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distance from their towns; the Romans near the highway-hence it is supposed arose the practice of inscriptions. Places of burial were consecrated under Pope Calixtus I. A.D. 210. Expense of burials regulated by the Constitution of Justinian A.D. 537. The first Christian burial-place is said to have been instituted A.D. 596. Burials in cities instituted 742; in churchyards 758. Vaults were first erected in chancels at Canterbury 1075. Parochial regis. of burials, etc., instituted by Thomas Cromwell (Earl of Essex), about 1538. By stat. 18 Charles II. (1666), and 30 Charles II. c. 3 (1678), all persons were to be buried in woollen shrouds-penalty for burying in linen [repealed in 1814 by 54 Geo. III. c. 108]. Tax on burials imposed by 6 & 7 Wm. III. c. 6 (1694), and continued by Act 8 & 9 Wm. III. c. 20, s. 14. [MORTALITY TAX.]
The interment of the dead beneath and around churches has been called a "distinctive feature of Christian burial," but the persons who make this assertion forget that burial in the time of Christ was extramural. The widow of Nain was following her son out of the city; Lazarus was interred in a cave beyond Bethany. . . . The Holy Sepulchre was in a garden outside Jerusalem. . . . The truth is that we owe the introduction of "Christian Burial" to the superstitious observances of the Dark Ages.-Baker.
By 48 Geo. III. c. 75 (1808), the burial of dead bodies cast on shore is enforced.
By the 4 Geo. IV. c. 52 (1823), the barbarous mode of burying persons found felo de se was abolished. The Act directs that their burial shall take place without any marks of ignominy, privately in the parish yard, between the hours of 9 and 12 at night, under the direction of the coroner.
Mr. Rickman, in his Report on Pop., 1831, speaking of the defective returns of the parish regis., says: "In the metropolis about 8000 burials are thus deficient ; in Manchester 4000; and other populous places labour under the same defect-in what degree remains for investigation," etc.
The 2 & 3 Wm. IV. c. 75 (1832), for regulating schools of anatomy, was intended to prevent the stealing of dead bodies, which is contrary to common decency and abhorrent to the general sentiments and feelings of society.
The 6 & 7 Wm. IV. c. 86 (1836), was passed to regulate the regis. of deaths. [DEATHS, REGISTRATION OF.]
In 1852 a most important measure was enacted-the 15 & 16 Vict. c. 85-An Act to Amend the Laws concerning the Burial of the Dead in the Metropolis. This Act prohibited intramural burials in Lond.; the same regulation was not made general in E. and W. until 1853; in Scotland until 1855; in Ireland until 1856.
Mr. Thomas Baker, in his well-known work, The Laws of Public Health (1865), says:
During the twelve years since the passing of the first Burial Act in 1852, a great sanitary revolution, as regards the burial of the dead, has quietly taken place in this country. Within this period some 400 local Burial Boards have been constituted, and there is scarcely a market town of any consequence which has not already provided, or is now engaged in providing, adequate means for the decent interment of its dead beyond the dwellings of the living. During these twelve years also, about 500 Orders in Council have been issued, by which near 4000 old burial-grounds belonging to religious professions of all denominations have either been closed or placed under regulation. Perhaps the majority of these consisted of mere scraps of ground wedged in, as it were, between densely inhabited districts; each church or chapel being surrounded with its own precinct of corruption.
The following are all the more recent Acts relating to burials in Gt. Brit. : 1853-16 & 17 Vict. c. 134-An Act to Amend the Laws Concerning the Burial of the Dead in England beyond the limits of the Metropolis, and to Amend the Act concerning the Burial of the Dead in the Metropolis.
1854-17 & 18 Vict. c. 87-An Act to make further Provision for the Burial of the Dead in England beyond the limits of the Metropolis.
1855-18 & 19 Vict. c. 128—An Act further to Amend the Laws concerning the Burial of the Dead in England.
1857-20 & 21 Vict. c. 81-An Act to Amend the Burial Acts.
1859-22 Vict. c. 1-An Act more effectually to Prevent Danger to the Public Health from Places of Burial.
