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14. SUBSTITUTIONS AND ADDITIONS.-Parties insured may sell, exchange, or substitute animals during the term of their agreement. In every case of substitution, immediate notice must be given to the inspector, who must certify, in the prescribed form, that the animals so substituted are in good health; if of less value than those for which they are substituted, it must be stated, that the proportion of that value will be paid in case of loss.
15. If an insurer's stock be increased in number, an additional proposal must be made, and the usual forms complied with, before they can be protected by the Co. Immediate notice of any additions to stock must be given to the inspector, and 21 days must elapse before they are protected.
16. Animals substituted in the place of such as have died and been paid for by the Co., or slaughtered by their order, for the benefit of the owner, will also be subject to a fresh agreement, and notice must be given to the inspector, that an additional proposal may be filled up, and the rate paid.
17. Animals introduced as additions or substitutions into a stock, which has in it any infectious disease, will not be protected till after the whole stock has been free from it for 3 months.
18. The whole of the animals of any particular class, on a farm, must be insured. If any such are found among the stock, after the agreement is issued (which are not insured), the agreement will be void. 19. The ins. will only extend to cattle on the farm or lands specified in the agreement, unless permission shall have been obtained from the directors to remove them to other lands or farms.
20. All losses will be paid immediately after the claim has been established to the satisfaction of the directors (on the allowance of discount), or at the expiration of 3 months, without discount.
21. Glanders and castration may be ins. against by special agreement.
22. Any continuous insurer not having had a loss in the previous year, will be allowed 5 p.c. bonus on his new prem. to an amount not exceeding the previous year's prem.
23. If any party attempt to defraud the Co., or keep back any information which the directors should be made acquainted with, he will forfeit all claim for compensation, and not be admitted to protection again; and if any positive fraud be detected, the offender will be prosecuted.
24. Should the insured have reason to complain of irregularity in the management of the bus. of the Co., it is requested that immediate communication be made to the Board of Directors.
In 1846 a project was before the Gov. of Belgium that certain branches of ins. bus. should be undertaken by the State. A Commission was appointed, and reported in favour of the proposal, and suggested the Ins. of Cattle should be included in the project. A further Commission was appointed, and reported against the project, mainly for the following reasons: The varying value and nicety of calculation required to fix the sum which ought to be paid, when, in some cases, the loss might be caused by the carelessness of the proprietor; and in other cases might occur by epidemics, in spite of the utmost vigilance and skill. The difficulty of proving what was the cause of death. And lastly the uncertain manner in which epidemics spread-one district being exposed to severe losses, whilst another is entirely free.
In 1847 the United Kingdom Cattle Ins. Co. was founded, and carried on bus. for several years. In the end many of its claims were left unpaid.
About 1848 a scheme was also brought forward in France for the Gov. to undertake the bus. of ins., including Cattle Ins. It was proposed to charge a uniform prem. of 11⁄2 p.c. upon the estimated saleable value of all live stock. The energy of the offices repelled this attempt. [See 1857.]
About 1848 or 1849, there was founded at Pfalz, in Bavaria, a Cattle Ins. Co. At a meeting held at Neustadt in March, 1850, it was reported that the Co. consisted of 3072 shareholders, with a cap. of £60,537. The number of horses insured was 2285; cattle, 7042; sheep and goats, 383; and swine, 245: The losses indemnified were: 58 horses for £330; 102 cattle for £292; 3 goats for 1 5s; and 2 swine for £2 13s. 6d. From these figures the Eds. of the Assu. Mag. constructed the following T. [vol. i. p. 349]: Losses. Per Cent. Average value
In 1849 was founded the Norfolk Farmers Ins. Co., which speedily took a leading position in the bus. of Ins. Cattle; and which now is enabled to say that it was the only one of its class which has "withstood the plagues of pneumonia, or lung disease, as well as the more recent cattle plague." We shall give a full hist. of this Co. under its alphabetical title.
In 1849 was also founded the North Staffordshire Mut. Cattle Ins. Co.
In 1849 or 1850 a co. was projected for insuring cattle while travelling by railway. We believe it made no progress.
