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periods of payment, etc. [LIFETIME POL.] (s. xxxiv.). Nothing in Act to affect powers of deed to alter provisions of D. of Sett. (s. xxxv.). Act not to incorp. So. (s. xxxvii.). At the first general meeting after the passing of the preceding Act, it was resolved to appropriate £50,000 "as a permanent security for the proprietors and the assured, the int. of which will be ann. added to the profits of the So." This fund was in add. to the proprietors' cap.

In 1851 new scale of prems. for L. ins. was adopted; and non-parti. pol. were first issued. The days of grace were extended from 21 to 30 days. The system of "credit prems." was introduced. Claims were to be paid 30 days after proof. Limits of foreign travel and residence increased. Ins. up to £10,000 granted; and a wider range of investments adopted. The Co. was in fact "modernized." The expenses of man. at this date were stated to be 34 p.c. on the income. Nothing had ever been lost by "bad securities" [investments]. In the quinquennium the "expected" mort. was 604 deathsactual deaths 482. The reserve fund had become increased to £60,000, but was then permanently reduced to £50,000.

In 1851 Mr. George H. Pinckard, the then Act. of the So., read before the Inst. of Act. a paper, The Practice and Experience of the Clerical, Medical, and General L. Assu. So., chiefly with Reference to Invalid Lives. This paper, which is full of interest, will be spoken of under CLERICAL, MEDICAL, AND GENERAL, MORT. EXPERIENCE OF, and also under DISEASED LIFE INS.

At the general meeting in 1854 the directors recommended that alterations should be made in the D., by which pol. of twelve months' standing should not be affected in case of death by suicide, duelling, or the hands of justice. These alterations were adopted; and whole-world pol. were issued from this date. In the year ending 31st May, 1854, there were issued 605 new pol., insuring £299, 508, and yielding in new prems. 10,567the largest bus. the Co. had ever transacted in any one year, "and nearly double" the average of the three preceding years. It is a remarkable feature that this asso. did not owe its wonderful prosperity to a very large bus.

An apparent discrepancy requires a word of explanation. The asso. is called in its D. of Sett., Act, and official documents a "So." We call it a "Co.," from the fact of its being organized with a proprietary cap.

In 1856 the 6th investigation took place. The report stated, "In estimating the amount of liabilities, the net Carlisle T. has been adopted, and 3 p.c. has been the rate of int. used in all the calculations." The T. at the close of this art. embodies all the leading financial facts in the hist. of the Co., and it deserves careful consideration.

The general features of the Co. are liberal-especially in the matter of foreign residence and travel. Whole-world pol. are issued. Pol. of twelve months' standing are not forfeited by suicide. Surrender value given on pol. of three years' standing, commencing at a minimum of 33 p.c. of prems. paid. For purposes of surrender, pol. on diseased lives are treated as though granted at ordin. rates. Claims payable 30 days after admission. The successive chief officers of the Co. have been, Mr. Joseph Pinckard, first Sec., succeeded by Mr. G. H. Pinckard in 1839. Mr. Cutcliffe became Act. and Sec. of the Co. in 1858; and he is now [since 1864] ably assisted by Mr. Newbatt.

The following T. embodies the leading financial features in the hist. of the Co., given at the period of each quinquennial investigation into the affairs of the Co. It seems almost superfluous to add that the Co. is in every respect first-class.

Year New ending Pol. Insuring. June 30. issued.

New Total
Prems. Income.

Total Pol. in force.

|Total Ins.)
in force Life Surplus
(excluding Assurance,
Bonus). Fund. buted.

Total Claims

Paid from Commencement


1861 1866







£740,730 £69,147
1,581,725 189,187
2,112,538 418,903 59,000
2,599,726 639,797 103,000
2,950,411 864,328 120,000








3,637,6871,154,276 |
4,287,611 1,422,191 |
4,786,062 1,619,540

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1831 278 £200,843 £7298 £35,635
1836 407 278,000 10,208
355 220,079 | 7759
1846 401 227,860 7441
1851 275 162,359


71,588 2202
97,932 3160
116,383 4122
5521 136,190
597 296,100 9967 166,834 6457
302,560 9891 195,406 7559
375,164 12,577 215,237
8187 236,563 8679 5,084,255 1,826,459
275,740 9851 247,III 8884 5,207,557 1,810,557

F.-The circumstance of this
Co. having undertaken the ins. of "impaired" lives, as already explained, naturally
caused a considerable amount of interest to be manifested in its mort. experience; and
whatever the degree of curiosity felt by outsiders may have been, we might take it for
granted, if we did not know it as a fact, that at least a similar degree of interest was felt
by the managers of the undertaking.