1860-23 & 24 Vict. c. 64-An Act to make further provision for the expenses of Local Boards of Health and Improvement Commissioners acting as Burial Boards.
1862-25 & 26 Vict. c. 100-An Act to authorize Improvement Commissioners acting as Burial Boards to Mortgage certain Rates for the purposes of the Burial Acts.
1864-27 & 28 Vict. c. 97-An Act to made further Provision for the Regis. of Burials in England.
1871-34 & 35 Vict. c. 33—An Act to Explain and Amend the Burial Acts.
The Diseases Prevention Act, 1855-18 & 19 Vict. c. 116-provides that when any Order in Council is made, putting in force the provisions of the Act for the better prevention of diseases, the Privy Council may issue regulations for the speedy interment of the dead. [BILLS OF MORT.] [CEMETERIES.] [DEATHS.] [FUNERALS.] [PLAGUES.] BURIAL CLUBS.-Societies which, in consideration of a small monthly or ann. payment, in the nature of an ins. prem., paid by the members during life, provide a given sum at the death of each member for defraying the expenses of burial. The allowance is generally from £5 to £10 for an adult member. Nearly all friendly sos. make the burial or "funeral allowance" a distinct feature.
Burial clubs are of great antiquity. Mr. Kenrick has shown us that they existed among the Romans. He discovered a monument at Lanuvium, a village about 10 miles from Rome, on the Appian road. This town was famed for its ancient worship of the "Saving Goddess," Juno Sospita. The inhabitants formed a college, during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, for paying divine honours to Diana and Antinous; and with this college they formed a burial club, "not forgetting the festivities which formed so important a part of all acts of religion among the Romans." Laws were drawn up for the government of the club; and, that all might know them, they were engraved on a slab of marble, forming a portion of a monument. The following is the substance of these laws or rules, as rendered by Mr. Kenrick:
An amphora of good wine was to be presented to the club by a new member, the sum of about 100 sesterces (about 155.) to be paid as entrance money, and five asses (little more than 2d.) per month as subs. Their meetings were not to take place oftener than once a month. If any one omitted payments for months [the marble is here mutilated] no claim could be made, even though he had directed it by will. In case of the death of one who had paid his subs. regularly, 300 sesterces (27. 5s.) were allotted for his funeral expenses, out of which, however, 50 were to be set apart for distribution at the cremation of the body. The funeral was to be a walking one. If any one died more than 20 miles from Lanuvium, and his death was announced, three delegates from the college were to repair to the place where he had died to perform his funeral, and render an account of it to the people.
Fraud was to be punished by a fourfold fine. Twenty sesterces each were to be allowed the delegates for travelling expenses, going and returning. If the death had taken place more than 20 miles from Lanuvium, and no notice had been sent, the person who had performed the funeral was to send a sealed certificate, attested by seven Roman citizens, on the production of which the usual sum for the expenses was granted. If a member of the college had left a will, only the heir named in it could claim anything. If he died intestate, the quinquenales, or magistrates of the municipium, and the people generally were to direct how the funeral should take place. If any member of the college in the condition of a slave should die, and his body, through the unjust conduct of his master or mistress, should not be given up for burial, his funeral should be celebrated by his bust being carried in procession. No funeral of a suicide was to take place.
There were many other rules, tending to preserve order and promote good fellowship; but these are all which relate to the burial club. This curious document affords an additional proof how much ancient life is found to resemble the modern when we gain an insight into its interior through the medium of its monuments. It is more than prob. that through the agency of "Gilds" and other fraternities the custom of Burial Clubs descended from the Romans direct to us. [GILDS.]
In Gt. Brit. in recent years considerable attention has been called to Burial Clubs from time to time, by reason of the crimes to which they are supposed to have led in causing an undue interest on the part of the relatives of members—particularly parents and guardians of children-in their death. Legislative interference has in consequence been found necessary. Thus, by the 13 & 14 Vict. c. 115 (1850), no sum is to be ins. on the death of any child under 10 beyond the sum actually incurred for funeral expenses; and these expenses were not to exceed £3 in any one case. The provisions of this Act were framed, we believe, in view of the Essex poisoning cases, which occurred shortly previous.
