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That the said contributors shall dispose and order all or any part of the money arising from such claim or claims, to any church, school, or library, etc., as they themselves shall judge fit.
That for the encouragement of so charitable and good a work, the master of the office will and does hereby relinquish the £3 p.c. drawback mentioned in article 29, to any person or persons who shall subscribe upon a charitable account; and the said £3 shall be wholly and solely appropriated and apply'd to the uses above mentioned as the several Contributors of each £6 shall think fit.
'Tis hoped the nobility and gentry-especially the dignified clergy-will readily promote and encourage so good, so useful, so beneficial, and so charitable a design.
If sixty persons will join and pay but 2s. each per ANN. upon the life of the present incumbent of any parish, or any other person, partly for the benefit of the present incumbent's family after his decease, and partly for the benefit of his successors, as the contributors shall think fit, what noble acts of charity might they do at a small expense. So if thirty.-A.S. [PROVIDENT FUNDS.] CHARITABLE SO. AT LOND. STONE.-This was an office founded for granting apprenticeship ins., marriage ins., and service ins. It has been spoken of under those several heads. CHARITABLE So., at Golden Heart, near St. Bartholomew's Hospital, West Smithfield.— This is one of the numerous so-called ins. projects designated as "Little Goes," founded in the reign of Queen Anne. Its date appears to be 1712. [GAMBLING INS.] CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA.-This city has suffered very severely from fire on several occasions, viz.-1778, property of the value of £100,000 was destroyed. 1796, 300 houses were destroyed. 1838, there were destroyed 1158 buildings, covering 145 acres of ground. 1861, large fire occasioned by the bombardment of the city, Dec. 1861, by the Federals: property of the estimated value of £1,600,000 destroyed. Several English offices formerly carried on a large and profitable bus. in this city; but during the recent war they nearly all closed their agencies.
CHARLON, M., Man. of Spanish Phanix, Madrid.-A paper of his, On a method of obtaining De Moivre's formula in the simplest terms, was communicated in 1869 to the Assu. Mag. [vol. xv. p. 141] by Herr Pimentel, Prof. of Mathematics at the Hague. CHARLTON, EDWARD, was Sec. of Albion Life for some years; he retired about 1848. CHARTER.-An evidence of things done between man and man, as a Charter-party; also a Statute or Act of Parl. A " Royal Charter" is a written instrument granting certain privileges or exemptions to towns, corporations, or bodies politic. They generally therefore create a monopoly. Regarding the precise effect of a charter upon the legal constitution of an ins. or other co. we shall speak of under INCORPORATION.
In the early days of ins. asso. the only appreciable way of obtaining a legal constitution was by means of direct Charter from the Crown or from Parliament. The difficulties of obtaining these will be better appreciated after the reader has consulted our art., MARINE INSURANCE, HIST. OF. It will suffice here to state that they frequently were only obtained after years of litigation, or, as in two very famous instances, by payment of large sums of money. The obstacles were so great that many of the most powerful companies shrank from the attempt. Others more brave were defeated. See EQUITABLE SOCIETY. The first Charter obtained by any ins. asso. was that granted to the Amicable by Queen Anne, in 1706; then followed the Lond. Assu. and the Royal Exchange in 1720; and but very few have since obtained the privilege, except in the case of the Irish and Scotch Cos., where a different state of the law granted facilities for incorp. by Charter. [INCOR PORATION.] [LEGISLATION FOR INS. Asso.] CHARTER-PARTY.-An agreement in writing, sometimes under seal, by which a shipowner agrees to let an entire ship, or the principal part thereof, to a merchant, for the carriage of goods on a specified voyage, or during a specified period, for a sum of money which the merchant agrees to pay as freight for their carriage. By such an agreement the ship is said to be chartered to the merchant, who is called the charterer. There are certain terms usually to be found in all Charter-parties, viz. a statement of the burden [capacity] of the ship, an undertaking by the shipowner, that the ship being seaworthy and furnished with necessaries, shall be ready by a certain day to receive the cargo, shall sail when loaded, and deliver her cargo at her port of destination—which may be one of several ports to be in due course indicated (the act of God or the King's enemies excepted): the charterer, undertaking to load and unload the ship within a certain number of days, called the lay, or running days; and if he detains her longer, to pay demurrage, i.e. a certain sum of money for each extra day; and also to pay the freight agreed.
Charter-parties are said to have been first used in England about A.D. 1243. The term is said to be derived from the Lat. Charta partita, a divided charter, because orig, there was only one instrument made for both parties; this was cut in two, each taking a portion; and these parts were joined on the return of the ship, in token that each had performed his part. Many complicated legal points arise in connexion with Charter-parties; and their conditions vary with the varying circumstances of each particular voyage. We have only to consider them in relation to the contract of marine ins., of which they very frequently form the basis.
