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merators were exceedingly minute; for example, the qualification for a place in the Census was to be alive at midnight on the 2nd of April. The enumerators were expressly enjoined not to include any one who might die before midnight, nor any infant born after midnight. If we look at the facts, there were prob. 3000 births and 1863 deaths during the census day of 24 hours, or 4863 in all. If half of these births and deaths occurred in the night, and were improperly included in the returns, the pop. at any given moment would be overstated to the extent of 2432. This is one of the reasons why exactitude becomes essential. The cost of this last Census was estimated as follows: E. and W. £120,000; Scotland £30,000; Ireland £32,000. This was larger in each case than on any preceding occasion, the remuneration of the enumerators being fixed at a higher scale. The cost of the Census in E. and W. in 1841 was £86,728; 1851, £93,132; 1861, £95,719 (exclusive of postages). This was in 1841, £5 95. per 1000 of the pop. ; in 1851, £5 4s.; in 1861, £4 15s. 5d., or rather more than one penny per head for every man, woman, and child. The Census in Ireland was taken by the Irish constabulary and the Dublin police.
In June, 1871, preliminary reports upon the Census of England, Scotland, and Ireland, were presented to Parl. These, as usual, embodied many points of immediate interest. The more detailed Reports are still in course of preparation."
In 1872 there were pub. the following documents relating to the 9th Census of the U.S. : (1). Statis. of Pop., consisting of a most elaborate series of returns in T. I. to VIII. inclusive. (2). Statis. of the Blind, Deaf and Dumb, Insane and Idiotic (by States and Territories). (3). Statis. of Wealth, Taxation, and Public Indebtedness. (4). General Statis. of Agriculture (by States and Territories). We have to thank the President of the U.S., and also the Hon. Francis A. Walker, Supt. of the Census, for their thoughtful interest in sending us early copies of these important publications.
At the present time nearly every European country except Turkey has a Census of its pop. taken with more or less regularity. The value of the information so brought together cannot be overestimated. Much of it is presented in various forms through these pages. Many interesting articles thereon will be found in the pages of the Statis. Journ., beyond those already quoted. The various reports of the Census Commissioners, however, are the great storehouses of such facts, and these will be referred to in some detail in our art. on POPULATION.
CENTENARIAN.-A person who has reached a 100 years of age.
There has been, and
still is, a good deal of controversy regarding centenarianism. A great many of our bestinformed writers regard 100 years as the natural limit of the life of man, and to that age they assert a certain per-centage of all mankind attain. There is another class who assert that such a theory is preposterous, and contrary to Scripture authority. Taking advantage of the difficulties surrounding the proof of birth prior to a complete system of regis. being introduced, they discard every alleged Centenarian where the proof is incomplete. We do not intend to pursue the subject here: it will be treated fully under LONGEVITY, where it will be shown that there are numerous well-authenticated instances of centenarianism.
In 1872 Sir George Duncan Gibb, Bart., read before the Anthropological Institute a paper, The Physical Condition of Centenarians, as derived from Personal Observation in Nine Genuine Examples. [LONGEVITY.]
In 1872 also there was a case reported from Rochester, Illinois, U.S., of a man who had reached 103 committing suicide.
CENTENARIAN LONGEVITY.-By this term is implied the period of life beyond 100 years enjoyed by centenarians. Mr. Babbage drew attention to this subject in 1826, and compiled a T. of mort. applicable to such cases, without, however, having the opportunity of testing the credibility of the cases reported. His T. will be given in a following art. Mr. Milne offers some obs. thereon. [CARLISLE T. OF MORT.] [LONGEVITY.] CENTENARIAN TABLE OF MORTALITY.-Mr. Babbage, in his Comparative View, pub. 1826, included a T. which he had deduced from the lives of alleged centenarians. The T., he said, was formed from a collection of 1751 persons, who had reached the age of 100 and upwards. The greater part were selected from Easton's work, 1799; but some few of the names in that vol. were rejected as occurring twice, or as being of doubtful authority. Some additions were made by Mr. Babbage from other sources. They had all died before the commencement of the present century.
Mr. Babbage says, in reference to the data on which the T. is constructed:
About the ages marked by round numbers, as 110, 120, and 130, there appeared to be more deaths than the proper allowance: but the most singular, and which deserves notice, from its not being explicable on the same principle, was the large number which occurred at the age of 102, both amongst females and males, but particularly amongst the latter. Traces of this will be found in the diminished decrement of lives at 101, and the large increase at 102, but in the original list the disproportion was much greater.