Under the 18 & 19 Vict. c. 65 (1855)-which consolidated the laws of friendly sos.such a so. may be estab. by voluntary subs. of the members for ins. a sum of money to be paid on the birth of a member's child, or on the death of a member, or for the funeral expenses of a wife or child of a member. No ins. can be legally effected on the life of a person unless he or she has been admitted a member according to the rules; and the mere payments of the contributions by a stranger will not constitute the assured a member. Every person on joining a so. should obtain a copy of the rules, and sign such declaration and pass such examination as is required. He should also have a pol. before he pays his prem., and not be content with a card. If he be not admitted a member according to the rules, the so. may refuse payment on his death.
No pol. given by a F. so. can be legally transferred or assigned; but if the amount ins. does not exceed £50, the same is to be paid to the person directed by the rules, or nominated by the deceased in writing, deposited with the Sec.-such person being the husband, wife, father, mother, child, brother or sister, nephew or niece of the deceased; and in case there shall be no such direction or nomination, or the person so nominated shall have died before the deceased, or in case the member shall have revoked such nomination, then such sum is to be paid to the person who shall appear to the trustees to be entitled, under the Statute of Distributions, to receive the same, without taking out letters of administration.
By the 21 & 22 Vict. c. 101 (1858), it was enacted that no money should be payable on the death of a child without a certificate signed by a medical practitioner stating the probable cause of death.
In an address by Mr. Edwin Chadwick, C.B., before the Social Science Asso. at Sheffield, in 1865, that gentleman said :
I had some years ago to make inquiries in relation to the operation of the lowest class of ins., and, in connexion with provisions for the destitute, those by means of sick clubs and burial sos. When I put forth in my reports a part of the evidence disclosed to me, showing that the practice of secret murders, and the neglect of children, had taken root and was spreading for the sake of the burial money, it excited much surprise, and gave much pain to many eminent benevolent persons, and amongst them, to the distinguished contributor to social science, the late Rev. John Clay, the Chaplain of the House of Correction at Preston, where burial clubs were very numerous. He closely investigated the subject, when he was constrained to admit and declare, as he repeatedly did, that the extent of the evil had
been understated. Close and sustained investigations into the sources of crime estab. the general conclusion-that, given the profit, given the opportunities or temptations, by exposures or want of precautions, for obtaining it by crime-you may confidently assume the existence of the practice of the crimes, and that it is in default of investigation if they are not detected. [FRIENDLY Sos.]
BURIAL GROUNDS.-See BURIAL; CEMETERY; FUNERALS.
BURIAL TAX.-By 6 & 7 Wm. III. c. 6, enacted 1695, a tax was imposed upon burials.
BURNAND, HENRY, was Underwriter of Thames and Mersey Marine from its formation in 1860, down to 1870.
BURNAND, JOHN NEWNHAM, was promoter and Man. Director of various ins. asso., of which the following may be particularly enumerated:-1846, General Shipping Freight, etc., Ins. Co.; 1847-General Commission, Ship, Loan, Co.; 1849-London Marine Brokers; 1852-Home and Foreign Security; 1853–Australian and General Consignment. A tolerably complete biography of this gentleman was furnished by Mr. J. Hooper Hartnoll, in his ed. of Ann. Balance Sheets of Ins. Cos. 1852. BURNAND, THEOPHILUS, was Man. of Marine Ins. Co. (Lond.), for many years [before 1843] down to 1871.
BURNETT, ALEX. S., Act of Barbadoes Mut. since 1862.
Early in the year succeeding his appointment to office, Mr. Burnett made a very interesting report of his investigations into the mort. of the so., of which we have already given an account in our notice of that so. He therein announced his intention of preparing a mort. T. based upon the experience of the office. We shall look forward with much interest to see this. In vol. xv., p. 81, of Assu. Mag., Mr. A. H. Bailey speaks of the "carefully compiled statistics of the Barbadoes Mut." A few years since Mr. Burnett visited this country and made the personal acquaintance of some of its leading actuaries.
