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In 1849 M. Loiset, in his report to the National Assembly of France, fixed the ann. average of losses by mort. of cattle in France at 40 millions of francs-£1,600,000. This was considered to be somewhat overstated.-Assu. Mag. vol. viii. p. 295.
In 1857 a severe epidemic was raging amongst cattle in several foreign countries; and prohibitions were issued against the import of any animals from such countries into Gt. Brit.
The Norfolk Farmers Ins. Co. computed that more than 187,000 cattle died of pleuropneumonia in 1860, and that 960,000 died of that disease in the six years preceding the outbreak of the rinderpest. Prof. Gamgee stated that, in 1862, the sacrifice by pleuropneumonia amounted to £2,000,000 worth of cattle. This may be an excessive statement; but the losses returned by the above-named ins. co. were 691 p.c. of all prems. upon ins. of cattle in 1858; 45 p.c. in 1859; and 47 p. c. in 1860.
In Aug. and Sept, 1862, many sheep in Wiltshire died of the smallpox; and the Gov. took steps to prevent contagion.
On the 24th June, 1865, there commenced at a dairy in Islington that great modern outbreak of disease known as the Cattle Plague, or Rinderpest. From this one centre the disease rapidly spread through Gt. Brit.; and the means of its so spreading has been distinctly traced to the sending of a single fat cow from a neighbouring dairy to the Metropolitan Cattle Market for sale. Prof. Simonds declared the disease to be identical with the cattle plague of Russia and Eastern Europe. The rapidity of its progress may be seen from the following facts:-By the 14th of July the plague had been recognized in many other London dairies, and also at Dalston and Hendon, and it appeared simultaneously in four distant counties, Norfolk, Suffolk, Shropshire, and Devonshire, being in all of them distinctly traceable to direct importation. Before the end of July it had also shown itself in Kent, Northumberland, Sussex, Hants, Aberdeen, Stafford, Flint, and Essex. The reported number of attacks rose from 639 in the week ending July 8, to 1203 in the week ending August 19, and to 10, 107 in the last seven days of the year. By the end of 1866 every county in England, except Westmoreland, had suffered, as had also two counties in Wales and 22 in Scotland. Up to the same date 278,439 cattle are reported to have been attacked in Gt. Brit. Of these 133,455 died, 99,686 were slaughtered, 40,182 recovered, and 5116 remain unaccounted for. The Privy Council reporter states that "the value of the property directly lost, without reckoning the indirect losses, which must have occurred in every direction, may certainly be estimated by millions-probably at not less than five millions sterling." It was stated that 56,911 healthy cattle were slaughtered to prevent the spread of the disease.
The annexed table shows the comparative course of the disease in 1865, 1866, and 1867:
The whole number of animals attacked from the 1st of January to the 7th of Sept., 1867, appears to have been 348. The disease was considered to have died out by the
end of Sept. The disease was most fatal to cows and oxen; the sheep lost by it were estimated at 7000 only.
A Royal Commission was appointed by Parl. to inquire into the causes of the cattle plague, and suggest remedies. The first report of this Commission was presented 31st Oct. 1865. The majority considered the disease to have been imported, and recommended slaughter of animals, and stringent prohibitions of passage of animals along or across the public roads. A 2nd Report was made 6 Feb. 1866; 3rd R., 1 May, 1866. Prof. Gamgee brought the subject of the "Cattle Plague before the Social Science Congress at its meeting in Sheffield; and his paper was printed in the Journal of Social Science for that year.
In 1866 several legislative measures were enacted-(1). 29 Vict. c. 2: An Act to Amend the Law relating to Contagious and Infectious Diseases of Cattle and other Animals. (2). 29 Vict. c. 4: An Act to Amend the Law relating to Contagious Diseases amongst Cattle and other Animals in Ireland. (3) 29 Vict. c. 15: An Act to Amend the Act of the 11 & 12 Years of Her present Majesty, c. 107, to Prevent the Spreading of Contagious or Infectious Disorders among Sheep, Cattle, and other Animals. (4). 29 & 30 Vict. c. 110: An Act to Amend the Cattle Diseases Prevention Act [No. I of the above]. The Privy Council made the repressive measures general throughout the country, with the best possible effect.
