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Under such a system accuracy need not be sacrificed to speed.
By these means, aided
by valuation T., such as have been specially prepared in the U.S., a revolution has been in recent years accomplished. [SURPLUS.] [VALUATIONS.] CLASSIFICATION OF RISKS.-In nearly every branch of ins. bus. some classification of the risks to be accepted by the office has to be made. Even Annuity offices have found to their cost that selections can be made against them. They meet the difficulty by limiting the age at which they will grant annu. on the ordin. scale. The Classification of Risks in Marine ins. is more complicated and fluctuating, depending (inter alia) upon (1) class or character of ship; (2) character of master and owners; (3) nature of cargo -its liability to destruction by salt water, or damage by delay, and its own inherent nature; (4) season of the year; (5) peace or war. The Classification of Fire risks is (1) ordinary; (2) hazardous; (3) doubly hazardous; (4) special -- with many different degrees regarding the latter. In Accident ins. the classification depends almost entirely upon the relative risk from "occupation." In Fidelity ins. there is first personal character, next, occupation-as determining temptation and opportunity. In Glass ins. "occupation" is also an important element; but "location" is nearly as important an element; in some cases more so. In Carriage ins. "occupation" is necessarily an important element. In Hail ins. "location" is also very important. In Cattle ins. the classification (as we have seen) is primarily under broad distinctions; but the prevalence or otherwise of "Cattle Disease "" must exercise an important influence.
Under CASUALTY INS. we have given an extract from De Foe's Essay on Projects (1697), which manifests much sagacity on the subject of Classification of Risks.
The preceding must be regarded as only a résumé of the main points to be borne in mind in relation to each branch of ins. bus. The subject is dealt with more at large in our chapters specially devoted to those branches, and under general heads - such as SELECTION, etc., etc.
CLAUSES, OCCASIONAL.-These are clauses relating to marine ins. pol., and employed for the purpose of varying the contract according to the special agreement of the parties. Hence they are called "occasional." [OCCASIONAL CLAUSES.]
CLAVELL, ROGER, pub. about the middle of the 17th century, Tabula Fæneratoriæ; or, Tables for the Forbearance and Discompt of Money. Likewise Tables for the Forbearance, Discompt, and Purchase of Annuities to 31 Years, at the Rate of £6 p.c. p.a., according to the Late Act of Parl., calculated by Roger Clavell, Gent., Student in the Mathematics. 2nd ed., 1669, with additions, by T. R. [ANNUITIES.] [INTEREST.] CLAYTON, F. S., Joint Sec. of Equitable Reversionary since 1855.
CLAYTON, JOHN, for many years Sec. of Equitable Reversionary; Joint Sec. since 1855. CLEANLINESS, ITS INFLUENCE ON HEALTH.-The influence of cleanliness upon health is now so generally admitted that we need not occupy space in attempting to prove it. We shall merely record a few practical instances. It is in relation to zymotic diseases that cleanliness has the most important bearing. We have already spoken of this in relation to CHOLERA. Poverty and uncleanliness usually go hand in hand; hence the cry, "Improve the social condition of the people, and you improve the health of the nation." There is an important truth involved in this cry-improve the condition of a section, and you advance the health of the whole community. It is in this light that cleanliness becomes a public question. We may gather encouragement from what has already been accomplished.
In Lond. in 1850 there were 1308 lodging-houses regis. under the then new Act [LODGING-HOUSES], and during the quarter ending 23rd Oct. there had not occurred a case of fever in any one of these houses; yet before they were under regulation 20 cases of fever have been received into the Lond. Fever Hospital from a single house in the course of a few weeks. During the cholera outbreak of 1848 and 1849 no case occurred in any one of these dwellings, though the pestilence raged in all the districts in which they are situated, and there were instances of two, and even four, deaths in single houses close to their very walls.-Pamp. on Sanitary Improvement, by W. Lee, one of the superintendent inspectors of the Board of Health.