BURNETT, G. H., Man. in Lond. of North British and Mercantile. He was trained in the Lond. office of the Northern, which he entered in 1854. In 1862 he became Foreign Man. of the N. B. and M., in which capacity he visited most of the European countries, including Russia; also the U. S. and Canada; and it is not too much to say that to his discretion and enterprise-directed and supported by the Gen. Man.-is due the rapid progress of the office during the last ten years. On the occasion of the great conflagration at Chicago in 1871, he was specially selected to visit that city, and personally superintend the adjustment of the numerous claims upon his Co. His report upon the subject indicates special ability and sagacity. On his return he was promoted to his present position, which combines the duties of the home and foreign departments.
BURNING OF HOUSES, OUTHOUSES, CHURCHES, SHIPS, ETC.-See ARSON. BURNLEY MUtual Fire OffiCE. —An office under this title was founded in 1844 [or 1849] but it does not appear to have transacted any bus. We do not find that it ever made any return of fire duty collected.
BURNS AND SCALDS, DEATHS BY (Class, VIOLENT DEATHS; Order, Accident or Negligence). -The deaths from these combined causes in England, although numerous, are on the decrease. In ten consecutive years they were as follows:-1858, 3125; 1859, 2978; 1860, 3166; 1861, 3053; 1862, 2767; 1863, 2766; 1864, 2987; 1865, 2713; 1866, 2533; 1867, 2600; thus varying from 162 per million of the pop. in 1858, to 138 in 1862, and 123 in 1867.
The deaths of 1867 were-males 1379; females 1221. Of the males 749 died under 5; and 139 between 5 and 10. The others over the different periods of life, the mort. being heavy between 25 and 35. Of the females, 602 died under 5; and 222 between 5 and 10; the remaining deaths are distributed over the other ages, and are heavy at ages 75-85.
It is gratifying to observe some tendency towards a decrease of fatal casualties from these causes :
In E. and W. no less than 51,160 persons-25,345 males and 25,815 females-were burnt or scalded to
death in the 18 years 1848-65. The ann. sacrifice was 2842. It is worthy of remark that the number of girls and women burnt in 1865 was less than the average. Thus, the average ann. number in previous years was 1434; in the year 1865 the number fell to 1369; 65 lives were saved. The proportion to 100,000 pop. in each of the two periods was 14'7 and 127. Among children the rate of mort. in 1865 to 100,000 living was as follows: Males under 5 years, 57'0; females under 5 years, 45'1. A certain proportion of the 1473 children whose deaths were referred to burns and scalds were suffocated through drinking scalding water, the larynx in such cases being closed. At the age of 5 and under 10 years the proportional numbers were: Males, 12; females, 21; at age 10 and under 15 they were: Males, 4; females, 6; the difference in the mort. of the two sexes at these ages was due to the great inflammability of cotton dresses. Of the 14,193 males dying of burns and scalds under 5 years of age in the 18 years 1848-65, 910 were under 1 year of age; 3482 were 1 year and under 2; 3694 were 2 years and under 3; 3382 were 3 years and under 4; 2725 were 4 years and under 5. Of the 11,676 females dying under 5 years of age, 919 were less than 1 year of age; 2743 were 1 year and under 2; 2762 were 2 years and under 3; 2834 were 3 years and under 4; and 2418 were 4 years and under 5. Young children drank scalding water out of the spout of the tea-kettle, or fell into scalding water. This happened often among the lower classes, when the mother was out at work, and the children were left at home alone. It may be stated that in the year 1855, the deaths by burns and scalds (3177) were more fatal than in any other year. The cold led to an increase in the consumption of coal; people approached nearer to the fire than in ordinary years, and the cold was thus the indirect cause of raising the mort. by burns.
Dr. Farr said—24th Rep. Reg.-Gen (1863)—regarding deaths from burning :
At 65 and upwards the men are partially withdrawn from danger, but the old women's combustible dresses catch the flames in their state of feebleness, and 2122 of them were burnt to death in 14 years. The Drudical sacrifices, the fires of Moloch, the Inquisition, the fires of Smithfield, the burnings of witches in the middle ages, and the immolation of widows in India, naturally excite horror in the present age. They admit of no historical palliation. Still it is evident that the lives were offered up mistakenly, with a view to the removal of evil, and that the sacrifices were sanctioned by the religion or the superstition of the age and people. The deaths by burning in England are ascribed to accidents; but they are none the less dreadful on that account, particularly when it is considered that the victims are often as unnecessarily exposed as moths to the flames in which they perish.
