one colliery district conceived the idea of ins. as a matter of individual protection. They wanted the ins. not only to cover damage resulting to the colliery itself and the adjacent works; but also to take the risk of providing for the widows and families of the workmen injured.
The present writer was called in to advise. After an exhaustive investigation of the whole subject, so far as the information could be obtained by means of the reports of various Parl. Commissions, and from the ann. reports of the inspectors of collieries, the Board of Trade returns, etc., he felt compelled to advise against the project. The principal considerations leading to this determination being :-(1). The necessarily heavy amount of the individual risks-i.e. in a large colliery in full work an ins. of less than from £5000 to £20,000 being regarded as hardly of any protection. (2) The aggregation of risks in an individual colliery--for the more severe the injury to the works, the more likely would be a large sacrifice of human life. (3) Only certain districts of Gt. Brit. are subject to explosions from fire-damp; hence the owners in other districts would not ins., and finally (4) the same atmospheric influences which rendered explosions probable would affect all the collieries in a given district, and indeed all the dangerous districts, at one and the same time. These reasons could not be rebutted, and the project then fell through.
It was of course pointed out that so far as the workpeople themselves were concerned, they were not wholly left without protection, as friendly sos. and accident ins. cos. were open to them, although unhappily these were too often not made available.
Subsequent attempts have been made in the same direction. We propose to notice these briefly, and to place on record the leading statistics adduced.
In 1865 a return was prepared showing that there were 3268 collieries in the U.K., employing 307,542 miners, who produced 98,150,587 tons of coal, valued at the pit's mouth at 24,537,646.
In 1866, after the disaster at the Oaks Colliery and several others had drawn marked attention to the subject, Mr. Lonsdale Bradley introduced the question of ins. by means of several able letters in the Times. He said that the main difficulty he and others had felt was in reducing the risk to a proper average. But prosecuting his inquiries over a long period, and carefully examining all the conditions that lead to the loss of life and property in coal mines, he had ascertained that such a recurrence of accidents prevailed as indicated the operation of a law uniform in its action, when spread over a long period.
He said he had ascertained that there were annually, from all causes, not less than 900 accidents, involving loss of life to about 1000 colliers. He had endeavoured to ascertain the pecuniary cost of the injury from explosions, fires, fall of roofs, inundation, and breaking of machinery, and believed he had succeeded in doing so.
1. Cost of Accidents to Property.-In one of the most dangerous districts of the kingdom there had occurred in 16 years accidents by explosion costing £56,914; these ranged from £200 to £25,000 each. This, supposing all collieries to be equally fiery, would give £910,624 as the loss sustained in 16 years. This would give £28,457 a year, which is greatly in excess of what would be the actual loss sustained. It is quite safe, therefore, to make the following estimate:
It had next to be considered what was estimated as the value of the property upon which this loss annually falls, and the provisions by which it may be equitably ins. There were in the U.K. 3180 collieries. They were valued as follows:
50 valued at £100,000 each...
Giving an average of £22,000 as the value of each colliery.
Again, accurate returns from one of the more dangerous districts show that among 418 collieries there occurred in 16 years: Underground fires, costing £22,700; inundations, £2700.
2. Loss of Life in Collieries.-The result of an examination of the official returns on the subject shows that the average number of accidents, involving the loss of life, occurring each year is: 62 explosions; 395 falls of roof and coal; 140 accidents in shafts; 122 miscellaneous accidents in the pit; 55 accidents at surface; 77 from similar causes in ironstone pits: total accidents involving loss of life, 851.
In 1869 Mr. Stephen Sleigh addressed a letter to the Times, on the practicability and safety of applying the ins. system alike as regards life and property to the case of colliery accidents, wherein he said:
Owners and occupiers of collieries have long felt the want of an inst., formed on sound and equitable terms, which would give increased security to capital invested in the extraction of coal, and which should include provision for the sufferers from accidents in the collieries.
Asso. for securing individuals from losses produced by accidents beyond their own control now form an essential part of our social system. Yet there is one description of property having a value which has been carefully estimated at from £100,000,000 to £150,000,000 stg., and which adds ann. to our national wealth nearly £30,000,000, and gives employment to more than 300,000 coal miners, which has not hitherto been secured from loss either of property or life by any system of ins.