At the Brit. Asso. meeting held at Nottingham in 1866, Dr. Cobbold, F. R.S., introduced a paper: Remarks on the So-called Cattle Plague Entozoa. The paper was purely scientific. The same author has more recently pub. a work on the subject.
In the 28th Rep. of Reg.-Gen. (pub. 1867), Dr. Farr calls attention to some interesting facts concerning cattle disease contained in a Rep. by Mr. Clode, of the Reg.-General's office, but which Report, we believe, has never been made public.
There was no case of cattle plague in 1868. The number of foreign animals inspected in that year by the Custom-house veterinary inspectors in Lond. and at Thames Haven was 320,233-83,144 beasts, 17,559 calves, 208, 168 sheep and lambs, 11,369 pigs. 6293 of the whole number were detained and slaughtered on account of disease or injury -729 beasts, 58 calves, 5072 sheep, 434 pigs. 6021 of these were slaughtered, and the meat passed as fit for human food; and 272 were condemned and destroyed, viz. 65 beasts, 35 calves, 127 sheep, 45 pigs. The whole number slaughtered on account of disease or injury in 1868, therefore, was o'8 per cent. of the beasts imported, o‘3 p.c. of the calves, 24 p.c. of the sheep and lambs, 38 p.c. of the pigs. The proportion of sheep slaughtered was very large, owing to the sudden reappearance of sheep-pox in August in a cargo of upwards of 1300 sheep from Holland. Great credit was due to the inspectors for the discovery of this disease in one single case out of so large a cargo, when no intimation had been received that the disease existed in Holland. The whole cargo was slaughtered at the place of landing; and, other cases following, quarantine or slaughter of the sheep at the place of landing was ordered. The large proportion of pigs slaughtered was owing to these animals having been much affected with eczema and
A serious outbreak of cattle disease was reported from Illinois, U.S.; but we believe it was suppressed by prompt measures. The report received here said :- "It usually kills in a few hours. No premonitory warnings are given, and, although all the skill in possession of ordinary practitioners has been brought to bear upon it, it yields to no remedy or treatment, and is fatal in every instance. Its name and nature have not yet been determined."
At the Brit. Asso. meeting held at Norwich this year a paper was read by Mr. Wm. Smith Statistics of the Progress and Extermination of the Cattle Plague in Norfolk. The
writer said :
The cattle plague has been known for more than a thousand years to have periodically devastated the Continent of Europe. About 810 it is supposed to have visited England. We have no authentic record of its having broke out in this island again until 1714, when, strange to say, it broke out in Islington about the middle of July. It committed great ravages for about three months, and disappeared about Christmas in the same year. It re-appeared in April, 1745, being, it was supposed, imported into England by some calves from Holland. It lasted 12 years, and killed many thousand head of cattle. It soon (as in the outbreak of 1865) found its way into Norfolk, estab. centres of contagion in some of the districts that have so recently suffered from it. In March, 1770, it was imported into Portsoy, in the Moray Firth, but was stamped out with a comparatively trifling loss; the spread of the disease being prevented by the judicious and timely slaughter of the infected beasts, and those which had been in contact with them.
This paper is printed in extenso in vol. xxxi. of the Statistical Journ. (1868).
In 1869 there was passed the 32 & 33 Vict. c. 70: An Act to Consolidate, Amend, and make Perpetual the Acts for Preventing the Introduction or Spreading of Contagious or Infectious Diseases among Cattle and other Animals in Gt. Brit. A disease among sheep was prevalent in Belgium, and several cargoes arrived in this country; but the disease was detected on landing, and the sheep destroyed.
In 1870 was pub., under the authority of the Privy Council, Report on the Cattle Plague in Gt. Britain during the Years 1865, 1866, and 1867, with Appendix, Tables, and Diagrams, showing the Progress of the Disease. This Report was prepared by the Veterinary Department of the Privy Council Office; and while it purports to have been issued in
1868, it was not actually issued until 1870. The Report itself is very meagre; but the Appendix contains much important information.
In 1871 the "foot and mouth" disease broke out in various parts of England and Ireland, but did not increase to any very alarming extent.