A paper prepared by Herr E. A. Masius, and submitted to the Convention of Actuaries held in Lond. in 1851, contains the following passages:
Cattle ins. is of all kinds of ins. [practised in Germany] the one which has the least prospered, or been able to acquire the confidence necessary to the management of the bus.; and I would again repeat. . . . that it can scarcely be maintained so as to indemnify all cases of loss. Besides a very laborious and expensive management, it requires a continual control, which cannot be kept up, seeing that the mort. is in general too high, and that the objects insured cannot support the heavy charges. When cattle are uninsured, far more circumspection is applied by the owners to their preservation and care, and losses are much less frequent; besides, with the exception of those arising from epidemic diseases, they are lighter to bear, as the diminution is compensated by the young animals reared, and
considerable net proceeds accrue to the proprietors from the surviving stock. The more extensive breeders in healthy pasture lands and climates consider it therefore preferable to be self-insurers, and those who are less favourably situated are unable to support a co., as the prems, to be contributed amount to too high a sum.
These are the reasons why cattle ins., which I first introduced into Germany in the year 1830, has not succeeded in raising itself in the same degree as other branches of ins.; and why no co. of the kind has reached the tenth year of its existence. At present there are in Germany only two subsisting sos. on the mut. plan; one of them, since 1846, at Darmstadt, for the province of Starkenburg; and the other since 1848 at Cologne, with the title of Cologne and Munster Cattle Ins. Union. Both have Gov. protection and corporate rights; nevertheless they have but recently narrowly escaped the fate of their several departed sister asso. The Cologne-Munster Union, in the year 1850, had ins. a sum of £145,318. The receipts of prem. were £3950; expenses of management, £1289; losses, £3680 -reckoned at two-thirds of the value as estimated for compensation. The cases of death may thence be taken at about 4 p.c.-a rate of prem, which in fact only such farmers would take care to lay out as are in hopes of gaining more by such a course.-Assu. Mag., vol. ii. p. 119.
In 1853 was founded the National Live Stock Ins. Co., which carried on bus. until 1862, when its connexions merged into the Norfolk Farmers. In the same year was founded the General Live Stock Ins. Co., which, after carrying on a considerable amount of bus., passed into a disastrous liquidation in 1857. Its bus. connexions were trans. to
the Lond. and County.
In 1854 the London and County Hail and Cattle Ins. Co. was founded, and continued in bus. until 1859, when its connexions were trans. to the Norfolk Farmers.
In 1857 a scheme was propounded for a General Bank for Agricultural Ins. in France. A branch was to be devoted to the Ins. of Cattle. The details were worked out in a most elaborate manner. We can but give a brief abstract of them:
Class I. was to include horses, mules, asses, oxen employed in agricultural labour, milch cows at pasture, or stalled in the country; goats, horses, and mules for saddle or harness. The aggregate value of these was estimated at £40,000,000; the proposed prem. was I pc, which would yield £400,000 p.a. Brood mares, cows, etc., were to be of the same class, and same prem. Their value was placed at £3,840,000, giving giving in ann. prem. £38,400.
Class II. comprised pigs. The aggregate value was put at £8,000,000, which at I p.c. prem. would produce £80,000.
Class III. applied to sheep and lambs. Value, £16,000,000; proposed rate, 2 p.c.; ann. prems., £320,000.
Class IV.-Horses of the gendarmerie and officers of the army. Estimated value, £160,000; rate, 1 p.c.; prems., £2400.
Class V.-Horses or mules for riding or draught; oxen for draught; stallions, bulls, and rams; milch cows kept out of the towns. Aggregate value, £6,000,000; rate 2 p.c.; prems., £135,000.
Class VI.-Horses and mules belonging to carriers, the mail post diligences, public vehicles or barges, or livery stables; milch cows kept in towns, or their environs. Value, £6,000,000; rate, 3 p.c.; prems., £180,000.
It is remarked that "the risk of mort. should not be exclusively calculated on the class of animals employed, or the nature of the work in which they are engaged; but regard should be had, to a certain extent, to the localities which they inhabit, and especially to the conditions of nourishment, care, and shelter which they receive." Regarding the rates, it is remarked:
The rate may be diminished by one-fifth only if the commune during the same period [since 1826] has been only once visited by an epidemic, and where the health of the cattle is generally good. The rates may be increased by one-fifth, if since 1826, the commune has been visited by epidemics 2 to 4 times; by two-fifths if from 5 to 8 times; by three-fifths if from 8 to 12 times; by four-fifths, if from 13 to 18 times; and if more than 18 times, the rate may be doubled.
