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£500, together with int., shall be paid at a time stated; and as to the other £500, that B. in consideration thereof shall pay unto A. £100 p.a. for 7 years.

BRISTOL CROWN FIRE INS. Co., founded in Bristol prob. towards the end of the last century. In 1805 it paid duty £1257 195. 10d. In 1831 it paid £1866 8s. 4d. In 1837 its bus, was trans. to the Sun F.

BRISTOL FIRE INS. Co., founded in Bristol prob. about 1814. In 1831 it paid in F. duty £3977 135. 7d., being a much larger amount than the two other then existing offices, viz., the Bristol Crown and Bristol Union. In 1839 its bus. was trans. to Imperial F. BRISTOL AND LOND. ASSU. CORP., LIM., founded in Bristol in 1869, with an authorized cap. of £2,000,000, in shares of £ ; under the title of the Bristol and Lond. Life

and Guarantee Ins. Co., Lim. Mr. J. W. N. Brooks and Mr. Morgans were two of the regis, promoters. The prosp. of the Co. says the object of the Corp. is to embrace every principle in connexion with L. assu. which can with security be adopted; “and for this purpose all the varied improvements and extensions of L. assu. have been introduced, so far as they have been found practically useful and attractive." Among the "leading features" are the following: "Invalid or second-class lives assured without extra rates -on Black's plan, but the prosp. does not say so. "Reduced rates for females":

As it is an estab. fact, and admitted in practice by actuaries in their calculations for annu., that the average duration of temales is greater than that of males. The directors of this Corp. have on the whole-term life rates for females made a reduction, which can be known on application to the head office, or any of the agents.

Surely this is advancing a step backwards.

BRISTOL AND LOND. LIFE AND GUARANTEE INS. CO., LIM.-See BRISTOL AND LOND. ASSU. CORP., LIM.

BRISTOL MARINE INS. CO., LIM., estab. in Bristol in 1865. The authorized cap. of the Co. was £500,000; first issue £200,000, in 10,000 shares of £20 each. Mr. C. F. Ivens is the first regis. promoter. In 1869 the bus. was trans. to the United Ports. Its affairs are now in liquidation.

BRISTOL MORTALITY TABLES.-In a work pub. by Mr. Robt. Rankin, Sec. to the Bristol Union F. and L. Ins. Co., in 1830: A Familiar Treatise on Life Assu. and Annu., etc., there was contained several orig. T. of Mort., and among these one “Of the Prob. and Expectations of Life in the City of Bristol." The author says:

In the year 1818, when the estab. of the first, and as yet the only life assu. office in Bristol, was in contemplation, I was desirous of ascertaining the rate of mort. prevailing in the prob. field of its principal bus., relatively to that of the metropolis; and with that view, extracted from the burial regis. of this city and its suburbs, the number of deaths at every age during the preceding 5 years, a period practically sufficient for an average in a place of this magnitude.

From these data, T. of the prob. and expectations of life were deduced, which, when compared with the pub. prob. and expectation of life in the metropolis, evinced a decided superiority, so decided indeed as (when coupled with other considerations) satisfactorily to warrant the adoption of a scale of prems. 10 p.c. below those taken by the Lond, offices generally; and on this reduced scale the office was estab Although fully satisfied on principle, that an average of 5 years was sufficient, I felt a natural curiosity to see the correspondence of the next term of 5 years with it, and was therefore induced to undertake the task of ascertaining it; and the result exhibited a coincidence, even surpassing, by its minuteness, my most sanguine expectations.

Here is the precise data upon which Mr. Rankin based his obs.

Total of burials in the city of Bristol and Bedminster from 1813 to 1822 inclusive:

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Thus we see that the observations over the first quinquennium embraced 10, 126 deaths; and that over the second 10,440. Total deaths observed upon, 20,566. Mr. Rankin said (1830):

I have nearly completed a third series of 5 years' obs., which I may confidently state will corroborate the deductions from the two preceding series of 5 years; though I deem it unnecessary to delay the pub. of this work on account of them; the result however shall be annexed to the orig. MS. deposited in the Bristol Institution.

We now turn to the process he employed in preparing the preceding table of data :

To secure correctness, I personally extracted from the various registers the burials with the respective ages of the deceased. . ., rejecting only casualties, suicides, and criminals. ... I have not however attempted a correction to countervail the influence of migration, increased pop., etc., because such correction could not be verified, and of course would be too vague to be relied on with a view to practical utility; though I feel assured that the result would be a much nearer approximation to the true rate of mort. among the pop. at large than either the Northampton or Carlisle Tables. Here is his table:

Probabilities and Expectations of Life in Bristol reduced to a Radix of 10,000.

Decre- Expecta

Decre- Expecta

Decre- Expecta

Age. Living. ment. tion. Age. Living. ment. tion. Age. Living. ment. tion.

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Mr. Rankin also constructed several other Mort. T., viz.: Prob. and Expectations of Life among the So. of Friends in Bristol. [FRIENDS, SO. OF.] Prob. and Expectations of Life in the Parish of St. Geo., Kingswood, Gloucestershire. [KINGSWOOD, MORT T. FOR.] Prob. and Expectations of Life in the Parish of Clifton, Gloucestershire. [CLIFTON, MORT. T. FOR.] These will be given under the heads indicated. There was yet another, Prob. and Expectations of Life among the Poor of the City of Bristol. This T. we give here. The compiler says regarding it:

The respectability of the proprietors of the private or undertakers' cemeteries in the city of Bristol, the mode of conducting them, and the regularity of their regis., gave us an opportunity of ascertaining with more correctness the rate of mort. among the lowest class, than perhaps any other place in the kingdom can afford. Having availed myself of it, I now present to those, if any such there are, who doubt the appalling effect of penury and its accompanying evils on the duration of life, a document which will at once remove such doubt. Though this T. may, from causes before noticed, represent the probabilities and expectations somewhat too favourably, yet, after making a larger allowance than the truth requires, a comparison with the preceding T., which includes the 4061 poor from which this T. was deduced, will show a large and melancholy balance in respect of human existence against the indigent. It is worthy of remark that most of those who attain an advanced age are either members or the widows o members of friendly and benefit sos.

Probabilities and Expectations of Life among the Poor of the City of Bristol.

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BRISTOL AND SOUTH WALES CO-OPERATIVE LIFE ENDOWMENT AND GUARANTEE Co. -This Co. was projected in 1868 with a regis. cap. of £2000, but what has become of it we have not yet discovered. Mr. E. A. Theobald was one of the promoters. BRISTOL TOWN FIRE OFFICE,- This asso. was founded towards the close of the last century. In 1805 it stood third in amount of duty paid by the country offices, its amount being £3320 18s. 4d.- -an amount more than as large again as that paid by the Bristol Crown office in the same year. It had either died out before 1824 or changed its name to the Bristo! F. or Bristol Union F.

BRISTOL UNION F. AND L. OFFICE, founded in Bristol in 1814 as a F. office, and added L. bus. in 1818. It paid F. duty in 1824, £2308; in 1834, £2552; in 1843 it had reached £3160. In 1844 its F. bus. was trans. to Imperial F. What became of the L. bus. we have not yet learned, but we have seen that Mr. Rankin, one of its Secretaries, brought his practical experience to bear in the construction of several mort. tables possessing considerable interest.

The later rates adopted in the L. department were 10 p. c. below the Northampton rates -that course being determined upon after the Bristol mort. T. had been prepared. BRITANNIA FIRE.-A Co. under this title was projected in 1861, by Mr. Alfred Thomas Jay. It did not go forward.

BRITANNIA FIRE ASSOCIATION, founded in 1868, with an authorized cap. of £500,000, in 50,000 shares of £10 [power to increase to £1,000,000]. First issue 15,000 shares. The prosp. says:

The Britannia F. Asso. is founded with the view of cultivating F. ins. bus. of a select character, inclusive of the ins. of dwelling houses and shops, and of the furniture and goods therein.

Notwithstanding the rapid increase of F. ins. during the last ten years, it would appear that of the insurable property in the U. K., the value of which is estimated at about £4,000,000,000, about onethird only is protected by ins.

The recent reduction in the Gov. duty from 35. to 1s. 6d. p.c. has already given a great impetus to F. ins., and there is but little doubt that the provident classes throughout the country will now almost universally adopt the wise precaution of protecting their property against loss by fire.

The B. F. A. has been formed under peculiarly favourable circumstances, from having immediately available the very extensive and valuable agency and other connexions of the Briton Medical and General L. Asso., with which the Britannia F. Asso. will be intimately connected. Several of the directors are members of the boards of each Co., and the business of the F. Co. (although totally distinct and separate from that of the Briton Asso., so far as its assets and liabilities are concerned), being conducted on the premises, and to some extent by the staff of the Briton So., the expenses necessarily attending the efficient working of a large F. office will be materially curtailed.

The Co. is soundly constituted, and most respectably managed.

BRITANNIA LIFE ASSU. Co. [No. 1.], founded in 1837, with a cap. of £1,000,000, in 10,000 shares of £100. It was conducted in its earlier years entirely on the proprietary plan. In 1841 the Co. obtained a special Act of Parl.-4 & 5 Vict. c. ix.-An Act for Regulating Legal Proceedings by and against the Britannia L. Assu. Co. The Co. might sue or be sued in the name of its Sec., Resident Director, or any Director for the time being; decrees or judgments might be enforced against the Co. or any of its shareholders --such shareholders to be reimbursed; former shareholders might be sued. Indeed, the constitution of the Co. appears to have embodied the principle of unlimited liability in its fullest force.

In 1845, Mr. Peter Morrison being then Resident Director, a statement was put forward that the Co. had issued 6000 policies in less than 8 years; and there was then inaugurated by the Co. a system of “half-credit rates of prem.," with a special prosp. to explain its advantages! The Co. also about this date commenced to issue pol. on the "mixed" plan -called in a special prosp. then issued the "Mutual Assu. Branch"--which led to some confusion, there being already a Britannia Mut. L. Asso. working in connexion with this Co. The first division of profits was to be made "at the expiration of the year 1849, and of every subsequent year. Four-fifths of profits "ascertained by strict mathematical calculations to be distributed to parti. pol.

was estab. We Mr. E. R.

The tables used by the Co. were stated to have been "computed from authentic and complete data expressly for the use of this inst.," which was most prob. entirely untrue. At a later period an "Orphans and Childrens Endowment Branch" shall speak of some of the tables for this branch under ENDOWMENTS. Foster was "Resident Director," and Mr. Andrew Francis was Sec. In 1865 the bus. of the Co. was trans. to the Briton Medical and General. BRITANNIA LIFE INS. Co. [No. 3.] was projected in 1868, with a proposed cap. of £100,000. Mr. J. A. G. Merrington and Mr. James Beal were two of the regis. promoters. Mr. Gavin was the Man. We are not aware if the Co. be still in existence. BRITANNIA MUTUAL L. Asso. [No. 2.], founded in 1839, under the title of the Standard of England, and under the authority of Letters Patent, granted in pursuance of Act 7 Wm. IV. and I Vict. c. 73, passed in 1836. This is one of several ins. asso. which obtained powers of this class. [LEGISLATION FOR INS. Asso.] The Co. was restrained by the Standard (1825) from retaining its original title. It had been founded as a "mixed" office, but on the change of name became entirely mut. The prosp. said:

It is an estab. principle that in a mut. assu. so. a yearly valuation of the liabilities is of essential importance to its security; whilst at the same time it enables the members to participate in the profits at a much earlier period, and to a far greater extent than would be otherwise safe or practicable. Such system has accordingly been adopted in this Asso.

Then there was a great parade about the half-credit system; and finally the following

announcement:

The Britannia Mut. L. Asso. is altogether distinct from and independent of the Proprietary office transacting bus. under the name of the Britannia L. Assu. Co. The only connexion between the two estab. is that their affairs are conducted on the same premises, and by the same officers; by which means the entire disbursements of the Mut. Asso. are reduced to a small per-centage on its receipts; and thus the large expenditure of a separate estab., which generally entails a heavy burthen on the members during the infancy of such sos., and interferes materially with a due apportionment of the early profits, is to great degree avoided.

The Asso. absorbed the businesses of the following offices: in 1843 that of the South of England; in 1844 that of the Lond. and Westminster Mut.

In 1865 the bus. of the Asso. was trans. to and united with that of the Briton Medical and General. The Resident Director of the Asso. was Mr. E. R. Foster; the Sec. Mr. Andrew Francis.

BRITISH ALLIAnce Fire, Life, and Cattle Assu. Co., projected in 1853, but nothing came of it beyond prov. regis. It proposed to transact fidelity guarantee bus. also. BRITISH ALLIANCE FIRE, LIFE, AND GUARANTEE INS. Co., projected in 1868 by Mr. [the Rev.] Edwin Yelland, with a proposed cap. of £100,000 in shares of 1. The Co. appears to have passed through several stages of transformation. It was regis. under the title given above. In an early prosp. it was designated "The British Alliance Assu. Corp. Lim., with which is incorporated the Unconditional Assu. Co." This prosp. contains several features which we must notice:

Commercial Travellers' Assurances.-An arrangement has been made by which the interests of this influential body have been specially considered. By assuring their lives, commercial gentlemen may secure to their widows liberal annu., or they can themselves receive an allowance while out of employment, or during temporary disablement. And should they live to a certain age, they may secure an annu. of from 9 to 14 p.c. on the sum assu., according to their age at the time when the annu. is entered upon.

Annuities for Clergymen.—This is an especial system expressly introduced for the benefit of aged ministers or their widows. While secure for the office, it gives the minister of religion advantages never before conceded, but which this office will fully develope, in a manner peculiar and valuable. Educational Annuities.-A system by which, after 8 or more small annu. payments, parents will be entitled to receive the amount of £10 and upwards, for a period of 6 years, either for school or college purposes. This most desirable arrangement secures to children a liberal education, however limited the means of the parent, and by a proper application of it, the largest family can be educated at the least inconvenience. Should the child die before the annu, commences, the whole of the money paid will be returned.

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Then, under the head of "Marine Assu. Branch," there is the following announcement: Marine Assurances.-Officers of all grades of H.M. Royal Navy, or in the Mercantile Marine Service, can assure upon a new system, whereby all extra prem. for risk of sea service is abolished, and the ordinary home prem. alone charged.

And under "Building Assu. Branch" the following:

This branch of the Co.'s bus. has been estab. to supersede and remedy the defects of building sos. generally, and also to embody in one simple system the advantages of those sos., and the security of life assu. in connexion with them.

It was further announced that "the surplus income and cap. will be invested as per building tables, and by advances to policy-holders upon undoubted personal security, thus obtaining a large amount of profit on the working of that cap., and preventing any loss arising to the Co. from placing the money in questionable undertakings." There was another scheme for "reduction of debt upon places of worship," but the plan upon which it was to be worked was not stated in detail.

It is difficult to determine whether all these announcements were made in good faith or otherwise. We observe that the name of the Act. of the Co. is not stated on the "proof prospectus" in our possession. We record them chiefly on account of their novelty.

On the prosp. Mr. Yelland was styled "Managing Director;" Abiather P. Wall, M.D., "Medical Director;" and Messrs. Vallance and Vallance were announced as "Solicitors;" and here the "legal hist." of the enterprise commences. These last-named gentlemen, as soon as they found themselves so pub., filed a bill in Chancery against the directors, and obtained a decree prohibiting the use of their names.

The next stage was that in Aug., 1848, the Man. Director found himself at the Guildhall Police Court, having been apprehended on a warrant, charging him with obtaining various sums of money by means of false pretences: to wit, 100 from Dr. Bartlett, on the promise that he should be appointed a medical officer of this Co.; £200 from Mr. Winscomb, on the promise that he should be appointed Sec. of the Co. at £500 pa.; 100 from Mr. Donaldson, on the promise of appointing him Chief Clerk of the Co, and £50 from another gentleman who was to be appointed Sol. of the Co. After several hearings and adjournments, the prosecutors somewhat abruptly withdrew from the charge. It was stated that Mr. Yelland had agreed to repay the money he had obtained; and so it appeared that the object of the prosecution had been accomplished. The Co., however, had received its death-blow.

By the art. of asso. Mr. Yelland was to have received various sums for preliminary expenses, and promotion money, viz. £300 in cash and £600 in fully paid shares within 28 days after first allotment; and in 6 months thereafter the further sum of £350, and a further £350 in 12 months (sec. 146). By the 103rd sec. he was appointed Man. Director at a salary of £500 p.a.

BRITISH ALMANAC.-See COMPANION TO BRITISH ALMANAC.

BRITISH AMICABLE LIFE OFFICE, founded in 1857, and in the same year its connexions were transferred to the General.

BRITISH ANNUITY CO., founded in 1824, with an authorized cap. of £3,000,000, in 60,000 shares of £50. The hist. of this Co. presents some remarkable features. Its bus. was not to sell, but to purchase annu., i.e. to make advances repayable by means of annu. Hence the requirement for such a large cap. A Deed of Sett. was prepared containing regulations for the management of the affairs of the Co. A Mr. Van Sandau, a wellknown Lond. sol., had applied for and obtained an allotment of shares. When called upon to sign the deed, he refused to do so, on the ground that it contained provisions inconsistent with the adv. and prosp., on the faith of which he had become a partner in the concern; and being, as he alleged, generally dissatisfied with the mode in which the affairs of the Co. were being carried on, he filed a bill in Chancery against the Chairman, Mr. Moore, seeking to be relieved of his shares.

In the mean time the Co. had obtained a special Act of Parl., 5 Geo. IV. cap. cliii.— An Act to enable the British Annu. Co. for the Purchasing of Annu., under certain regulations to sue and be sued in the name of the Chairman and Sec. for the time being. This Act received the Royal assent 21 June, 1824. It declared that the Co. was not incorp., or the shareholders discharged from any responsibility as individuals.

It was prob. in view of this provision of the Act that Mr. Van Sandau filed a second bill, this time against all the shareholders. The number of these had been limited by the D. of Sett. to 500, but they were actually only 300. He alleged in this bill that no time having been orig. prescribed for the duration of the partnership, it was dissolvable by notice at the pleasure of any of the partners. He had accordingly on the 30th April, 1825, sent a notice of dissolution to the Sec. and Sol. of the Co. Finally he prayed that the Co. might be dissolved and proper accounts taken.

To this bill 14 of the Directors appeared and filed separate answers, with long schedules to each; and the Court held [Van Sandau v. Moore, 1826] that the defendants could not be compelled to answer jointly, and that there was no reason in fact why the whole 300 shareholders might not answer separately. The result was that it became impossible to proceed with a suit in which the plaintiff, as a preliminary measure, might have had to pay for copies of 300 answers, each with a long schedule. The plaintiff in fact was most com

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