The following is the most simple form of Charter-party; from that they extend to every conceivable variation:
This Charter-party indented, made etc., between A.B., etc., mariner, master, and owner of the good ship or vessel, called etc., now riding at anchor, etc., of the burden of 200 tons, or thereabouts, of the one part, and C.D. of etc., merchant, of the other part, witnesseth, That the said A.B., for the consideration hereinafter mentioned, hath granted and to freight letten, and by these presents doth grant and to freight let, unto the said C.D., his executors, administrators, and assigns, the whole tonnage of the hold, stern-sheets, and half-deck of the said ship or vessel, called, etc., from the port
of London to etc., in a voyage to be made by the said A.B. with the said ship, in manner hereinafter mentioned (that is to say), to sail with the first fair wind and weather that shall happen after, etc., next, from the port of London with the goods and merchandize of the said C.D., of his factors or assigns, on board, to etc., aforesaid (the act of God, the Queen's enemies, fire, and all and every other dangers and accidents of the seas, rivers, and navigation, of whatever nature and kind, in so far as ships are liable thereto, during the said voyage, always excepted), and there unlade and make discharge of the said goods and merchandizes; and also shall there take into and on board the said ship again the goods and merchandizes of the said C.D., his factors or assigns, and shall then return to the port of London with the said goods, in the space of, etc., limited for the end of the said voyage. In consideration whereof, the said C.D., for himself, his executors, and administrators, doth covenant, promise, and grant, to and with the said A.B., his executors, administrators, or assigns, by these presents, that the said C.D., his executors, administrators, factors, or assigns, shall and will well and truly pay, or cause to be paid, unto the said A.B., his executors, administrators, or assigns, for the freight of the said ship and goods, the sum of etc. (or so much per ton), within twenty-one days after the said ship arrived, and goods returned, and discharged at the port of London aforesaid, for the end of the said voyage; and also shall and will pay for demurrage (if any shall be by default of him, the said C.D., his factors or assigns) the sum of etc., per day, daily, and every day, as the same shall grow due. And the said A.B., for himself, his executors, and administrators, doth covenant, promise, and grant, to and with the said C.D., his executors, administrators, and assigns, by these presents, that the said ship or vessel shall be ready at the port of London to take in goods by the said C.D., on or before etc., next coming. And the said C.D., for himself, his etc., doth covenant and promise, within 10 days after the said ship or vessel shall be thus ready, to have his goods on board the said ship, to proceed on the said voyage; and also, on arrival of the said ship, etc., within etc. days, to have his goods ready to put on board the said ship, to return on the said voyage. And the said A.B., for himself, his executors and administrators, doth further covenant and grant, to and with the said C.D., his executors, administrators, and assigns, that the said ship or vessel now is, and at all times during the voyage shall be, to the best endeavour of him, the said A.B., his executors and administrators, and at his and their own proper costs and charges, in all things made and kept stiff, staunch, strong, well apparelled, furnished, and provided, as well with men and mariners sufficient and able to sail, guide, and govern the said ship, as with all manner of rigging, boats, tackle, and apparel, furniture, provision, and appurtenances, fitting and necessary for the said men and mariners, and for the said ship during the voyage aforesaid. In witness, etc.
In 1815 by the 55 Geo. III. c. 184, the stamp duty on Charter-parties was fixed at 35., with add. if the number of words exceeded 2160. In 1842 by the 5 & 6 Vict. c. 79, the duty was reduced to 5s., but with a wide definition as to what constituted a Charterparty. In 1865 by 28 & 29 Vict. c. 96, the duty was reduced to 6d. CHARTERED SHIP.-A ship hired or freighted.
CHARTERER.-A person who charters or hires a ship for a voyage, or for a certain period. CHEMICAL PROCESSES, FIRES BY.-Fire losses resulting from Chemical Processes are not
covered by F. ins. pol., unless a special proposal has been submitted to the office; special rates paid; and a special pol. issued. [MANUFACTURING PROCESSES.]
CHEMICAL PRODUCTS.-Before the Parl. Committee on Fire Protection which sat in 1867, Prof. Lyon Playfair was examined at much length respecting the tendency of particular chemical products to explode. They were classified by him as follows:
Highly Dangerous.-Gunpowder, gun-cotton, nitro-glycerine, alcohol, ether, camphene, sulphide of carbon, naphtha, benzole, phosphorus, turpentine, petroleum, and all burning oils below the legal firing point imposed by the Act of Parl., namely, 100 degrees.
Less Dangerous.-Sulphur, pyrites, vegetable and animal oils, and fats, all burning oils with a firing point above 120 or 130 degrees (130 is usually taken); bees-wax, paraffin-wax, candles, lubricating oils, greases, pitch, and bitumens.