Of cattle and other agricultural stock, valued at £80,000,000, only £400,000 was stated to be covered by ins. The cattle insured against epidemics by the then existing sos. was charged at the rate of 4 p.c. of its value; and yet "for the most part the indemnity is less than the loss. By the scheme proposed the rate was to be 124 p.c. of the value of agricultural stock. The scheme was not carried out. Various Cos. for Cattle Ins. have been founded in France, of which we shall give some account under FRANCE.
In 1857 the Pontefract and West Riding Horse and Cattle Ins. Co. was founded, and continues to carry on bus.
About 1859 or 1860, a remarkable circumstance was reported regarding the vaccination of Cattle. It was stated that of 3 Cattle Ins. Cos. in Holland, one made a practice of having all the cattle it ins. vaccinated as a safeguard against pneumonia; another had vaccination performed as soon as the disease had broken out in the animals' stalls; and the last took no precaution of the kind. The results were said to be, that the first co. in a certain period lost 6 p.c. of the insured cattle; the second co. II p.c.; and the third co. 40 p.c.! We have said elsewhere, this subject of vaccination of cattle is worthy of
In 1862 the Provincial Horse and Cattle Ins. Co. was founded at Nottingham, and continued in bus. down to 1867.
In 1865 there were founded the following offices: (1) Altrincham Cattle Plague Ins. Asso. (2) Banbury Cattle Plague Ins. Asso. (3) County Cattle Ins. Co. (Hertford).
(4) Kendal Union Cattle Ins. Co. (5) South Lancashire Cattle Ins. Co. (6) Warwickshire Cattle Ins. Co.
In 1866 there were founded the following offices: (1) Langport Union Cattle Ins. Co. (2) Tetbury Mut. Cattle Ins. Asso. (3) West Dorset Cattle Ins. Co.
In 1866 there was passed the 29 & 30 Vict. c. 34, the object of which was to facilitate the formation of Local Cattle Ins. Asso., which were so much needed in consequence of the prevailing disease. The main provisions of this Act were: (Sec. 1.) Notwithstanding anything in 18 & 19 Vict. c. 63, relating to F. Sos., a so. may be estab. for the assu. to any amount against loss by death of neat cattle, sheep, lambs, swine, and horses, from disease or otherwise; and neither the provisions in sec. 9, that no member shall subs. or contract for a sum payable on death or any other contingency exceeding £200, nor sec. 38, should apply to any such so. estab., or which might thereafter [11 June, 1866] be so estab. for such purpose. (Sec. 2.) All contributions, prems., and other payments payable by any member of any such so., under the rules thereof, in respect of any assu. effected by him, shall be considered as a debt due by him to the So., and shall be recoverable as such in the County Court of the district within which the usual or principal place of bus. of the So. is situate. We are not aware of many asso. being formed under these provisions.
In 1869 there was founded the Lake Districts Farmers Cattle Ins. Asso. (Cumberland). In 1870 the graduated scale of stamp duties on cattle ins. pol. was entirely abolished, and a fixed charge of Id. on each pol. adopted in its stead. The amount had been ann. decreasing for several years previously: thus in 1865 it realized £535 145.; in 1866, £506 os. 10d. ; in 1867, £70 6s. 8d. ; in 1868, £38 15. 6d. The stamps had always been charged to the insured. In 1849 there had been a monstrous decision given in the Court of Exchequer, in the case of Att.-Gen. v. Cleobury, viz. that a pol. on the lives of cattle was an ins. on lives within 55 Geo. III. c. 184, and therefore liable to the same stamp duty as was paid on a life pol.
In Austria, in 1871, there were in existence the following offices for the ins. of cattle: (1) Apis Cattle Ins. Co., in Vienna; (2) Bohemian Mut. Cattle Ins. Bank, at Prague; (3) Cattle Ins. Co. in Vorarlberg; (4) Mutual Cattle Ins. Union of the So. of Milk Farmers in Vienna; (5) Mutual Horned Cattle Ins. Union, at Spitz, Lower Austria; (6) Prometheus Mut. Ins. Union, at Linz, Upper Austria.
In 1872 there has been founded under powerful auspices the Scottish Farmers Live Stock Ins. Co. A scheme of Mut. Cattle Ins. is also under agitation, to the promoters of which the preceding facts may be suggestive and useful.