In order to form the present T. 150 was assumed as the extent of human life, although there were two or three authentic instances of persons of greater age. Commencing with this period, wherever too large a number of deaths were found in any one year, they were equalized by transferring some of them to such of the preceding years as appeared to be deficient; thus it was imagined that the tendency to overrate the age of old people would be in some measure compensated,
TABLE OF 1751 PERSONS REACHING THE AGE OF 100 AND UPWARDS:
[In modern mort. T. the positions of the 2nd and 3rd cols. of this T. would be reversed. We give it as its compiler arranged it.]
CENTRAL LOAN, LIFE, AND REVERSION.-A co. under this title was projected in 1849; but prov. regis. was the limit of its attainment.
CEOLA. A large ship.-Blount.
CEPHALITIS.-Inflammation of the brain (Class, LOCAL; Order, Disease of Nervous System). The deaths from this cause in England present very slight variations. In ten consecutive years they were as follows: 1858, 3463; 1859, 3451; 1860, 3518; 1861, 3426; 1862, 3580; 1863, 3869; 1864, 4014; 1865, 4199; 1866, 4146; 1867, 4220. The average over a period of 15 years ending 1864 was 187 to each million of the pop. living.
The deaths in 1867 were: Males, 2337; Females, 1883. Of the males, 1213 died under the age of 5, and the remainder mostly in the younger ages-the decrease being steady as the ages advance. Of the females, 928 died under 5, and then the same as the males. See BRAIN DISEASE.
CEREBELLUM.-The little brain, situate behind the larger brain or cerebrum.
CEREBRUM. This term denotes the vessel which hold the brains, i.e. the skull: hence the brains. The term is restricted to the chief portion of the brain, occupying the whole upper cavity of the skull.
CERTIFICATE. A testimony given in writing to declare or verify the truth of anything; or of having discharged a duty, or complied with any specific requirements of the law. CERTIFICATE OF AGE.-This must be a transcript of some recognized official record of age, duly verified. If it be taken from any other than an official record, it will be termed a DECLARATION OF AGE.
CERTIFICATE OF BAPTISM.-A copy of the registry of baptism taken from the parish regis., or any other record authorized by law to be kept for such purpose, duly verified. It is by no means synonymous with "certificate of birth," inasmuch as baptism is usually more or less delayed after birth, sometimes for years; and with certain religious sects is altogether disregarded.
CERTIFICATE OF BIRTH.-This is an official copy of the actual entry in any duly au thorized register of births, properly certified by the official lawfully in charge of the same. CERTIFICATE OF BONUS.-On a declaration of bonus, a certificate is usually issued to each policy-holder, stating the amount of bonus, either cash or reversionary, and indicating how it has been or may be applied. [BONUS.]
CERTIFICATE OF BURIAL.-A certified copy of any entry of burial in a parish regis., or regis. of burials in any authorized public purial-place.
CERTIFICATE OF THE CAUSE OF DEATH.-No funeral can take place in Gt. Brit. until a copy of the entry in the register of deaths, signed by the registrar, or a certificate by a coroner, setting forth the cause of death, is produced to the minister performing the burial service, except in certain cases provided for by the General Registration Act, and in which the officiating minister has to give notice to the registrar. [FRIENDLY SOS., 1858.] CERTIFICATE OF DEATH.-An official copy of the entry in any register of deaths existing and kept pursuant to law.
CERTIFICATE OF HEALTH.-A certificate issued to a person seeking admission as a member of friendly sos. and other provident asso.
CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION.-The Cos. Act, 1862 (25 & 26 Vict. c. 89), provides (sec. 18), that upon regis. of the memorandum of asso., and of the art. of asso. (where required or desired), the registrar shall certify under his hand that the company is
incorporated, and in the case of a limited company, that the co. is limited, and such certificate shall be conclusive evidence that all the requisitions of the Act in respect of regis. have been complied with.
CERTIFICATE OF Loss (Marine).-It appears to have been the practice for the Clerk of the Chamber of Insurances to grant a Certificate of Loss after a proper investigation had been made into the circumstances of the loss, and the Chamber had become satisfied thereon. We have not met with one of these forms. [CHAMBERS OF INS.]