There is another, almost equally remarkable, case on record. The Chairman of the Metropolitan Association for Improving the Dwellings of the Industrious Classes reported in May, 1850, that while fever and cholera had been devastating whole districts in Lond., not one of either of these diseases had occurred in their buildings. The conditions under which these buildings are regulated are: 1. Thorough subsoil drainage of the site. 2. Free admission of air and light to every inhabited room. 3. The abolition of the cesspool, and the substitution of the water-closet, involving complete house drainage. 4. An abundant supply of pure water. 5. Means for the immediate removal of all solid
Dr. Southwood Smith, in his pamp. on Sanitary Improvement, speaking of the dwellings of this Asso., said, "The deaths were at the rate of about 7 p. 1000, while the deaths in the whole of Lond. were 22 p. 1000; thus the dwellings of the so., though in Lond., were three times healthier than Lond. generally. With respect to children, the infant mort. had been little more than one-fifth of that in Lond. generally. There was also a comparative absence of sickness."
The following are the statistics of the same buildings up to July, 1855, by which it will be seen some slight sickness had been experienced: Out of a pop. of 693 in the Old Pancras-road Buildings, there had only been 4 cases of diarrhoea. In the Albert-street Buildings, Mile End New Town, there had only been 4 fatal cases of cholera-a mother and three children; while 59 families under the same roof had enjoyed perfect exemption from it. In the chambers for single men in the same street, out of a considerable pop., there had been 2 cases of cholera, one of which proved fatal,-the patient having eaten stale crab. In the Soho Chambers, inhabited by 88 young men nightly, there had been only 7 cases of diarrhoea, while in its immediate neighbourhood the people were daily in large numbers dying of cholera. The total number of deaths in the dwellings of the Asso. from all causes had been, out of a pop. of 2200 persons, only 20. Of these 7 were adults and 13 children.
We need not continue the examples. The state of facts continues much the same. Are not these important considerations for F. sos. and industrial ins. asso.?
CLEAR DAYS. -If a certain number of clear days be given for the doing of any act, the time is to be reckoned exclusively as well of the first day as the last.-Wharton. CLEARANCE.-A certificate that a ship has been examined and cleared at the Custom House.
CLEARING A VESSEL.-To clear a ship at the Custom House is to exhibit the documents required by law, give bonds, or perform other acts requisite, and procure a permission to sail, and such papers as the law requires. Called for brevity Clearance. CLEGG, BENJAMIN, one of the editors and proprietors of the Insurance Record; also agent in Lond. for the Insurance Monitor of New York.
CLEIRAC, M. ETIENNE, pub. at Bordeaux in 1647, Us et Coutumes de la Mer, contenant les Jugements d'Oleron, Ordonnances de Wisburg, de la Hanse Teutonique, et autres Pièces. Another ed. in 1661 bearing the following altered title, Les Us et Coutumes de la Mer. Divisées en trois parties. I. De la Navigation. II. Du Commerce Naval et Contrats Maritimes. III. De la Jurisdiction de la Marine. Avec un Traité des Termes de Marine, etc. 4to., Bordeaux, 1661. The dedication of this volume to the Queen of France is signed by Estienne Cleirac, its author and compiler.-Hendriks.
In 1671 an ed. was pub. at Rouen. In 1709 the work was trans. and pub. in Lond. under the title, A General Treatise of the Dominion of the Sea, and the complete body of the Sea Laws. It was done into Dutch by Leclercq, and pub. in Amsterdam in 1757. An English trans. of these laws will also be found in Peter's Admiralty Decisions, pub. in Philadelphia in 1807. Pardessus has edited the same sea laws with great accuracy and ability. M. Cleirac's book is not merely a compilation; it is enriched with copious and learned notes, which entitle him to be placed in the very first rank of modern jurists, His writings are said to have been the source from which Lord Mansfield obtained many of the best principles of Common Law now prevailing in England.-Marvin. CLELAND, DR. JAMES, was appointed to superintend the Census of Glasgow in 1821, [GLASGOW.] In 1823 he pub. a third ed. of Statistical Tables relative to the City of Glasgow. [MORT. OBS.] And in 1831 he pub. in a folio volume: Enumeration of the Inhabitants of Glasgow and Lanarkshire. These works will be quoted under various heads in this work.
CLELAND, WILLIAM, was at one period Sec. of Edin. branch of North of Scotland. He afterwards " promoted" several ins. asso., amongst them the following: (1) General Industrial Life and Deposit (2) Industrial and General (3) National Industrial and Economic Life. All put forward about 1849. In 1855 he became Sec. of Peoples Provident (in Lond.); and remained in that position down to 1864, during which period the name of the Co. became changed to European (No. 2). It was also during this period that many of the amalg. upon which the Co. entered were carried out. At the time Mr. Cleland retired from the management there was no immediate sign of collapse. The amalg. with the British Nation did not occur until 1865. Mr. Cleland aided in the recent estab. of the Positive.
CLEMENTS, J. T., was Act. of Licensed Victuallers from its commencement. In 1850 he became Man. also; and remained with the Co. down to the transfer of its bus. in 1857. CLENCH, EDMUND, Financial Agent and Promoter of Ins. Asso.-Mr. Clench was inducted to ins. bus. in the office of the Professional; he passed from thence to the Sea, Fire, Life. In 1850 he was one of the promoters of the Industrial Mut. Sick. In 1851 he became Sec. of National Provincial Life. In 1852, one of the promoters of the National Provincial Fire. In 1856 he was one of the founders of the Bank of Lond. Ins. Co.-a very powerful organization, of which we have already given some account. Since that period he has been concerned in a bus. sense with various trans. and amalg. of ins. offices; we are not aware that he has promoted any new ones. It was at one period the fashion of the ins. press to abuse Mr. Clench. He made one uniform reply that as a financial agent it was his business to deal with ins. asso., as with other enterprises. He could not make any co. sell its bus.; he could not make any co. purchase the bus. of another. He was employed to negociate; he accomplished his work as speedily as possible, and took the stipulated commission. That class of bus. is, for the present, nearly exhausted.
CLENCH, THE CHEVALIER HARRY, was connected with the Masonic in 1869, for which
the Western Alliance Fire. After that he was connected with the Western Counties Fire,
CLERGY, DURATION OF LIFE AMONG.-See CLERGY, LONGEVITY OF.
CLERGY AND LAW MUTUAL LIFE ASSU. AND LOAN AND REV. INT. So.-An asso. under
CLERGY, LONGEVITY OF.-The clergy of Gt. Britain, and we believe of most other countries, are proverbial for longevity. We propose to notice the various obs. which have been made on this subject.
The first recognition of the longevity of the clergy which we have met with occurred in the case of the Berkshire and Counties L. Asso., founded in 1709. In prescribing the conditions of entrance, the prosp. stated, "A clergyman's age may be 65; any other must not exceed the age of 60.”
In the 3rd ed. of Dr. Price's Obs. on Rev. Payments, pub. 1773, reference is made to several schemes promoted amongst the clergy and ministers of that period; some details of which we shall give under WIDOWS FUNDS; and although several expressions therein lead to the inference that the learned Doctor knew or suspected something of the superior longevity of the clergy and ministers, he does not make any direct statement thereon. It may be that this was a prudent piece of reserve on his part; for it is clear that, in the case of asso. for the BENEFIT OF WIDOWS, the expected long life of the husband would operate directly in favour of the asso.
In 1824 the Clerical, Medical, and General L. was founded. Although not limited to the clergy, it has a large number of clergymen upon its books; and its mort. has been most remarkably favourable.
In 1829 the Rev. John Hodgson founded the Clergy Mutual Assu. So., being, he says, at that time impressed with the idea, "that duration of life amongst clergymen would, upon experiment being made, be found to be longer than that amongst laymen." This notion was then entirely the result of his own personal observation. He at that period entered upon an inquiry on this subject, the results of which were only completed in 1864, under which date we shall notice them fully.
In 1831 Mr. C. Turner Thackrah pub. the first ed. of his well-known work: The Effects of the Principal Arts, Trades, and Professions, and of Civic States and Habits of Living, on Health and Longevity, etc., etc.; and therein he says:
Ministers of religion have a similar alternation of study and exercise. The latter, however, is too gentle or restricted for muscular men. Their situation, and the ideas attached to it, unfortunately prevent their joining in sports or amusements, which produce a full circulation of the blood, and a full action of the viscera. Hence congestion of the venus system of the bowels is a frequent occurThe individuals of this class who are hard students may be referred to the section of literary men. Clergymen, who preach long, frequently, or with vehemence, as well as orators, actors, public singers, and persons who play much on wind instruments, are subject to pains in the chest, spitting of blood, and diseases of the larynx. Ædema of the glottis is particularly mentioned by Merat.
On the founding of the Church of England L. and F. office in 1840, a special reduction was made in the rates of prem. for insuring the lives of the clergy.
In the 6th R. of Reg.-Gen., pub. 1845, Dr. Farr gives a few interesting facts regarding the Clergy, etc. The mean age of 18 English bishops (including two archbishops), whose ages were given in Dodd's Peerage, was found to be 59.9 years in 1841. As their mean age at consecration was 46.8 years, they had been bishops 131 years. The entire 26 bishops (including the archbishops) had been bishops 13.6 years.
The mean age of the Pope and 60 cardinals at the date of their election [Almanach de Gotha, 1845] was 524. On 1st Aug., 1864, it was 60 9. They had therefore been cardinals 8.5 years. Dr. Farr arrives at the conclusion that "their life and health is therefore much below the standard of the English T." (No. 1).
In 1846 Dr. Guy, M.D., read before the Statistical So. a paper, On the Duration of Life among the English Gentry, with Add. Obs. on the Duration of Life among the Aristocracy [reprinted in vol. ix. of Statis. Journ., p. 37]. He says therein :-"From the foregoing considerations it is rendered in the highest degree probable, that for the greater part of life the gentry are more healthy than the aristocracy; and professional
persons (chiefly clergymen) more healthy than either of the others." Again, “I may so far anticipate the promised inquiry into the duration of life among the members of the several professions as to state that. 1239 deaths among the aristocracy yield an average of 67 59 years; while 950 clergy yield a mean of 68 75 years-a duration of life exceeding that of females, when young adults are included."
In the same year Dr. Guy read before the Brit. Asso. another paper, On the Duration of Life in the Members of the several Professions [paper reprinted vol. ix. Statis. Journ. p. 346]. He says:
The object of the present communication is to turn to account such facts, gleaned from the Ann. Regis., as have not already been employed in a former essay. The facts in question consist of the ages at death of the members of the several professions classified as follows-Army, Navy, Clergy, Lawyers, Medical Men, Fine Arts, Literature and Science; to which are added persons engaged in Trade and Commerce. The ages at death were taken without selection or exclusion, except of deaths by accident or violence; and, as in the case of all the classes the obituary extended over the same period of 85 years (from 1758 to 1843), and the facts are numerous, it is believed that the average will prove near approximations to the true durations of life. The subject of the essay will be further illustrated by facts derived from other sources.
The number of clergy observed upon was 963. Among these 2 had died at the age of 100; 1 at 103; 1 at 105; 1 at 106; and I at 108. The deaths between 90 and 100 were 39. After various comparisons of the figures before him, the learned writer states: The clergy, it will be seen, attain a higher average, in whatever way the calculation is made, than the members of any other learned profession. They have the advantage of more than one year: an advantage not to be wondered at when it is considered how much larger a proportion of clergymen reside in the country; how much less they are exposed to fatigue and danger of infection than their brethren of the medical profession; and that they do not lead the sedentary life which falls to the lot of the lawyer. When these things are taken into account, the advantage of little more than one year possessed by the clergy will excite some surprise. The still smaller advantage which they claim over the gentry, to which class so large a portion of this profession belong, is still more remarkable, and not undeserving attention.
He found the average age of all the clergy under obs. who died at age 51 and upwards to be 74 04. He returns to the subject again in 1851.
In 1851 Dr. Guy read before the Statis. So. a paper, On the Duration of Life among the Clergy [Statis. Journ. vol. xiv. p. 289]. The writer refers to his essay read before the Brit. Asso. in 1846, and says:
The essay now referred to was intended to form the intro. to a series of communications in which the duration of life of each profession should be examined by itself, with the aid of new facts drawn from sources other than the Ann. Regis. The present essay is the first submitted to the So. in fulfilment of that intention. The facts which form the staple of it are drawn from four sources. 1. The County Histories of Northampton, Cheshire, Berkshire, and Surrey, and the Hist. of Leeds-which histories have already supplied materials for an Essay on the Duration of Life among the English Gentry. 2. The Ann. Regis., which, as has just been stated, supplied the facts for the essay just referred to. 3. Chalmers' Biographical Dict., which, having been pub. between the years 1812 and 1817, affords the requisite data for determining the mean duration of life of professional men up to a comparatively recent period. 4. That portion of the obituaries of the Gent.'s Mag., from 1834 to 1839 inclusive, which is headed “Clergy Deceased."
The learned writer offers some comments upon the peculiar characteristics which may be supposed to have influenced the data obtained from each of these sources. We do not think it necessary to follow him here. The data from the Biographical Dict. included some Dissenting ministers and a few Roman Catholic priests. He then proceeds to say that by means of the facts derived from these sources he had constructed a series of four T. Of these the first exhibits the number of deaths recorded during each year of life; the second the number and per-centage proportion at each quinquennial period; the third the number and per-centage proportion at each decennial period; while the fourth T. shows the mean age at death of all who die after completing their 25th, 30th, 40th, and 50th years respectively. We do not propose to follow the results of these T. A fifth T. was prepared, based upon "the first 1000 deaths occurring between the years 1834 and 1839 inclusive omitting all clergymen not belonging to the Estab. Church." Upon this data Mr. Neison produced the T. which we shall give in our art. CLERGY, MORT. T. For the. Dr. Guy says that out of the above 1000 deaths, 80 were those of clergymen whose lives were spent in cities or large towns:
The average age at death of these 80 clergymen I have compared with the average age attained by other 80 clergymen, whose lives were passed in the rural districts. These latter were taken in the order in which they stood in the T. The following is the result of the comparison:
This difference of little more than two years in favour of clergymen resident in the country is founded upon too small a number of facts to be regarded in any other light than as a prob., to be confirmed or weakened by further comparisons to be hereafter instituted.
From the data before him Dr. Guy drew some other facts of interest. For instance, he says, "The mean age of clergymen born in the 18th century is shown by the T. to be 66.78; while the average age of 60 clergymen who died subsequently to the year 1817, and who were born towards the end of the 18th century, is no less than 70 30. This comparison affords a presumption in favour of a recent improvement in the duration of life among the clergy." He says:
Another question which the tabular abstracts from the Biographical Dict, afforded me the means
of discussing, though the data are very far from being sufficiently numerous, is the relative durations of life of married and single clergymen. It happened that out of the whole numberof clerical biographies, there were 370 in which the clergymen are stated to have been married; and 31 in which they are stated to have led a single life. The mean results are embodied in the following T.: Mean Age. Greatest Age.
No. of Deaths.
An average excess of 5 years in favour of the married clergy, and a difference between the maxima of 16 years, is prob. too large to be attributable wholly to the insufficient number of facts. This T., therefore, may also be placed on record as estab. a prob., to be strengthened or weakened by the results of future inquiries.