In most of the modern cattle ins. asso. the ins. of horses against death from disease is included. The Norfolk Farmers Co. have recently introduced the feature of ins. horses against death by violence. We shall speak of this feature more fully under HORSES,
We may take the opportunity of correcting an error in reference to the rate of agency commission allowed on Cattle ins. Instead of 12 to agents, it has been 5 p.c. to agents, and 74 to inspectors; the same on renewals. The Norfolk Farmers now pays 10 p.c. to agents on new prems., and 5 p.c. on renewals-paying the inspectors by fees. CATTLE PLAGUE.-A disease in cattle, considered to be identical with the epizootic malady known on the European Continent as the Rinderpest, or Russian Steppe Murrain. There are in fact many kinds of Cattle Plague. Dr. Farr classes them all under the generic term Bovia, from the Greek. See CATTLE, DISEASES OF.
CAUSE OF DEATH.-Cases not unfrequently arise in the practice of L. and of accident ins., in which the ascertainment of the real cause of death becomes of very great importance. In L. ins. almost the only question which can arise is whether the death arose from suicide. In accident ins. the range is much wider. A man is riding along the road, and falls off his horse. He is picked up dead; but the external marks of injury are very slight. The coroner's jury sit, and of course decide that the man was killed by the fall. The ins. office is dissatisfied, and insists upon a post-mortem examination. The doctors find the cause of death was apoplexy, a fit, or sunstroke. All of these are causes of death outside the conditions of the pol., i.e. they form no part of the risk insured against. Again, a man slightly injures his foot, or his hand; the injury is so slight that he takes no especial notice of it. In a few days erysipelas sets in, or pyamia shows itself, and he dies. But erysipelas and pyæmia are very properly excluded from the causes of death covered by an accident ins. pol.-they arise from a debilitated condition of system, or impure blood, and are not "consequent upon” the injury sustained; inasmuch as out of 100 persons injured in a similar manner, only one will die from either of these causesshowing therefore, according to all reasoning, that the cause of death lay in the man injured, and not in the nature of the injury sustained. Various other instances occur, as rupture," after a slight fall or shake, etc., etc.
There are various decisions in the English Law Books, which have been [ACCIDENT INS.], or will be, referred to in these pages, as bearing upon deaths of this class.
In the case of Miller v. Mutual Benefit L. Ins. Co., heard before the Supreme Court of Iowa (U.S.), in 1871, the ruling was as follows:
When several causes contribute to death as a result, it may be externally difficult to determine which VOL. 1.
was the remote and which the immediate cause; yet this difficulty does not change the fact that the death is to be attributed to the proximate, and not to the mediate cause. Nor is the difficulty in questions of this kind any greater than that which arises in questions of negligence, contributory negligence, and many others which are constantly the subjects of judicial investigation. [See also DEATH, CAUSES OF.] [CERTIFICATE OF CAUSE OF DEATH.]
CAUSTON, WILLIAM REAY, was for many years a most active agent in Gloucester for the Norwich Union Fire and Life offices.
CAUTIONER.-A surety. The term is more particularly used in Scotland.
CAVE, STEPHEN, M. P., Banker, Bristol; ostensibly the author of the "Life Assu. Cos. Act, 1870."-Mr. Cave filled the office of Vice-President of the Board of Trade under the Conservative Administration, 1866, and while in that position [about 1868] introduced a motion to the House of Commons praying for an inquiry into the mode of conducting ins. bus. in Gt. Brit. The belief then was that the measure was aimed at the Albert and European offices. The inquiry was not granted; and whether it would have been productive of any good is therefore only problematical. In 1872 he moved the House for an inquiry into the causes which had led to the failure of those offices; but here again he was defeated. Mr. Cave is not officially connected with any ins. office. CAVE, THOMAS, M.P., was Man. Director of the Anchor F. and L. Ins. Co. from 1855 down to its amalg. in 1857. He made great efforts to place the Co. on a solid foundation, but without success. Mr. Cave was for a short period after the amalg. connected with the Bank of Lond., etc., Ins. Co.
CAVEAT. A warning or caution-literally, that he take heed. A process used in the Ecclesiastical Courts to prevent the proving a will, or the granting of administration, or the institution of a parson. When a Caveat is entered against proving a will or granting administration, a suit usually follows to determine either the validity of such will, or who has a right to administer. There are some other cases in which a Caveat is resorted to, as a means of raising an issue, or delaying proceedings.