(Fire). — According to the early practice of F. ins. offices, a certificate had to be furnished by all claimants in respect of F. losses (in add. to their own affidavit or declaration), by the minister and churchwardens, and some other respectable inhabitants of the parish, not concerned in such loss, importing that they were well acquainted with the character and circumstances of the person or persons insured; and did know, or verily believe, that he, she, or they, really and by misfortune, without any fraud or evil practice, had sustained by such fire the loss and damage as his, her, or their loss, to the value therein mentioned. Here is a condition of this effect, as issued by the Sun F. office, under date Ist Nov., 1794:
Art. XI.-Persons ins. sustaining any loss or damage by fire are forthwith to give notice thereof at the office, and as soon as possible afterwards deliver in as particular an account of their loss or damage as the nature of the case will admit of . . . ; and procure a certificate under the hands of the minister and churchwardens, together with some other respectable inhabitants of the parish not concerned in such loss, importing that they are well acquainted with the character and circumstances of the person or persons ins., and do know or verily believe that he, she, or they, really and by misfortune, without any fraud or evil practice, have sustained by such fire the loss and damage as his, her, or their loss, to the value therein mentioned, etc., etc.
The Hand-in-Hand, Union, Lond. Assu., Royal Exchange, and indeed all the early F. offices, required similar certificates.
CERTIFICATE OF MARRIAGE.-A certified copy of the entry of marriage in any parish regis., or in any of the regis. of marriage provided under the Marriage Laws. [MARRIAGES, REGIS. OF.]
CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION. -The Joint-Stock Cos. Regis. Act (1844), 7 & 8 Vict. c. 110, provided for the issuing of certificates of PROVISIONAL REGIS., and of COMPLETE REGIS. These will be spoken of under those heads. The Cos. Act, 1862, 25 & 26 Vict. c. 89, provides (sec. 191), that cos. not orig. constituted under that Act may be regis. under it; and the certificate of incorp. given by the registrar of joint-stock cos. to any such co. shall be conclusive evidence that all the requisitions under that Act have been complied with; and the date of incorp. in such certificate shall be deemed to be the date at which the co. is incorp. under this Act.
CERTIFICATE OF SHARE.-The Cos. Act, 1862, declares (sec. 31), that a certificate under the common seal of the co. specifying any share or shares or stock held by any member of a co. shall be prima facie evidence of the title of the member to the share or shares or stock therein specified.
The Cos. Act, 1867, provides for the issuing of fully paid-up shares to bearer by means of share-warrants. [SHARES TO BEARER.] [SHARE-WARRANTS.] CESSPOOLS.-It can easily be shown that the mort. bears a certain proportion to the quantity of the poison which the people inhale; and that the quantity is greatest under the cesspool system, which formerly prevailed in Lond., and is now in use in the French, German, and Italian towns. The mort. has gradually fallen in Lond. as the cesspools have been abolished; it is still high in foreign cities where the cesspools are in use. Manchester, where the dirt is allowed to decay behind the houses, and is not thrown into sewers, the mort. was at the rate of 33 per 1000 in the years 1841-50; and in the foreign cesspooled cities the mort. ranges from 30 to 44 in the 1000.-Reg.-Gen., 21st R., 1860. Dr. T. Herbert Barker performed, about 1858, an ingenious series of experiments on animals to determine the effects of each of the noxious principles which arise from cesspools. He placed the animals in a close chamber by a cesspool, with which a tube opening into the chamber communicated, and a lamp was arranged so as to draw a current of cesspool air steadily over the creatures inside. With a pair of bellows Dr. Barker could draw the air from the chamber. A young dog in half an hour became very uneasy and restless; he vomited and had a distinct rigor, and in the course of a day was exhausted. When he was removed, he soon recovered. Another dog was subjected to the cesspool air during twelve days; in the first seven he underwent a series of sufferings not unlike the symptoms of the diseases of children in hot weather; on the ninth he was very ill and miserable. After he was liberated on the 12th day, he remained very thin and weak for six weeks. Dr. Barker then continued his experiments on the effects of definite doses of the gases in the sewers, and killed or poisoned several sparrows, linnets, jackdaws, and dogs.
In the 24th R. of Reg.-Gen. (1863), Dr. Farr took up the question, and observed: The practice of keeping the refuse of the sick and the healthy of successive generations in the cesspools alike of cottages and palaces every day grows more pernicious as the pop. becomes denser; for the water is defiled in wells, and even when the cesspools and drains are emptied into the Thames and other rivers, it is pumped again into the houses only partially purified. The ova of worms and the seeds of various diseases are thus diffused among children; while great numbers of men and women in the prime of life also suffer, and often die of the maladies which are the inevitable consequences of violations of natural laws.
Happily the cesspool system, and all its attendant evils, is being gradually driven from the towns of Gt. Brit.
CESTUI QUE TRUST.—The person who possesses the equitable right to deal with property, and receive the rents, issues, and profits thereof.
CESTUI QUE VIE.-The person for whose life any lands, tenements, or hereditaments may be held.
CHADWICK, DAVID, M.P., was for some years District Agent in Manchester for the Globe Ins. Co., and afterwards for the Liverpool, London and Globe, and secured a large and important bus. for these offices.
CHADWICK, EDWIN, C.B., Barrister-at-Law and Social Economist.-He has during the whole of the present generation been an earnest worker in the cause of the public health. Mr. Chadwick was born in 1801. His publications have been numerous, although mostly in the shape of official reports. We propose to notice all such as relate to our subject. In 1828 he contributed a paper to the Westminster Review, on L. Assu. [LIFE INS., HIST. OF.]
In 1838, being then connected with the Poor Law Board, Mr. Chadwick obtained the consent of the Commissioners to a special inquiry into the local and preventible causes of disease, and the improvement of habitations in the metropolis. As the result of this investigation, he presented a Report, proposing a venous and arterial system of water supply and drainage for the improvement of towns, and works for the application of sewage to agricultural production.
A little later a similar inquiry was extended to the whole of England and Wales, and was taken charge of by Mr. Chadwick, although he had then become Sec. of the Poor Law Board. The result of this larger inquiry appeared in the shape of Reports from time to time under various titles.
In 1843 he presented a Report On the Results of a Special Inquiry into the Practice of Interments in Towns; which document laid the foundation of subsequent legis. upon that subject. In the same year he read before the Statistical So. of Lond. a paper: On the best mode of representing by returns the Duration of Life and Causes of Mort. [See vol. vii. of Statis. Journ.]
In 1848 he was appointed a Commissioner of the General Board of Health, for improving the supplies of water, and the sewage, drainage, cleansing, and paving of towns. In 1858 Mr. Chadwick read before the Social Science Congress at Liverpool a paper: On the Application of Sanitary Science to the Protection of the Indian Army, in which the subject was treated in a very complete and conclusive manner.
In 1860 he delivered before the Public Health Department of the Social Science Congress at Glasgow an address as Vice-President, which address abounds with facts of a most important character, drawn for the most part from undoubted sources.
In 1861 Mr. Chadwick delivered an address before the Brit. Asso. at Cambridge, as President of the Section of Economic Science and Statistics, in which he treated of many subjects associated with health and statistics.
CHAIRMAN.-Every ins. asso. is supposed to have a Chairman. In some cases the Chairman is fixed by the deed or art. of asso.; in others he is elected by the ann. meeting. More generally the chairman of the co. is the chairman of the board of directors, and is elected by the directors annually or otherwise. The L. Assu. Cos. Act of 1870 gives the following definition :- "The term 'Chairman' means the person for the time being presiding over the court or board of directors of the co." Sec. 10 provides that "every statement or abstract herein before required to be made shall be signed by the 'Chairman, etc. [ACCOUNTS.]
CHALK STONES.-Gouty concretions, resembling half-dried mortar, formed under the skin, about the joints, chiefly of the fingers and toes, and consisting of urate of soda. CHALKING [or CAULKING].-Stopping the seams in a ship or a vessel. CHALMERS, GEORGE, pub. in Lond., in 1782, An Estimate of the Comparative Strength of Gt. Brit., and of the Losses of her Trade from every War since the Revolution. There was appended to the ed. of this work, pub. 1802, and generally called Chalmers' Estimate, the "Political Conclusions of Gregory King," which we shall speak of hereafter. The last ed. was pub. in Edin. in 1812. This work exhibits the constant progress made by the country in wealth and pop. from the Revolution down to 1812, and shows that complaints of the decline of trade, the impoverished condition of the people, and the oppressiveness of taxation, have been constantly occurring, and have been usually put forward with the greatest confidence when there was least foundation for them.McCulloch. We have had occasion to quote this book in various parts of the present work. CHALMERS, WILLIAM, was General Man. of North of Scotland (now Northern) Ins. Co. from its formation in 1836 down to 1865, when he retired upon a full pension. He died Oct., 1872, aged 71. CHALYBEATE WATERS (Ferruginous Waters).—Mineral waters, whose active principle is iron. There are two kinds: the carbonated, containing carbonate of the protoxide of iron; and the sulphated, containing sulphate of iron. There are variations containing other properties. Invalids are sent to the various Spas to obtain the curative properties of these waters.
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.-An assembly of merchants and traders where affairs relating to trade are treated of.
There has been a good deal of speculation regarding the origin of Chambers of ComKing Edward II. is said to have summoned a chamber of merchants to meet him at Lincoln in 1315; but the purport of this assembly, and whether it was the first of its kind, does not appear. Macpherson, in his Annals of Commerce, gives the following account of their origin, under date 1318:
The King being desirous of consulting with judicious and prudent merchants concerning the establishment of the staple of wool in Flanders and other commercial matters, John of Cherleton, citizen of Lond. and mayor of the merchants of England, who was furnished by the King's council with a particular statement of the matters to be considered, together with two merchants chosen out of every city and burgh throughout the kingdom, were summoned to meet at Lond. in the Octaves of St. Hilary, in order to deliberate upon those matters (Fadera, vol. iii. p. 740). This is, properly speaking, the earliest council of trade known in English history or record, as the merchants appear to have formed a board of themselves; whereas those summoned to Lincoln in the year 1315 seem to have been called only to give information and perhaps advice to the King's council or parliament.
We had expected that the early hist. of Chambers of Commerce would throw some light upon the hist. of marine and other branches of ins. In this we have been disappointed; and it is prob. that in earlier times the general prevalence of Chambers of Ins. prevented the Chambers of Commerce from attempting to regulate matters of ins. as they have sometimes attempted to do in modern times. [CHAMBERS OF INS.] [TRIBUNALS OF COMMERCE.]
CHAMBERLAYNE, EDWARD, pub. in 1668, Anglia Notitia; or, the Present State of England, with Divers Remarks upon the Ancient State thereof. This work passed through a large number of eds. The first 20 were ed. by the author himself; and about the same number by his son. It treated of pop., and such kindred subjects as are included in the range of political arithmetic. McCulloch speaks on the whole favourably of it. We have had occasion to quote it in these pages.
CHAMBERS' EDINBURGH JOURNAL.-Various articles bearing upon ins. have appeared in this pub. The following paper, pub. 1841, attracted considerable attention: Cautions respecting L. Assu. and Annu. (No. 474).
CHAMBERS OF INSURANCE.-At a very early period Chambers of Ins. were estab. in various cities of Europe. Their objects appear to have been two-fold: (1) to promote the practice of marine ins. on a solid and uniform basis; and (2) to settle all disputes arising among merchants and others concerning matters of ins.
The earliest of these Chambers, of which we have any present indication, appear to have been founded in the Mediterranean ports about the 12th century. The chief of these was prob. in Venice, which appears for several centuries to have been the chosen seat of marine ins.
We have already seen that a Chamber of Ins. is stated to have been estab. at Bruges in 1310. [BRUGES.]
It seems more than probable that a Chamber of Ins. existed in Barcelona in the 13th or 14th century. [BARCELONA.]
A Chamber of Ins. was estab. in Amsterdam in 1598, called the "Kamer von Assurantie." In 1600 a Chamber of Ins. was estab. at "the city of Middleburg in Zealand" (Holland). The Ins. Ordin. promulgated in that city in Sept. of that year provides :
XXIX. The officers, commissioners of the Chamber of Assu., their sec., his sworn clerk, the officers of the customs or brokers of assu., shall not make nor cause any assu. to be made, either directly or indirectly [as on their own account, or as underwriters].
XXXIII. All differences arising between any parties concerning affairs of assu. made in this place shall in the first instance be inquired into and be determined according to this Ordin. by commissioners of the Chamber of Assu., who are to the number of three appointed for that purpose.
A Chamber of Maritime Affairs was estab. in Rotterdam, prob. at an early date. The Ins. Ordin. of 1721 says (Art. 1): "All disputes arising in this city, relating to assu., averages, or other affairs of navigation, shall in the first instance be determined by the Chamber for the Maritime Law estab. in this city."
Other continental cities had or have Chambers of Ins. under various designations, as "Courts of Ins." "Offices of Ins." etc., etc. These are mostly spoken of under the Ins. Ordin., or Hist. of Ins. in those places. It is not unlikely that some, if not many, of the various Ins. Ordin., of which such frequent mention is made in these pages, owe their origin in the fact of the existence of these early Chambers of Ins.
The Consolato del Mare was prob. used, if not in part compiled, by the early Chambers of Ins.; while in some cases prob. the Consular Courts assumed the functions of the Chambers of Ins. [CONSOLATO DEL MARE.] [CONSULAR COUrts.]
It seems not improbable that some of these Chambers of Ins. became transformed into corporate bodies, and instead of remaining confined to their original functions of registering and regulating ins. made by others, actually undertook the bus. of ins. themselves. The Ins. Co. of Copenhagen, which received a Royal Charter in 1746, seems to be a case in point. The Ins. Co. of Stockholm, chartered in 1750, we regard as another. The practice prob. became more general: for in the French Dict. du Citoyen, we find the following:
The credit of these [Foreign] Chambers or Cos. of Ins. depends chiefly upon the ability of the