In the tabular abstracts taken from Chalmers' Dict. it happened that the archbishops and bishops of the Estab. Church were distinguished from the body of the clergy. "I am therefore in a condition to show the average and greatest ages attained by them; and as I have also extracted from the Art de Vérifier les Dates the ages at death of 42 popes, and of 22 Romish saints, and from Alban Butler's Lives of the Saints the larger number of 141 deaths, I have appended a T. in which these several averages are contrasted.” This is the Table:
Saints of Romish Calendar (Butler's Lives)
Saints of the Romish Calendar (Art de Vérifier les Dates)
The averages in this T. are such as might have been expected. The popes, who for the most part have been elected at very advanced ages, survive by about one year the archbishops of the Established Church, who are appointed at a somewhat earlier period of life. The bishops of the Established Church come next in order, differing however very little from the archbishops. The saints of the Romish calendar attain a lower average age by about three years than the popes, and by about two years than the dignitaries of the Church of England. As, however, the saints of the Romish calendar are of a very mixed class, comprising several of the popes, some few kings, many heads of the monastic orders, and a certain proportion of ascetics, I do not attach any importance to the comparison now made; but allow the results to stand in the T., as possessing a certain amount of interest.
We hope that some day Dr. Guy will return to this very interesting subject.
At the census of 1851 the number of clergymen was found to be 17,320, bearing a proportion of 37 to the entire pop. The number of Dissenting ministers, 6405, being the proportion of 14 to the entire pop. The number of "priests and other religious teachers," 2252-proportion to pop. 05.
Mr. Joel Pinney, in his Influence of Occupation on Health and Life, pub. 1856, says, "The clergy live too inactive for great longevity.
The British Alliance Ins. Co., projected in 1868, had a scheme of "annuities for clergymen," but no details are given of its precise nature. According to all reasoning, from the facts furnished by this art., the annu. to clergymen on their own lives should be less than on almost any other class of lives. That would not constitute a very hopeful "special feature."
In 1870 the Ark Assu. So. of Scotland was founded [called in this work Ark No. 3], and it offers special advantages to "ministers of religion," founded on their marked superiority in duration of life."
In 1864 the Rev. J. Hodgson, the then Sec. of the Clergy Mut., pub. Observations in Reference to the Duration of Life amongst the Clergy of England and Wales; and (in an appendix) amongst the Children of Clergymen, etc. To which was added a supplement by Mr. Samuel Brown, containing (1) A Table of Mort. deduced from observations amongst the clergy for a period of 100 years, 1760 to 1860, made by Mr. Hodgson. The author says:
No sooner was the Clergy Mut. So. estab. than I was awakened to the sense of the importance of ascertaining, by means of unimpeachable data, the duration of life, or in other words, the course which mort, had taken amongst the clergy, in large bodies of them, during a long series of years gone by, with a view of making the results serviceable as experiments to mark out what measures might from time to time be safely adopted by the C. M. Assu. So., for the more effectually carrying out its designs. Nothing of the sort, in respect to the clergy, had ever been attempted before, except upon information of so precarious a character, and upon principles so vague and open to objection, as to make the results altogether unfit for any useful practical purpose. So I entered upon this labour-for labour indeed it has been-commencing upon it in the latter end of the year 1829, and continuing it during hours of leisure up to its completion in the present year; and I now offer the results of it to the notice of those who are able to appreciate the beneficial uses to which they may be applied.
The author proceeds to tell us that 4965 clergymen—all of whom were incumbents of livings, and some of whom "are now alive, and remaining such," and 123 clergymenall of whom were Heads of Houses in the University of Oxford, and "some of whom are now alive, and remaining such,"-making together a total of 5088 clergymen,-had been brought under obs., "so as to enable me to ascertain what was the exact duration of life in the case of every one of them whilst under obs." These were collected in 8 groups, in the following order :
I. All those who were incumbents in the several livings in the Diocese of Canterbury