BURR, THOMAS, Sec. of Kent Mutual Fire, and Kent Mutual Marine, from the time they respectively commenced bus. down to 1853.
BURR, THOMAS, JUN., Sec. of Kent Mutual Life from its foundation to 1851. BURROWS, A. T., Underwriter of Realm Marine from close of 1871. Had been for many years previously a Deputy Underwriter of Thames and Mersey Marine. BURROWS, WILLIAM BERESFORD, of Portadown, North of Ireland. He is well known to the ins. offices of Gt. Brit., having during a series of years represented numerous English Cos. How many offices he represents at this moment we cannot say. believe he has transacted a large if not profitable bus.
BURT, ALFRED.-This gentleman, who commenced his ins. career as a clerk in the Tontine L., was known at one period as a somewhat extended projector of ins. asso. He has occupied various positions in connexion with the following ins. asso.-in some of them simply as promoter:-1848, Mining and General Mutual L.; 1849, Sec. of Sea Fire L., and Act of its L. department; 1850, joint promoter of New Equitable; 1851, Industrial Sick; 1852, Act. and Sec. British Provident; 1853, Sec. Home Counties; 1857, the Householders.
He pub. in 1849, Life Assu. : An Historical and Statistical Account of the Pop., the Law of Mort., and the Different Systems of L. Assu., including the Validity and Non-Validity of L. Policies; with Observations on Friendly Sos. and Savings Banks. To which is added a Review of L. Assu., Explanatory of the Nature, Advantages, and the various purposes to which it may be applied. The work is of a very superficial character, and a writer in the Post-Mag., of 17th Nov., 1849, charged the compiler with very barefaced plagiarism.
In the same year he also pub. Life Assu. Validity and Non-Validity of Life Pol.: Statement of Facts showing the defective system of L. Assu. as in practice by L. Offices.
We heard tidings of Mr. Burt not many weeks since, alive and well, and anxious to assume the control of a young L. ins. interprise.
BURT, DR. J. G. M., pub. in the Edinburgh Medical Journal, in 1862, A Report of the Causes of Death in the North Brit. L. Assu. Co., from the commencement up to 1860. [EXPERIENCE Tables.]
BURY, WILLIAM, for many years Act. and Sec. of Hope (No. 1.), which position he retained down to amalg. of Co. in 1844.
BUSINESS, PLACE OF.-By the Companies Act, 1862 (secs. 41 and 42), every co. regis. thereunder is required to have its name painted or affixed on the outside of every office where its business is carried on, in letters easily legible.
By the Policies of Ins. Act, 1867, every policy of ins. must specify upon it the place or places of business at which notices of assignment may be given-that is, its head or chief office.
BUSINESS, SUSPENSION OF.-If a joint-stock co., ins. or otherwise, regis. under the Cos. Acts, 1862 and 1867, suspend its operations at any time for a period of one year, that is a cause for the winding-up of such co.
BUSSA. A great ship.-Blount.
BUTCHERS. This useful body of men numbered in England, in 1851, 49,403, being males of 20 years and upwards; and they experienced a much heavier rate of mort. than any other class except that of innkeepers-and at ages between 55 and 65 they even exceeded the innkeepers. Their mort. to 1000 living at each of the decennial ages was in that
year as follows: Between ages 25 and 35, over 11 per 1000 living; 35-45, over 16 per 1000; 45-55, 23; 55-65, 41; 65-75, 66; 75-85, 154; 85 and upwards, 369. The mort. of the whole pop. at ages 55-65 being 30 per 1000; that of publicans was 39, and of butchers, 41 per 1000.
The Regis.-Gen. [14th report, 1855] said hereon:
While much has been written about the diseases of shoemakers, weavers, tailors, miners, and bakers, the extraordinary mort. of butchers appears to have escaped observation. Calculation alone has taught us that the red injected face of the butcher is an indication of a frail habit of body. Here is an important problem for solution. On what does the great mort, of the butcher depend? On his diet, into which too much animal food and too little fruit and vegetables enter?-on his drinking to excess ? -on his exposure to heat and cold?—or, which is probably the most powerful cause, on the elements of decaying matter by which he is surrounded in his slaughter-house and its vicinity?
Mr. H. W. Porter, in his obs. upon the Reg.-Gen. reports (1860), appears to adopt this latter view.
In the 3rd ed. of Contributions to Vital Statistics, 1857, Mr. Neison says, "The class of butchers seems to experience a very high rate of mort., although not subject to above the average amount of sickness " This was indeed only confirmatory of the investigations of Mr. Ratcliffe, pub. 1850. But both Mr. Ratcliffe's and Mr. Neison's obs. were limited to the experience of friendly sos. where local selection had been exercised.
In 1861 the number of butchers was found to be 63,278—the increase appears to have arisen partly from beginning at age 15 instead of 20, as in the 1851 census. Of the total number there were between the ages 15-25, 19,349; between 25-35, 14,861; between 35-45, 11,552; between 45-55, 8423; between 55-65, 5557; between 65-75, 2661 ; between 75-85, 792; 85 and upwards, 83. At age 45 and upwards the mort. of butchers in 1860-1 was greater than that of any other class except innkeepers, thus: Annual mortality per cent. in the years 1860-61 :
In 1864 the Gov. ins. scheme was set on foot, and among the excepted classes-to be ins. at special rates only-were butchers. In 1865 Mr. Adler, in a paper on the Gov. scheme, read before the Inst. of Act. [ADLER], dwelt upon the fact of the butchers being excluded, appearing to rely very much upon the results of Mr. Ratcliffe and Mr. Neison and not having obs. that the results given in the Supp. to 25th R. of Reg.-Gen., quoted above, fully confirmed those of the 14th Rep., Mr. Adler considered the mort. of butchers favourable in comparison with that of other trades, adding:
This view is confirmed in various reports of Dr. Letheby on the sanitary condition of the city of Lond. Without stopping to pursue this inquiry further, I will only add that Dr. Thomson, Dr. Ward, and the author of an article in the Quarterly Review for Jan. 1860, seem also to dissent in some measure from the view propounded in the 14th Reg.-Gen. Rep.
The subject is worthy of further investigation; in the mean time the ins. offices will be wise to act on the side of caution. A very useful little art. upon this subject appeared in the Ins. Agent in June, 1868.
BUTHSCARLE.-Mariners or Seamen.-Selden.
BUTLER, EDWARD, Sec. of Reliance since 1858. Mr. Butler was the founder of the East of England L., which became amalg. with the Reliance at the date named. BY-LAWS.-A good deal of learning has been bestowed on the endeavour to trace the derivation of this term. "Laws made obiter, by the by," is Wharton's definition, and is perhaps the most rational. They are laws and regulations of asso. made for the government of their members-being private laws, reaching particular cases not provided for in the orig. constitution of the asso., and not reached by the general laws of the land. They are binding, unless contrary to law, or unreasonable, and against the common benefit. If any of these, they are void. It is an inherent right of every so. to make such regulations, subject to the limitations stated.
No trading co. is allowed to make by-laws which may affect the Crown, or the common profit of the people.
BYLES, JOHN BARNARD, pub. in 1845, Observations on the Usury Laws, and on the Effect of Recent Alterations; with Suggestions for the Permanent Amendment of the Law, and the Draft of an Act for that purpose.
BYNKERSHOECK, VAN, President of the Supreme Court of Holland, and a great authority on questions of International Law. He pub. the following, bearing more or less directly upon ins. topics. In 1737, at Leyden, Quæstiones juris publici; and Quæstiones juris privati. In 1767, De Lege Rhodia di Factu. The works are composed with an amount of learning, perspicuity, and precision, which has rarely been surpassed, and which has made them standard on the subjects of which they treat. An English trans. of some portions of the above was pub. by Richard Lee in 1759; and again by another hand in Philadelphia in 1810.