Colliery accidents were often of so startling a character, and so irregular in occurrence, that every one supposed a coal mine to be entirely removed from the operation of such protection as in other cases the system of ins. afforded. Data have, however, been collected during the last 15 years, on which the most perfect reliance may be placed, which demonstrate the interesting fact that colliery ins. admits of being practised with as much certainty and with greater profit than attends the assu. of an ordinary life or of a ship at sea.
An examination of the conditions which lead to the injury of property in coal mines, and the loss of life among colliers, has been completed. Returns, collected with great care by gentlemen especially qualified for the task, have furnished data upon which an estimate of the average cost of accidents to colliery property has been obtained. Tables, constructed from these sources, show that a recurrence of accident prevails uniform in its action when spread over a long period-the law of "averages prevailing in this as in every other division of human casualty-and, therefore, capable of being provided against by ins.
The statistics already given are here referred to. The following are the specific advantages to be secured:
In its operations colliery ins., when estab., would secure the wealthy owner against inconvenience and the small proprietor against ruin. It would make coal property a security for loans, and enable a struggling proprietor to borrow money for the extension or improvement of his works.
Supposing a colliery proprietor to ins. his colliery, he would be able to secure to himself payment for damage to his property arising from explosion, inundation, fire, or other casualty, and to make provision for the widows and children of men perishing by accident in the colliery.
An ins. on the life of the miner would also tend to fix him in his locality, and thus enable means to be taken for the instruction of his children. At present the coal mining pop. is essentially a vagrant one, moving from pit to pit, and from one coal district to another. Under the influence of a system which provides him with future guardianship, he will in most cases continue to dwell in the scene of his home and labours, and in that permanency of dwelling place to allow means to be taken for the social regeneration both of himself and his family.
In providing for "the widow and the fatherless," colliery ins. would put an end to those appeals to public charity which, however nobly answered, do little more than ameliorate present want.
The prob. rate of prem. for colliery ins. is next considered.
A prem. ofp.c. (ros. for each £100 ins.) would produce upon £70,000,000 the sum of £350,000. Supposing the co. ins. one-fourth only of the collieries thus estimated, £87,500 would be ann. obtained; and supposing the co. had every one of the dangerous collieries, and the whole of the accidents, £63,000 is all that would have to be paid, leaving £24,500 to meet int. on cap. and all incidental charges. Even in extreme cases which are not likely to occur in the course of any one year, a large amount would therefore be left as profit on the transactions.
Suggested rates of prem. per cent.-Class 1.-Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, Scotland, F., Derbyshire. Average, 6s. 3d.; for pits in non-fiery districts. Class 2.-Lancashire, N.E., North Stafford, South Stafford, Cheshire, Worcestershire, South Durham, Scotland, W. Average, 10s.; for pits in occasionally fiery districts. Class 3.-Lancashire, W., North Wales, Northwest Yorkshire, North Durham, East Cumberland. Average, 135. 9d.; for non-fiery pits in fiery districts. Class 4.-North Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, Monmouthshire, Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devon, South Wales, South-west Yorkshire. Average, 275. 6d. ; for fiery pits in fiery districts. Finally, we have the proposed rates for ins. of the colliers:
There are killed ann. 1000 colliers. According to the inspector's returns there are in the U.K. 307,540 colliery miners. At 2d. p. week, or 8s. 8d. p.a,, supposing all those individuals were made to contribute that sum, or that the coal-owners insured the lives at the rate of £43 6s. a year for each 100 of those employed, £130,000 would be produced each year. The number killed being actually 1009, supposing each man to leave a widow and children-not more than one-half would do so, but probably they would leave mothers or sisters who were dependent on them-then £100 might be given to each, with an expenditure of £100,900, leaving an excess of £30,000.
In 1871 a scheme for a Colliery Ins. Co. was completely developed, and put forward, with a directorate composed of gentlemen practically conversant with the bus. The advantages of the project were thus tersely enumerated:
1. Indemnity against loss by accident will, on its recurrence, relieve colliery owners from inconvenience, and some from stoppage of works. 2. Ins. will in all cases give increased value to coal properties as securities for loans, which may be wanted for the extension and improved working of pits, but which, coal properties being uninsured, are not readily, if at all, obtainable. 3. Ins. will add considerably to the market value of coal mines, raising it in many cases from 5 to 10 or more years' purchase. 4. Ins. of individual interests in collieries will enable partners and shareholders to protect themselves from loss resulting from accidents. 5. Ins. of the colliers' lives against fatal accidents in the pits will antidote a large amount of misery, which the public, in answer to "charitable appeals," can do little more than very partially alleviate.