Least Dangerous.-Coals, charcoal, and other fuels; vegetable fibres, and fabrics made from them, such as cotton, flax, hemp, and jute.
Some substances, such as alcohol, camphene, naphtha, and so on, take fire at common temperatures, and in one respect are more dangerous than gunpowder: for they will of themselves travel to flame, while in order to effect explosion fire must be carried to gunpowder. The vapour of these volatile bodies will find its way to flame, or fire, at a considerable distance. The Professor declared that much of the petroleum sold in shops becomes inflammable at a temperature ranging from 70 to 100 degrees. His knowledge of the spontaneous ignition of such bodies was thus illustrated :—
Are you aware of any great fire having taken place from the ignition of those substances?—Yes; numerous fires from gunpowder and gun-cotton, and other substances which are inflammable. But I will give you some illustrations. The great fire at New York, on the 10th of December, 1853, took place originally from a lamp being brought near some camphene in a printer's warehouse; and the fire in the "Amazon," the famous ship that was burnt, is supposed by Prof. Graham to have resulted from turpentine being kept in a storehouse a little above the boiler; turpentine emitting a volatile vapour at 110 degrees. There was a great fire about 1849 of a large American steamer, where almost everybody perished, which arose from the explosion of a turpentine can that was placed near the funnel of the steam engine. These volatile oils expand at the rate of 1 in 30 in a temperature of 60 degrees; that is to say, between 40 degrees and blood-heat, and they are apt to break the cans when heated. There are such numerous cases of accidents from petroleum and burning oils below the standard, that I will only mention one or two of the large instances of fires. Take the case of the "Lotty Sleigh" at Liverpool, on the 15th of January, 1864; that was a gunpowder vessel, containing 11 tons. The captain was trimming a lamp with bad oil; the flame communicated to the canister from which he was trimming the lamp and set the vessel on fire; the crew all fled from the ship, and it exploded. The flame was communicated to the canister on account of the vapour issuing from the canister travelling to the lamp ?-Yes. Then there was the celebrated burning of the cathedral in Santiago, where 2000 persons, principally women, perished; that resulted from some of the oil coming over the lamp on some drapery; and as that oil was self-ascendable at common temperatures, the fire ran up and communicated to the other lamps.
Can you give an instance to the Committee of any case where there was a great fire where vegetable oils and tallow were burnt?-The famous Tooley-street fire is a case of this kind. When they were thoroughly heated, large masses of tallow and oil floated down the river and set fire to the shipping, which showed that when they were thoroughly heated they would burn on the top of the
He had no doubt that rags that have been used in wiping petroleum lamps and then thrown aside are a fertile source of fires. He had even known instances in which useless butter rags from the casks have taken fire in 24 hours, by being put together in a heap. Saltpetre, nitrate of soda, chlorate of potash, manganese, and bichromate of potash, form his last class of fire promoters. The use of oil lamps has much increased in consequence of the extent of oil production having lowered the price. [MINERAL OILS.] CHEMISTS AND DRUGGISTS.—By Letters Patent under the Great Seal granted by James I., A.D. 1616, all persons "brought up and skilful in the art, mystery, or faculty of Apothecaries, and exercising the same art, mystery, or faculty, then being Freemen of the mystery of Grocers of the City of Lond., or being Freemen of any other art, mystery, or faculty in the said City of Lond. (so as they had been brought up and were expert in the art and mystery of Apothecaries), and they and all such men of the said art and mystery of Apothecaries in the said City of Lond. and suburbs of the same, and within 7 miles of the said City, might and should be one body corporate," under the title of "The master, wardens, and so. of the art and mystery of Apothecaries of the City of Lond."-with certain powers therein appointed. In 1815, by the 55 Geo. III. c. 194, certain of these powers were repealed and amended; and new powers were granted, under which the master and wardens may as often as they see fit, in the daytime, enter the shop of any person using the said art or mystery in England and Wales, "and shall and may search, survey, prove, and determine if the medicines, simple or compound, wares, drugs, or any thing or things whatsoever therein contained, and belonging to the art or mystery of Apothecaries aforesaid, be wholesome, meet and fit for the cure, health and ease of His Majesty's subjects; and all and every such medicines, wares, drugs, and all other things belonging to the aforesaid art, which they shall find, unlawful, deceitful, stale, unwholesome, corrupt, pernicious, or hurtful, shall and may burn or otherwise destroy ;" and may impose penalties. [ADULTERATION.]