At the end of 1834—that is, when the Co. had been in operation for 10 years-Mr. George H. Pinckard, who was then Assistant Act., made the "best investigation which the facts at his disposal would admit, into the mortality that had prevailed as regarded both the healthy and the unhealthy lives assured up to that date." The result is shown in the following T.:




All Lives Healthy Unhealthy combined. Lives only. Lives only. TABLE.


It thus appeared that the mort. on the unhealthy lives for the whole period from 20 to 69 had been more than double that on the healthy. At the same time, the average additional prem. paid by the invalid class did not exceed 30 p.c.! The above results, although derived from the small number of 650 unhealthy lives, were nevertheless considered to militate so strongly against the acceptance of unhealthy risks, that the directors from that date exercised much greater caution than theretofore in accepting unhealthy lives, and, as a necessary consequence, many persons who before would have been admitted were then rejected. This we are told by Mr. Pinckard.

One in

One in One in

One in

20 to 29





30 to 39





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In 1843 Mr. Pinckard made another investigation, with a view to test the results of the more cautious line of action adopted since 1834. This last investigation was brought down to June, 1843. Mr. Pinckard describes his mode of proceeding on this occasion: First, every invalid case was regis. under the head of the particular disease on account of which an add. prem. had been charged. Thus, all persons afflicted with disease of the liver were grouped under one head; those suffering from disease of the lungs, under another; and so on, until all were classified under 56 different heads of disease. By the aid of the medical directors, these 56 distinct diseases were comprehended under eight classes; each class consisting of diseases having an affinity for each other. There was also a 9th class, termed miscellaneous, embracing persons who had been charged an increased prem. on account of their occupation, or on other grounds unconnected with any specific disease.

These 9 classes were then formed into one, which exhibited in a synoptical view 1297 invalid lives, being all who had been assu. at an add. prem. (exclusive of those charged for foreign climates), from the foundation of the So. up to the year 1843. This being completed, a comparison was then made as to the per-centage of loss by deaths on the whole prems. received both from the healthy and unhealthy pol. The next step was to ascertain the rate of mort. which had occurred during the 18 years from June, 1824, to Jan. 1843, on the diseased cases taken by themselves. This is shown by the annexed T.:

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By a comparison of the preceding tables it will be seen that the increased care exercised during the 9 years 1834-43 produced a very beneficial effect; the deaths on the unhealthy lives between the ages of 20 and 69 having been in the proportion of 1 in 31 in the former T., against I in 52 in the latter T.

These favourable results gave renewed courage to the management, and diseased lives were again accepted more freely, but only in the light of the experience gained.

In 1849 another investigation of the mort. was made, on the same principle as that of 1843. All persons on whose lives an increased prem. had been charged have now been arranged under 79 heads, viz. 65 of different diseases, and 14 heads of miscellaneous. These have been grouped into nine classes as before, and the whole again comprehended in one synopsis: thus exhibiting the exp. of the So. for a period of 25 years, from June, 1824, to June, 1849." Mr. Pinckard says:

With respect then to the last six years, during which the system alluded to has been in operation, I have only to state that 826 pol. on invalid lives have been issued; and that the claims by death have amounted in that period to 24'9 p.c., or in round numbers to one quarter of the whole prems. received. Whether this loss is greater or less than has been sustained by those offices which have been transacting this kind of bus. for the same period of time, I have no means of ascertaining: but, in my judgment, the result is not otherwise than satisfactory.

These facts were made known by Mr. Pinckard in a paper which he read before the Inst. of Act. in 1851: The Practice and Experience of the Clerical, Medical, and General L. Assu. So., chiefly with reference to Invalid Lives. The paper enters more minutely into details regarding this class of risks; but we reserve these further facts for our art. DISEASED LIVES, INS. OF.

The Co. has not pub. its more recent mort. experience in a distinct form. It was one of the offices contributing data for EXPERIENCE T. No. 2. We observe in the Rep. on the Investigation of Surplus as at June, 1871, the directors, speaking of the increasingly large sum for distribution, say:

This surplus is matter for hearty and unmixed congratulation, and justifies the preference shown by the board for a well-selected business tending to profit. It must, however, be remembered that although owing in the main to ordinary recurring causes, and to sources of profit having every prospect of permanence, it is, nevertheless, certain that its unprecedented enlargement is due to a condition of mort. favourable beyond previous experience, to be probably compensated under the law of averages by an increase of deaths hereafter beyond those allowed for in the calculations.

This is very fairly and honestly put.

CLERKS.-In the earlier Ins. asso., and indeed almost down to the present century, the principal officer of such associations was designated the "Clerk." The origin of the appellation is clear enough. The term, from having originally been applied to the clergy, came to signify an educated person: hence the "Clerk" was the educated person, or chief officer of such establishments. The Lond. Assu. Corp. and the Equitable were among the earliest offices that departed from the old practice. A clerk now signifies a scribe, or a writer; but the Chief Clerk in an ins. office may be regarded usually as occupying a position of great trust and confidence.

3. It

We may take this opportunity of offering a few general obs. regarding clerks in ins. offices. We are often asked the question, What are the chances of success for a young man of fair education entering an ins. office in the ordinary way, i.e. trusting to his merits for advancement? We are obliged to answer that the prospects are not very inviting. 1. It is a genteel employment-genteel employments are much sought after in this country. 2. It involves no outlay of capital either for special training, as nearly all professions do; or to be staked on the success of the venture, as in commerce. secures an immediate return in the shape of some small salary-this is of the greatest consequence to sons of widows and others in reduced or moderate circumstances. For these reasons the competition for such employment will always be considerable, and the scale of remuneration correspondingly low. On the other hand, there is scope here, as in other pursuits, for the exercise of ability, with the prospect of a fair reward. The clerks of this generation will be the managers, actuaries, or secretaries of the next. These are the prizes of the profession; and as all advancement should be, and to a great extent must be, by merit, there is scope for those who determine to become proficient. The increasing competition with ins. offices will require to be met by a higher standard of managerial ability. CLERKS, INS. OF.-During the years 1710 and 1711, when a great number of speculative ins. projects were on foot, various schemes were brought forward for ins. Clerks. We have never seen any explanation of the exact nature of the ins. undertaken. It was no doubt analogous to the schemes for ins. apprentices and servants; for it was carried on at the same offices.

CLERKS, MERCANTILE, ETC., MORT. OF.-There would seem at first sight no especial reason why persons occupied as mercantile clerks should sustain an unusually heavy mort., yet the fact is so. It most prob. arises from several causes combined, rather than from any one well-marked and distinctive circumstance.

Thackrah, in his Effects of Arts, Trades, and Professions, etc., 1832, says:

Clerks, book-keepers, accountants, etc., suffer from confined atmosphere, a fixed position, and often also from long days. At many large manufactories the book-keepers are kept at the desk, with the intervals of 24 hours for meals, from 6'30 in the morning till 9 at night. Attorneys' clerks are sometimes confined too long and too closely; but this excess is but occasional, and on the average I believe their work is moderate. Yet they, as well as book-keepers, are often distressed. Their muscles are distressed by the maintenance of one posture; and they complain frequently of pains in the sides of the chest. This affection is not dependent on the state of the thoracic viscera, neither do we find the size of the chest considerably diminished. It is less indeed than in the soldier, but scarcely less than in the average of townsmen; and the capacity of the lungs, as indicated by the pulmometer, is not at all reduced. In clerks and book-keepers the digestive organs suffer most, a fact apparent even from the countenance and tongue. The circulation is imperfect; the head becomes affected; and though urgent disease is not generally produced, yet a continuance of the employment in its full extent never fails to impair the constitution, and render the individual sickly for life. I scarcely need mention the simple and effectual remedies: fresh air, and full muscular exercise. Many of the class have the opportunity; all ought to have.

This is the medical view of the case; and it prepares the way for what follows.

In 1840 the Provident Clerks Ins. Asso. was founded, for the purpose of affording ins. facilities to mercantile and other clerks. Its experience, whenever it may be given to the ins. world, will be of vast importance. (See 1871.)

In 1845 Mr Neison pub. his Contributions to Vital Statistics, etc., wherein he says: It will no doubt cause some uneasiness in the minds of inquirers to find that so highly important and industrious a class of men as clerks should stand lowest in the scale of the above employments [viz. miners, bakers, plumbers, painters, glaziers, clerks]; and that from 20 to 60 their expectation of life should be only 75 p.c. of the general average. The expectation of life among plumbers, painters, and glaziers in the same period is equal to 81 p.c., miners 85 p.c., and bakers 88 p.c., of the general average. At age 30 the difference between the expectation of life in the rural districts and in Liverpool is 8 2636 years; but the difference between clerks and labourers is 13'0211 years, and so also at other periods of life. In the comparison between clerks and labourers the expectation for clerks has been for the average of the three districts [rural, town, and city]; but if it had been taken for the city districts only, a much greater difference would have been found, and, consequently, the influence of employments appeared the greater.

He gives a mort. T. for clerks.-See 1857.

Mr. Ratcliffe, in his Rate of Mort. and Sickness existing among Friendly Sos., particularly for Various Trades, Occupations, and Localities, pub. 1850, says:

Clerks and schoolmasters are inhabitants of all the localities from which the general results have been experienced. They constitute about 14 p.c. of the whole of the lives previously given in the rural, town, and city districts, and relative to vitality are the very worst class of lives shown in this experience. At T. XLV. it will be seen that one-half of the persons forming this class die off on attaining the age 54'5-thus showing an inferior vitality of nine years, as compared with the general class of lives, and with those of E. and W.