CAXTON LIFE ASSU. So., founded in 1854, with an authorized cap. of £100,000. The orig. prosp. said:
The intrinsic value of L. assu. is now so universally admitted, that he whose income depends on mental or physical exertion for making provision for those near and dear to him, cannot be held blameless in not availing himself of it, especially as its advantages may be secured by the exercise of a little self-denial, even where incomes are limited and precarious.
The Gov. under which we live, duly appreciating the importance of L. assu., has wisely reduced the stamp duties hitherto imposed, as an encouragement to its more general adoption.
Although the title of a so., provided it indicate the objects contemplated, is usually deemed but of little import, yet some value is attached to that of the "Caxton," from the fact that the literary and commercial world have alike benefited by his exertions. Caxton introduced into England the pressthe most powerful engine in the universe; and as a merchant, by his diplomatic skill, opened to Brit. enterprise the ports of Holland and others, which for many years previously had been closed against it.... For these and other signal services, on Caxton were conferred various marks of Royal favour.
"Every description of L. assu. transacted, including residents in the U.K. and in foreign countries. Then, under "advantages of this So.," there was the following:
Non-forfeiture of pol. Where pol. on which 3 years' prems. shall have been paid, and not being in connexion with loans, are discontinued, from whatever cause, the whole amount of the prems. which have been paid will be returned whenever the life shall drop, to the representatives of the assured, after deducting one year's prem, and expenses; such return however will be lost unless claim be made within 6 calendar months after decease of the insured.
"Pol. never disputed-except in cases of fraud." "Half the prem. may remain on credit for 5 years.' Lives "under average of full health" ins. [DISEASED LIVES.] [SUBSTITUTION OF LIVES.] [BUILDING SO. INs.] [LOANS.]
We believe the founder of this Co. was Mr. Thos. Pott; Mr. James Charles Hardy was Man. Director and Sec.; Mr. W. E. Hillman, Consulting Act.
In 1856 the Co. passed into a winding up, under the Court of Chancery, having been eaten up with printing and other preliminary expenses.
CAXTON LIFE, FIRE, LOAN, ANNUITY, AND GUAR. SO., projected in 1852, but did not get beyond prov. regis.
CAYAGIUM. A duty or toll paid to the king for landing goods at some quay or wharf. — Cowel.
CAZENOVE, JOHN, was sec. of Family Edowment from 1843 to 1858.
CELESTIAL GIFTS.--Hufeland speaks of Light, Heat, Air, as the "three celestial gifts, which with great propriety may be called the friends and guardian spirits of life." [AIR] [COLD.] [HEAT.] [LIFE.] LIGHT.]
CELIBACY [from calebs, unmarried].-An unmarried, or single state of life. The effect of Celibacy upon the duration of life has been the subject of much comment and some observation. We shall consider that part of the case under MARRIAGE, INFLUENce of. The monastic life was preached by St. Anthony, in Egypt, about A.D. 305. The early converts to this doctrine lived in caves and desolate places till regular monasteries were founded. The doctrine was rejected in the Council of Nice, A.D. 325. Celibacy was enjoined to bishops only in 692. The Romish clergy generally were compelled to a vow of celibacy in 1073. Its observance was finally estab. by the Council of Placentia, held in 1095. The privilege of marriage was restored to the English clergy in 1547. The marriage of the clergy was proposed, but negatived, at the Council of Trent in 1563.-Vincent.
Among the illustrious philosophers of antiquity the following were unfriendly to matrimony: Anaxagoras, Democritus, Diogenes, Dion, Epicurus, Heraclitus, Plato, and Pythagoras; and among the modern the following: Akenside, Angelo (Michael), Bayle, Bentham (Jeremy), Boyle, the three Caraccis, Collins, Drake (Sir Francis), Essex (Earl of), Fénélon, Gibbon, Goldsmith, Gray, Hampden, Handel, Harvey, Haydn, Hobbes, Hume, Leibnitz, Locke, Malthus, Newton, Pascal, Pitt, Pope, Reynolds (Sir Joshua), Smith (Adam), Thomson, and Wolsey. [POPULATION.] CELLAR DWELLINGS.-The number of persons living in cellars in some of our large towns was found to be so considerable, and the direct mort., as well as the danger to the public health, so great in consequence, that the Legislature took up the subject, and by means of the Public Health and Local Government Acts, and the Metropolitan Management Acts, have provided remedies for lessening these evils to a very great extent. CEMETERY [from the Greek, to set to sleep].—A place of burial, differing from a churchyard by its locality and incidents. By its locality, as it is separate and apart from any sacred building used for the performance of Divine service; by its incidents, that inasmuch as no vault or burying-place in an ordinary churchyard can be purchased for a perpetuity, in a cemetery a permanent burial-place can be obtained. CEMETERIES.—The ancients had not the unwise custom of crowding all their dead in the midst of their towns and cities, within the narrow precincts of a place reputed sacred, much less of amassing them in the bosom of their fanes and temples. The burying-places of the Greeks and Romans were at a distance from their towns, and the Jews had their sepulchres in gardens (John xix. 41), in the fields, and among rocks and mountains (Matt. xxvii. 60). The present [recent] practice was introduced by the Romish clergy, who asserted that the dead enjoyed peculiar privileges by being interred in consecrated ground. Haydn.
Some 300 years ago (1552) Bishop Latimer, contrasting the custom of the citizens of Nain with those of the citizens of Lond., said:
And here you may note, by the way, that these citizens had their burying-place without the city, which no doubt is a laudable thing, and I do marvel that Lond., being so rich a city, has not a buryingplace without, for no doubt it is an unwholesome thing to bury within the city, specially at such a time when there be great sickness so that many die together. I think that many a man taketh his death in Paul's churchyard, and this I speak of experience; for I myself when I have been there to hear the sermons have felt such an ill-favoured unwholesome savour that I was the worse for it a great while after. And I think no less that it be the occasion of much sickness and diseases; therefore the citizens of Nain had a good and laudable custom to bury their corses without the city, which ensample we may follow.
Under BURIAL we have already given many details regarding modern legis, on the subject of burials; we need not therefore repeat them here. Up to 1865 there had been raised, under the authority of various Acts, no less a sum than £1,400,000 for providing parochial cemeteries. That sum is now largely increased. Lond. is now well provided with cemeteries: the first, Kensal Green, 32 acres, was opend just 40 years since --2nd Nov., 1832. The others as follows: South Metro. and Norwood, 40 acres, 1837; Highgate and Kentish Town, 22 acres, 1839; Abney Park, Stoke Newington, 30 acres, 1840; West Lond., Kensington Road, 1840; Nunhead, 50 acres, 1840; City of Lond. and Tower Hamlets, 30 acres, 1841; Lond. Necropolis and Nat. Mausoleum, Woking, 2000 acres, 1855; City of Lond., Ilford, 1856. More recently the Gt. Northern. That the general estab. of cemeteries is an active element in improving the health of the people, is a proposition without a negative. [BURIAL.] [PUBLIC HEALTH.] CENEGILD (from the Saxon).-An expiatory mulct paid by one, who killed another, to the kindred of the deceased.
CENSUS.-A numbering of the people. The term originated in Rome, being derived from censors, upon whom fell the duty of numbering the people. Moses numbered the Israelites, B.C. 1490; David, B.C. 1017. The numbering by David was imputed to him as a crime, because he had done it in a spirit of pride and vain-glory. The Greeks had a census, prob. introduced by Solon, between B. C. 638 and 658. Certainly previously to Solon no census had been instituted at Athens. When instituted there it was for the purpose of determining the rights of the citizens by property, rather than birth, as previously. Demetrius Phalereus is said to have taken a census of Attica, B.C. 317.
Rome from a very early period had a census of its citizens. It is believed to have been instituted by Servius Tullius, who commenced to reign as its 6th king in B. C. 578. Lenglet du Fresnoy says the first census of Rome was taken B.C. 566. The censors, or magistrates, to whom the task of preparing the census was entrusted, were amongst the principal officers of the State; indeed the office was regarded as so honourable and important that it was an object of the highest ambition. Every Roman citizen was obliged to disclose his name, his age, the place of his residence, the name and age of his wife, the number of his children, slaves, and cattle, the value of his property, and the class and century [legion] in which he was enrolled. The declaration of the parties was confirmed by an oath; and in the event of its being discovered that they had made a false return, they were punished by the confiscation of their property, and the loss of liberty. Those who neglected to enrol themselves in the census were subjected to the same punishment; it being held, as Cicero has informed us, that an individual failing to enrol himself renounced by that act his right of citizenship, and rendered himself unworthy of freedom. In the