In 1872 both the foot and mouth disease and pleuro-pneumonia are again becoming alarmingly prevalent in several parts of the country, and rigorous measures are now (Sept.) being taken to arrest its progress. Still more recently (Oct.) we hear of a severe disease amongst horses, in Canada, which is rapidly extending to the U.S. [HORSES.]
The subject of the vaccination of cattle, with a view to lessen their liability to certain contagious diseases, is happily receiving practical consideration.
CATTLE DISEASES PREVENTION ACT.-The 32 & 33 Vict. c. 70 (1869), which repeals many of the preceding Acts quoted above. [CONTAGIOUS DISEASES (ANIMALS).] CATTLE INSURANCE. The preceding articles could have no claim upon our space, but for their bearing upon Cattle Ins., usually called LIVE STOCK INS. [We consider the term "Cattle Ins." as more expressive, and therefore adopt it.] In view of the facts regarding the increasing prevalence of the disease amongst cattle and sheep, the subject of ins. becomes of growing importance. The practice of ins. cattle is by no means modern. We propose to trace its progress.
In the Ins. Ordin. of Spain, promulgated 1556, there occurs the following: "In ins. made upon slaves, or cattle, it must be declared in the pol. that it is on them; otherwise the insurers run no risk [.e. the said things are not ins.]; and if any beast is thrown overboard, it shall not be brought into a gross average, but the insurers shall satisfy the loss" [Clause 33]. It is clear that all that is here implied is the ins. of cattle against the risks of the sea-a very different risk from ins. against death by disease or accident.
During the reign of Queen Anne-South Sea Mania period, 1710-20-a project was set on foot in Lond. for ins. horses, "whether dying natural deaths, or stolen or disabled." The cap. proposed for the project was two millions sterling, and its location the Crown Tavern, Smithfield. This Co. went the way of the majority of cos. of that period. In extending the ins. to horses "stolen," it outventured all the modern offices; but that was the risk most required to be ins. against at that period. [HORSE INS.]
The bus. of ins. cattle was understood and practised in the North of Europe early in the last century. Here is the copy of a pol. issued in Hamburg in 1720. Under this pol. the insurers, i.e. the underwriters, took upon themselves the danger and risk of all distempers and sickness; and of robbery, force, and all other accidents, whether to be "imagined or not," which might happen to the cattle ins. The document deserves careful consideration: We the here-underwritten assurers promise and oblige ourselves to assure and do hereby assure you G ... d, R ...e and S .. n, or on behalf of any other person, to pay each of us the sum underneath respectively mentioned. And this assu. is made upon 62 heads of oxen which are now at grass in the County of Oldenberg, upon the estate of General Brilow, next to Ovelgonnen, as it is called, and belonging to the above; and with consent of us assurers, he the assured values the said oxen at 14 Rix Dollars N. per head with the prem., wherewith we are content, whether they cost or are worth more or less; nor shall the assured be obliged to produce any further proof or account besides this policy in case of any damage or loss. We also consent that the assured may make his assu. to the full, without being obliged to run 10 p.c. or any risk whatever, notwithstanding the Ordinances of Assurances may say otherwise. For we freely of our own accord take upon ourselves all damages or misfortunes, that can be imagined or not, to befall or that may befall these oxen; putting ourselves in all respects for everything in the place of the assured, to keep him free and harmless from all difficulties whatsoever, without any exception, notwithstanding any good or bad advices, beginning the risk from this day, and to continue to the 15 of October of this current year, 1720; promising in case of damage to pay to you, or the bearer hereof, all the loss you shall suffer in proportion to the sum underwrote by each of us hereunder, as well the first of us as the last, and that within 2 months next ensuing after due notice and intimation has been given us of what loss or damage has happened in regard to this assu. And we acknowledge to have been paid the prem. of this assu. by the hands of Abraham Van Herzeele, in full, after the rate of 10 p.c. in N., after the usage and custom of the Exchange at Antwerp, to which we submit ourselves in so far as it is not contrary hereunto; binding for this purpose all our goods, and renouncing upon good faith, and as under oath, all exceptions and cavils to the contrary. Thus done in Hamburgh, in the year 1720.
The pol., although issued in Hamburg, was nevertheless subject to the usage and custom of Antwerp, where no doubt the ins. of cattle had been practised at a much earlier period.
It happened that under this very pol. there arose a claim, and we are thus enabled to see the process which was adopted in the settlement. It seems that the claim was sent in to the authorities of Bremen, who prob. formed the Chamber of Ins. for that district. They investigated the claim, and regis. their declaration as follows:
We, the Burgomaster and Senate of the City of Bremen, make known and attest hereby publicly, that Árend Korthan, our citizen and merchant here, personally appeared before us, acquainting us, that in the year last past, 1720, he had made an assu. at Hamburg, by G.. d, R e, and S...n there, upon 62 heads oxen, which oxen, conformably to the tenor of the pol. of assu. made out for the same on the 27 June of the said year, were then still all sound and well; nor had any of them died at that time, as he assured on oath and he further humbly requested to be interrogated upon oath to the five following points, and graciously to grant him an attestation. . . . Which reasonable request we could not refuse the petitioner, he having actually confirmed the truth of the above written deposition with his corporal oath, before us as God should help him. We, Burgomaster and Senate aforesaid, attest and certify therefore, that his deposition made before us on oath, by these our Letters Patent, is corroborative with our knowledge under our City Privy Seal. Signed, Bremen, the 19 of July, 1721.
The interrogatories herein referred to, and the answers thereto, were as follows:1. When were the oxen upon which the assu. was made put to grass? In the month of May, the usual and customary time for putting cattle to grass. 2. How many head were in all at grass for Arend Korthan? The 62 head upon which the assu. was made at Hamburg, besides 2 oxen belonging to another friend; and there were at grass besides 3 oxen for other people, making together 67 head. 3. Had Arend Korthan no oxen at grass in any other meadows on the same estate? In no other meadows than the two which have been named, viz. the Mill meadow and the Small Stone-horse meadow. 4. How long did the oxen continue well, and when came the mort. amongst them? In the month of July. 5. What was the occasion of it, and were the meadows good, or any ways suspected? The reason no man can know, but it was the hand of God; nor were the meadows suspicious in my opinion. Since it is not to be presumed that the meadows could be had in suspicion; for it was never yet to be discovered that the cause of distemper proceeded from the ground. But the proof required by no means ended here. The next document is the following: The Court of Assizes appointed by his Royal Majesty of Denmark, Norway, etc., for the town and district of Jadinger Land, doth certify and make known, that upon receipt of a requisitorial order from the King's Honourable Regency at Oldenburg, dated the 19 Sept. 1720, to this Court, the two following persons being appointed by M. Arend Korthan, of Bremen, viz., J. J. Wilhelms, and J. Oddings, having beforehand been seriously exhorted to avoid perjury, did, on the 30 Oct., 1720, before the Court make the following declaration upon oath, in relation to some oxen which the said Arend Korthan had at grass in this country.
Then follows the form of oath :
I, J. J. Wilhelms, and I, J. Oddings, Herdsmen to Arend Korthan, take our corporal oath to God: and first I, J. J. Wilhelms, for myself in particular, that I this year had for my share the care of 37 head of oxen from said Arend Korthan, on the Little Stone-horse meadow; but 22 of them died, whereof 18 were buried with their skins, and the other four without, having been flead first; and that Arend Korthan told me there was one ox among the 37, which belonged to a person on the other side of the Weser, but did not mention his name to me, which ox was among the number of the dead; and that two oxen, which are both alive, were for some friends. And next I, J. Oddings, swear a corporal oath to God, that I for my particulars did attend to 30 head of oxen for Arend Korthan in the Mill meadow, but that 23 of them died, of which 19 were buried with their skins, and the other 4 without, having been flead first; and that the said Arend Korthan told me himself there were 2 oxen among them that belonged to some other people, which he did not name to me, and the said 2 oxen are likewise both dead. All which is herewith confirmed by the Court, and a judicial attestation thereof granted to the said Arend Korthan, Merchant, of Bremen. In witness, etc.
Then, and finally, comes the statement of loss for settlement, thus: Calculation of the loss upon 62 head of oxen, valued in the pol. at 14 Rix-dol. per head, with prem., Mks. 2604. The loss thereupon, viz. 18 oxen remained alive; 42 oxen died, at 14 Rixdol. ; 2 oxen killed; deduct value of salvage; add expenses-total loss, Mks. 1810 10s. -which Mks. 1810 10s. N. 3, divided upon the cap. of Mks. 2604, make 69 p.c., "and the assurers did pay 67 p.c.' The 2 p.c. deduction being according to the usage at Antwerp. The prem. paid was 10 p.c.
In 1753 Nicholas Magens, merchant, pub. in Hamburg, his Essay on Insurances. Under head of "Ins. on Cattle," he says, "When any infectious distemper reigns among cattle, graziers or cowkeepers, whose cap. is chiefly employed therein, and may be more than they can afford to lose, are permitted to ins. the lives of their stock before the sickness has appeared amongst them." From this it would appear that such ins. were only permitted in times of epidemic. It may be on this account that no regular office was at this period founded for the ins. of cattle. Magens, reviewing the form of pol. we have already given, says :-"Such pol. should always contain a declaration by the person ins. that to his knowledge no distemper was at that time amongst them, and that no diseased cattle should with his consent come near those he ins. The insurers are to take care that they are not overvalued."
In 1774 an office was estab. in Copenhagen, to which the insured were to pay a sum, from time to time to be fixed, per head, annually, for their cattle; to receive ten crowns for each that should die of distemper.-Weskett.
Towards the close of the last century, and during the first half of the present, there was scattered over the country innumerable asso. for the mut. ins. of cattle. Many of these were simply "Cow Clubs," while some took a wider scope. They were simple asso., having no defined legal constitution; conducted mostly on the principle of mut. contribution; and generally broke down upon any special emergency arising.
In 1844 the Farmers and Graziers Cattle Ins. Co. was founded. It carried on bus. until 1853, when it passed into liquidation; many of its claims, we believe, never having been paid.
In 1845 the Agriculturist Cattle Ins. Co. was founded. We have already given its hist., which was very remarkable, in some detail under its alphabetical title. We have also quoted the rates of prem. charged by it in the first instance. The Co. rapidly acquired a considerable bus., absorbing several of the then local cattle ins. cos., and leading to the dissolution of many of the provincial clubs, many hundreds of which were in existence at the date of its advent. A few years of practical working were necessary to enable the Co. to consolidate its experience. The following is the scale of prems. adopted by the Co. in 1851 :
CATTLE.-Dairy Cows, 7d. in the £; Feeding Stock, 6d. ; Young Stock under I year
old, Is. in the £; above 1 year, 74d.; Bulls not exceeding value of £20, Is. in the £; exceeding £20, and not exceeding £40, Is. 3d. in the £. Prize Bulls, 2s. and upwards in the £, according to value and other circumstances; Town Cows from Is. 6d. to 25. in the £, dependent on the mode of lodgment and general management. Working Oxen 7d. in the L.
HORSES.-Agricultural, not exceeding £30 value, 74d. in the £; exceeding £30, 94. in the; Carriage Horses and Hacks, 9d. and Is. as they were under or over £30 in value. Mares for breeding, 9d. and Is. also; Mules and Ponies, 9d. in the £; Town and Dray Horses, Is. and Is. 3d. as under or over £30 in value. Race Horses, Hunters, Military Horses and Entire Horses, 25. and upwards in the £, according to value and apparent risk. Miners' and Contractors' Horses, Is. in the £ and upwards, dependent on the nature of their employment.
SHEEP.-Breeding Ewes, Is. 6d. in the £; Feeding Sheep, Is.; Rams, Is. 6d. ; Prize Rams, 25. and upwards. Protection against rot according to estimated risk.
PIGS.-Breeding Sows, 2s. in the £; Feeding or Store Pigs, Is. ; Boars, 1s. 6d. ; Prize Boars, 25. N.B.-A single animal may be ins.
The following were the regulations as to compensation.
In order to provide a more equitable compensation for losses amongst agricultural dairy cows in the several periods of the year, when they are usually at materially different values, the directors have decided to divide the year into two equal portions; the first extending from the 1st Jan. to 30th June; and the second from the 30th June to 31st Dec. In the first half year the compensation will be two-thirds of insured value, and one-third of salvage; and in second half year the allowance will be four-fifths of the ins. value, and one-fifth of the salvage; or, if preferred, three-fourths compensation, and onefourth salvage, will be allowed for the whole year.
On losses among young stock, compensation will be uniformly made to the extent of two-thirds of the ins. value, and one-third of the salvage.
On losses among feeding cattle, three-fourths of the ins. value and one-fourth salvage will be allowed.
On losses among horses two-thirds of the ins. value will be paid, subject to a deduction of £1 on each animal as for salvage.
For all other animals not yet enumerated, the compensation will be uniformly two-thirds of the ins. value and one-third of the salvage.
In cases of loss by pleura-pneumonia, inflammation of the lungs, consumption, or black-leg, £10 p.c. calculated upon the animal ins. will be deducted from the claim.
N.B.-At the same rates of prem. parties may stipulate to receive uniformly one-half of the ins. value and the whole of the salvage, excepting £1 each on cattle, and Ios. each on young stock, and without any extra deductions for losses through pleura-pneumonia or any other disease.
The following were the general conditions of ins. instituted by this Company :
1. Every stock proposed for protection must be examined and valued by the Co.'s inspector previous to any proposal being made to the board.
2. Should the epidemic or any contagious disease have been among a stock, such stock must have been free at least 3 months before it can be admitted, except under special agreement.
3. Should the proposal and the report upon the stock be approved by the directors, an agreement will be forwarded to the agent, who must be paid the prem. within 14 days from the date of the same, otherwise it must be returned to the head office within 21 days from the date of the said agreement to be cancelled. In default of such transmission by the agent, he will be charged with the prems. due thereon, as for a completed transaction.
4. Under no circumstance will a proposer's stock be protected till the entire amount of prem. shall have been paid.
5. ILLNESS.-In case of any illness or accident occurring among the stock protected, the owner must give immediate notice in writing to the inspector. The inspector will visit the diseased animal, and, if contagion be feared, he will order such an animal to be separated from the rest of the stock; and the owner must keep it so separated till it recover or be disposed of. The form of notice may be as follows: Sir, I beg to inform you that one of my . . . was taken ill on the . . . instant.-I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, -To Mr...., Inspector for
6. Should the inspector be of opinion that the animal cannot recover, he may order it to be slaughtered or sold (except during the last month of assu., when the consent of the agent also must be obtained). If such order be given, the owner must comply with it, and he will receive the same compensation as if it had died from disease or accident.
7. MEDICAL TREATMENT.-In all cases of illness the owner must treat the animals at his own expense, and is bound to pay the same attention to their general health and safety as if they were not ins., under the penalty of forfeiting his agreement. But if the inspector think that the animals be neglected or improperly treated, he may give such orders for additional advice or variation of treatment (at the owner's expense) as may appear to him advisable, and such orders must be complied with. 8. DEATHS.-In case of the death of an ins. animal, the owner must give immediate notice of the event to the inspector, who will attend to witness the sale of the skin and carcase, for which the best prices must be obtained, and the amounts paid to the owner, who must annex to the claim paper a voucher for such amount, signed by himself and the purchaser.
9. The claim paper must be filled up and delivered to the inspector within 14 days after the death, or the claim will be disallowed; but being duly received by him, he must certify its accuracy and deliver it to the agent within 21 days of the death, when being further certified by the agent, it must be transmitted to the head office, so that it may arrive there within 1 calendar month from the date of death.
10. No horse must be slaughtered, or sold (if compensation be the object), without the sanction of the Secretary.
11. No claim for loss will be recognized unless the full amount of prem. shall have been duly paid; nor can any claim be allowed for a loss arising from disease, which shall have commenced within 21 days after the date of the proposal. It is also indispensable to the estab. of each claim that the insurer shall strictly comply with the conditions printed at the back of his agreement [policy].
12. No compensation will be given for stock stolen, maliciously or feloniously haughed, maimed, poisoned, or slaughtered, or for those injured or destroyed in civil tumult, by fire or lightning, which are insured against by fire offices.
13. If a protected party knowingly and wilfully introduce a diseased animal into his stock, he forfeits his agreement.