Clerks and schoolmasters show a less expectation at the decennial periods of life, 20 and 30, than any other class of lives here experienced upon. At the other periods, 40, 50, and 60, they show the least expectation, with the exception of letter-press printers and compositors; and at the latter periods, the last-named class show a less inferior expectation, though to a very limited extent, than clerks and schoolmasters.

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In the 3rd. ed. of Contributions to V. Statis., etc. (pub. 1857), Mr. Neison again refers to the mort. of clerks; but he does not throw any new light upon the subject, except that a T. of Expectation is furnished, and his mort. T. is thus rendered complete. The data from which the T. is deduced will be explained under OCCUPATIONS. We curtail the decimal places in cols. 4, 5, and 6.


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Mr. A. H. Smee, the medical officer of the Gresham, Provident Clerks, and other ins. asso., in his return of the "causes of death" in the Gresham, pub. 1871, gives a T. of the relative mort. from each of the 12 great classes of disease, in 1000 insured clerks obs. upon-in which we assume the mort. of the Provident Clerks is placed under con. tribution :

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CLIFTON, MORT. T. FOR.-This place [Co. Gloucester] has, at least during the greater part of the present century, been a famous health resort. Its close proximity to Bristol, not altogether famous for the standard of its health, has caused an increased interest to be felt as to the measure of its actual and comparative salubrity. The following are the main facts at our command regarding it.

Mr. Robt. Rankin, in his Familiar Treatise on Life Assu. and Annu., pub. 1830, gave a mort. T. for Clifton, based upon data arranged with a view to accuracy. He says: The great influx of persons to Clifton, both as visitors and permanent residents, rendered a correct exclusion of the deaths among them from this T. almost impracticable. With the assistance, however, of the clerk of the parish, who had held the office for nearly 10 years, I was enabled so to approximate the truth, as to be quite confident that every add. step towards it would exhibit the duration of life in this parish in a more favourable point of view. It would now, from the vastly increased and still rapidly increasing pop. (principally from immigration), be impossible to form a T. from the burial regis. of the parish with the least pretension even to an approximation to the true rate of mort. amongst its inhabitants.

Mr. Rankin's painstaking methods have been more fully explained under BRISTOL, MORT. T. FOR. Here is his T., which he designates:


Age. Living. Dying. Expecta- Age. Living. Dying. Expecta-Age. Living. Dying. Expecta

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At the Brit. Asso. Meeting at Bath, in 1864, Dr. J. A. Symonds, M.D., read a paper on The Sanitary Statistics of Clifton, of which the following is but a very brief outline: The point of the paper is to show the importance of adding verbal explanations to statistical returns. The R.-Gen. Rep. had given 24 in 1000 as the death-rate of Clifton, calculated from the deaths in the quarter ending June, 1864. This statement would be very injurious to the reputation of Clifton as a watering-place, unless it were explained that its name is given to a large poor-law district, to the pop, of which Clifton proper contributes little more than one-fifth. The several subdistricts of Clifton Union are described in detail, as to their sanitary characteristics, and as to their respective death-rates, calculated from the ann. returns of deaths in the five years from 1859 to 1864. The average for Clifton proper is 17 in 1000; and if a quarterly return be a fair basis of calculation, it would be found that in some quarters the death-rate amounted to only 15 in 1000. On comparing the death-rates of the several sub-districts of Clifton Union, the influence of urban and rural agencies is shown. The highest death-rates denote the combination of poverty and crowding. He compared the death-rates of several localities in England, and ascertained that the average for a crowded town was 24 in 1000; for a rural district, 15; and for a mixed district, 21. Clifton Union is a mixed district. One of its sub-districts, three miles distant from Clifton proper, gives 24 in 1000; for it belongs really to one of the most miserable quarters on the outskirts of Bristol. A purely local sub-district, Westbury, gives 15 in 1000, and Clifton proper 17 in 1000. But the average of the whole union is 21.

This subject will be further discussed under LOCALITY. We assume also that Clifton was one of the districts included in Dr. Farr's Healthy Life T. CLIMACTERIC (properly Klimacteric, from the Greek, the step of a ladder).—A stage in the progression of the life of man, usually divided into periods of 7 years; thus the 7th period, or 49, is the "lesser climacteric "; the 9th period, or 63 years, the "climacteric "; while 81 (which is not a multiple of 7) is the "grand climacteric." Some writers say the climacteric period is every 9 years; this would conform to 81 as the 9th period of nines. It is affirmed that notable alterations in the health and constitution of a person happen at these periods. Cotgrave says, "Every 7th, or 9th, or 63rd year of a man's life, all very dangerous-but the last most." Hippocrates is said to have referred to these periods in his writings 383 B.C.

Certain years in the life of man have been from great antiquity supposed to have a peculiar importance, and to be liable to singular vicissitudes in his health and fortunes. This superstitious belief is said to have originated in the doctrines of Pythagoras. The

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