The Pharmacy Act, 1868-31 & 32 Vict. c. 121-enacts (sec. 11) that:
Every registrar of deaths in Gt. Brit., on receiving notice of the death of any pharmaceutical chemist, or chemist and druggist, shall forthwith transmit by post to the registrar under the Pharmacy Act a certificate under his own hand of such death, with the particulars of the time and place of death; and on the receipt of such certificate, the said registrar under the Pharmacy Act shall erase the name of such deceased pharmaceutical chemist or chemist and druggist from the register, and shall transmit to the said registrar of deaths the cost of such certificate and transmission, and may charge the cost thereof as an expense of his office.
CHESHIRE, EDWARD, for several years the Assistant Sec. of the Inst. of Actuaries, and of the Statistical So. In 1853 he pub., Results of the Census of Gt. Brit. in 1851, with a Description of the Machinery and Process employed to obtain the Return. A well-written and most instructive pamph.
CHESSHYRE, JAMES W., Banker, Hertford, founded in 1848 the County Hail Storm Ins. Co., a most successful institution. In 1849 he founded the County Mutual L., of which he became and remained Man.-Director until its amalg. In 1865 he founded, in conjunction with the late Marquis of Salisbury, the County Cattle Ins. Co.
CHESSHYRE, JOHN C., was Sec. of County Cattle Ins. Co. from its commencement in 1865, down to the date of its passing into liq.
CHEST (Thorax).—An old English term, commonly traced to Latin and Greek words of the same import. "When it is considered that the same word was anciently used for a basket, the appropriation of it to the human thorax will appear quite natural to any one who has ever seen a skeleton."-Forbes.
CHEST DISEASES.-These will be spoken of under their proper heads, as ASTHMA, Lung DISEASE, etc.; but more under RESPIRATION, DISEASES OF.
CHESTER, N., was Sec. of Indemnity Marine from 1844, or earlier, down to 1863. CHESTER.-An ancient English city, known to the Romans as Deva. It is situate at the north-western extremity of the midland district. In 1471 it was nearly destroyed by fire. In 1862 its Exchange and Town Hall were burnt. Our attention is chiefly drawn to this city here, in consequence of Dr. Haygarth, M.D., having kept a regis. of mort. obs. in it for a period of years, 1772 to 1781 inclusive, from which Dr. Price afterwards constructed the CHESTER T. OF MORT.
In 1774 Dr. Haygarth made a survey of the city with great care. In the ten parishes of Chester, including the suburbs, there were found to be: 14,713 inhabitants. 3428 families. Males, 6697; females, 8016. Married, 4881; widowers, 258; widows, 736. Under 15, 4486; above 70, 625. Dead of the smallpox in 1774, 202; recovered the same year, 1183; ill with it in Jan., 1775, 19; not had it in Jan., 1775, 1060.
The following are the mean details shown by Dr. Haygarth's regis. The regis. was kept on a plan which had been recommended by Dr. Price in his Obs. on Reversionary Payments:
Births in the 10 years 1772-81: males, 2192; females, 2115; marriages, 1500, or 150 annually.
Burials (as per following statement)
2 to 3
Died from birth to 3 months
Died, "in all," under 20 years of age
The higher ages are given in separate T. for males and females. under one T. as follows:
We place them both
It will be observed that these last totals do not agree with the totals previously given. This is occasioned by the fact of the ages of 24 persons being unknown, and therefore they are not classed. The following add. explanation is also given by Dr. Price:
Of 22 females above the age of 80 who died at Chester in 1772, the Regis. specifies no more than 4 of them were maids, and 14 of them widows, who died between 80 and 90; and that the remaining 4 were widows who died above 90. Of the 4 who had never been married, 1 has been supposed to die at each of the ages 81, 83, 84, and 85. Of the 18 widows, 2 have been supposed to die at each of the ages between 80 and 88; 2 at 91; 1 at 92; and 1 at 93. It was proper to make some distribution of this kind; but it is of little consequence whether it is right or wrong. In every other instance the numbers dying at every age have been taken just as the Regis. has given them.
The number of widowers in the city in 1774 was 258; of widows, 736. During the 9 years 1772-79 the number of widowers who died was 157; of widows, 390. CHESTER TABLE OF MORTALITY.-From the preceding facts recorded by Dr. Haygarth in his Regis., Dr. Price compiled the Chester T. of Mort., which he first gave to the world in the 4th ed. of his Reversionary Payments, pub. 1783. The learned compiler, by way of preface, says:
Chester is a healthy town, of moderate size, where the births had for many years a little exceeded the burials; and the Regis. to which I refer had the peculiar advantage of being under the direction of Dr. Haygarth, its founder as well as conductor. As it gives an accurate account of the distempers of which all the inhabitants die in every season, and at every age, it contains much physical instruction; but my views led me only to take notice of that part of it which gives the law according to which human life wastes in all its different stages, both among males and females.
Here is the Table. The "Expectations" were not included in the orig., but were afterwards computed quinquennially for the purpose of showing the difference between male and female life: