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cases the captains sailed with sealed orders, not to be opened until a certain point at sea was reached. This practice led to many frauds, as our former Law Reports too plainly show; and hence it came to be discontinued.
The Ins. Ordin. of France, 1681, says: "We prohibit all policy clerks, secretaries of ins. chambers, notaries or brokers, to have policies underwritten in which anything is left in blank, under the penalty of costs or damages. . . . Lines must be drawn wherever there are blanks to prevent anything being inserted afterwards."-Valin's Comm. BLASTED AND PLANET.-In the earlier Bills of Mort., amongst the causes of death, we frequently find entries, "Blasted and Planet." In 1657 five deaths were attributed to these causes; in 1658 five; in 1659 three; in 1660 eight. "Planet" then disappears, and "blasted" very soon follows suit. These appellations were probably bestowed on persons who wasted away without any very obvious cause, and whose deaths would be attributed by physicians to "marasmus or wide-wasting atrophy," but by the vulgar to the influence of some sinister planet.
BLATCHLEY, J. S., one of the compilers of the Digest of Fire Ins. Decisions in the Courts of Gt. B. and N. America, pub. in 1862. A work of considerable practical value. BLÁTNER, ANTHONY, a goldsmith at Friedburg, who in the year 1518 manufactured "instruments for fires; water syringes useful at fires." They were on wheels, and had levers. [FIRE ENGINES.]
BLAYNEY, FREDERICK, pub. in 1817 (1.) Practical Treatise on Life Annuities, including the Annuity Acts of the 17th and 53rd Geo. III.; also a Synopsis of all the Principal Adjudged Cases under the first Act; together with Select, Modern, and Useful Precedents, etc., 2nd ed., 1818.
In 1826 (2.) A Practical Treatise on Life Assurance, in which the Statutes and Judicial Decisions affecting unincorporated Joint-Stock Companies; as also the Statute 6 Geo. IV, cap. xci., Conferring additional powers upon the Crown, on granting of Charters of Incorp., are fully Considered and Explained; including Remarks on the different Systems adopted by Life Assu. Inst., their high rates of Prem. and the Prob. and Expectation of Human Life; also a Synopsis of the Principles and Dissimilar Practice of Assu. Offices in general; together with useful and interesting Tables, etc.
In 1848 (3.) Life Assu. Societies considered as to their Comparative Merits, etc., with hints to persons Assuring, and Tabular Illustrations.
The contents of these works are noted under their appropriate heads. They do not call for any special remark here.
BLENKINSOP, B., Man. of F. Department, and Assistant Sec. of Hand-in-Hand since 1865. Was trained to the bus. in the Globe, which office he entered in 1852. In 1861 he entered the Hand-in-Hand, as Chief Clerk and Fire Superintendent. In 1865 he was promoted to his present positions. Mr. Blenkinsop is young, energetic, and progressive; and seems deeply imbued with the idea of preserving intact the respectability and solidity of an inst. which has existed for a period approaching two centuries; and which therefore claims a larger antiquity than any other ins. inst. in Europe.
BLEWERT, WILLIAM, of the Bank of England, pub. in 1783, Tables for Calculating the Value of Stocks and Annuities; 2nd ed. of Tables, 1804; Tables corrected by J. B. Brize, Lond., 1847; and in 1792, Perpetual and Determinable Annuities Reduced to a Level; or, a Comparative View of Long and Short Annu., with 3 p.c. Reduced and 3 p.c. Consols at the Bank of England, etc.
BLIGHT. A slight palsy, induced by sudden cold or damp, applied to one side of the face. BLINDNESS.-There were in 1851 in Gt. Brit. and the Islands of the Brit. Seas 21,487 persons totally blind, viz. 11,273 males, and 10,214 females. The number in E. and W. was 18,306 of both sexes; in Scotland 3010: and in the Islands of the Brit. Seas 171 persons. These numbers furnished a proportion relatively to the whole pop. of 1 blind in every 975 persons in Gt. Brit.; and I in every 979 in E. and W.; 1 in 960 in Scotland; and I in 837 in the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.-vide Census Report. In Ireland in 1851 there were 7587 blind persons, being I in 950.
It might naturally be supposed that the larger proportion of blind people would be found in the manufacturing and mining districts; but as a matter of fact this is not so. The following were the proportions in 1851 : London
I in 1025
I in 1203
while for the whole kingdom we have seen the proportion to be 1 in 950. Regarding the ages of the blind, in England, Wales, and Scotland, there were: Under 20 years of age only
2929 or 14 p. c. 8456 or 39 p.c. 10, 102 or 47 p.c.
The following T. shows the proportions of blind in various European countries, and also
in the U. S.:
The proportion of the blind in each of the U.S. to the pop. considered in relation to geographical position, shows that whatever causes may have modified these proportions, climate has had little or no influence; and that the tables of Dr. Zenue, of Berlin, so much referred to as showing the proportions of the blind according to latitude, are entirely inapplicable to the U.S.
It may interest the reader to know that the learned Dr. Zenue's tables furnish the following proportions:
In latitude 20 to 30
In latitude 40 to 50
In latitude 50 to 60 ...
I in 1400
I in 1000
Dr. Guy is of opinion that from one-half to two-thirds of our blind pop. formerly owed their sad privation to smallpox-blindness being one of its worst secondary consequences. BLINDNESS, INSURANCE AGAINST.-The Professional Life, founded in 1847, undertook to "grant pol. at moderate rates, by which annu. may be secured to persons should they at any future time be afflicted with paralysis, blindness, or any other visitation which may render them permanently infirm and helpless." We do not find any indication of what the rates were to be.
Ins. against blindness appears a most legitimate branch of bus. ; and a very small prem. would be sufficient to cover the risk, provided the office exercised due care in the selection. The Accident Ins. Co. provides "specific compensation" in case of the loss of one or both eyes by accident; but the risk is not separately ins. against.
BLISS, GEORGE, JUN., counsellor-at-law, pub. at N. V. in 1872, The Law of Life Ins., with a Chapter on Accident and Guarantee Ins. We hear this work spoken of with high commendation; we hope to quote it in these pages.
BLOCKADE (from bloccato, an Italian military term).—The disposition of troops and armed vessels so as to cut off all external communication with an enemy's port, fortress, city, etc. The practice is said to have been introduced by the Dutch about 1584. the term is now generally applied to the blockade of a port by armed vessels. The two essential circumstances necessary to make good a blockade are-(1) That there be actually stationed at the place a sufficient force to prevent the entry or exit of vessels; and (2) that the party violating it shall be proved to have been aware of its existence.
With regard to neutral vessels lying at the place where the blockade commences, the rule is that they may retire freely after the notification of the blockade, taking with them the cargoes with which they may be already laden; but they must not take in any new cargo. The effect of a violation of blockade to the offending party when captured is usually the condemnation of both ship and cargo. If, however, it can be shown that the parties to whom the cargo belongs were not implicated in the offence committed by the master of the ship, the cargo will be restored. It has sometimes, on the contrary, happened that the owners of the cargo have been found to have been the only guilty parties, in which case the judgment has been for condemnation of the cargo and restitution of the ship.-Wharton's Law Lex. [CAPTURE.] [PRIZE.]
BLOODY FLUX.-An old Saxon alias for Dysentery. It very frequently occurs in the earlier Bills of Mort.
BLUE DISEASE.-Blue jaundice of the ancients; a disease in which the complexion is tinged with blue or venous blood. [CYANOSIS.]
BLYDENBURGH, J. W., pub. in New York, in 1844, a work on Usury. [USURY.] BOARD.-An assembly of directors and officers for the despatch of bus.—usually called a board meeting. Boards are generally held weekly, on a fixed day and hour; but sometimes fortnightly, or monthly. [DIRECTORS.]
BOARD OF TRADE.-A Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of commercial matters. This Board exercises, or has the authority to exercise, various important powers in relation to ins. asso., either in common with other joint-stock asso., or specially.
Under the 56th sec. of Cos. Act, 1862, "The Board of Trade may appoint one or more competent inspectors to examine into the affairs of any co. under this Act. and to report thereon, in such manner as the board may direct, upon the applications following."
In case of an ins. co., registered under that Act, having its capital divided into shares, upon the application of members holding not less than one-fifth part of the whole shares of the co. for the time being issued:
Sec. 57. The application shall be supported by such evidence as the Board of Trade may require for the purpose of showing that the applicants have good reason for requiring such investigation to be made, and that they are not actuated by malicious motives in instituting the same. The Board may also require the applicants to give security for the payment of the costs of the inquiry before appointing any inspector or inspectors.
Sec. 58. It shall be the duty of all officers and agents of the Co. to produce for the examination of the inspectors, all books and documents in their custody or power. Any inspector may examine upon oath the officers and agents of the Co. in relation to its bus., and may administer such oath accordingly. If any officer or agent refuses to produce any book or document hereby directed to be produced, or to answer any question relating to the affairs of the Co., he shall incur a penalty not exceeding £5 in respect of each offence.
Sec. 59. Upon the conclusion of the examination the inspectors shall report their opinion to the Board of Trade; such report shall be written or printed as the Board of Trade directs. A copy shall be forwarded by the Board of Trade to the registered office of the Co., and a further copy shall, at the request of the members upon whose application the inspection was made, be delivered to them, or any one or more of them. All expenses of and incident to any such examination as aforesaid shall be defrayed by the members upon whose application the inspectors were appointed, unless the Board of Trade shall direct the same to be paid out of the assets of the Co., which it is hereby authorized to do. The Board of Trade has other powers under this Act not material to our present purpose. Under the Life Assu. Cos. Act, 1870, there are the following provisions :
16. The Board of Trade may direct any printed or other documents required by this Act, or certified copies thereof, to be kept by the Registrar of Joint-Stock Companies or other officer of the Board of Trade; and any person may, on payment of such fees as the Board of Trade may direct, inspect the same at his office, and procure copies thereof.
17. Every statement, abstract, or other document deposited with the Board of Trade or with the Registrar of Joint-Stock Companies under this Act shall be receivable in evidence; and every document purporting to be certified by one of the secretaries or assistant secretaries of the Board of Trade, or by the said Registrar, to be such deposited document, and every document purporting to be similarly certified to be a copy of such deposited document shall, if produced out of the custody of the Board of Trade or of the said Registrar, be deemed to be such deposited document as aforesaid, or a copy thereof, and shall be received in evidence as if it were the original document, unless some variation between it and the original document shall be proved.
The 24th sec. of the same Act provides as follows:
The Board of Trade shall lay annually before Parliament the statements and abstracts of reports deposited with them under this Act during the preceding year.
The first return under this Act has recently [May, 1872] been issued.
BOAT.-A term used in a general sense to denote any small ship or vessel, whether open or decked, and which may be propelled by oars, by sails, or by steam. Boats are accordingly of very different forms and constructions, having reference to the different purposes they are intended to serve. Under this term are comprehended barges, cutters, pinnaces, yawls, etc. The boats which constitute part of the proper outfit of a ship are included in the ins. of such ship. "Steam-boats," as applied to large vessels, is a misnomer. BODILY FORCE.-It is manifest that the power of a nation depends not only upon the numbers of its people, but on the value and force of each of its individuals included in the enumeration. If they are feeble, the whole is weak; if they are strong, the whole is powerful; and in the precise proportion that these elements of sickness or health, weakness or vigour, are presented by the individuals, the general power of the community is diminished or increased.-Dr. Jarvis, 1860. [HEALTH.] [SICKNESS.] BODY, HUMAN.-See HUMAN BODY.
BODY POLITIC.-A nation; also a corporation.
BOILER INSURANCE.-See STEAM BOILER INS.
BOILER INSURANCE AND STEAM POWER CO., LIM., founded in Manchester in 1865, to take over and carry on the bus. of the Steam Boiler Assu. Co., estab. in 1859. The cap. of the present Co. is £250,000, in 50,000 shares of £5; first issue 40,000 shares. Its objects are: (1.) Ins. steam boilers, with the buildings and machinery connected therewith, and any property or goods stored or contained in such buildings, against damage from explosion of boilers or collapse of flues. (2.) Repairing, or altering or keeping in repair, boilers. (3.) Inspecting steam boilers and steam engines, and advising in all matters relating to the safe and economical production and use of steam. (4.) Supplying manufacturers and others with steam power, etc. The prosp. says:
This Co. was formed... for the purpose of affording to the users of steam power efficient periodical inspection of their boilers, combined with ins. against all damage resulting from explosion; with a view of preventing, as far as practicable, those frequent disasters so destructive both to life and property.
During the first few years its operations were chiefly confined to the manufacturing districts of Lancashire and Yorkshire; but the principles upon which it was formed and the advantages offered were attended with such marked success, that the directors considered it necessary in the year 1865 to increase the cap. of the Co., etc.
The title of the Co. was then changed, . . . and its operations were extended to all parts of the kingdom. The Co. has now well-qualified inspectors residing in all the principal districts where steam power is used; and the advantages to be derived from periodical inspection, combined with ins., are daily becoming more appreciated by the public.
The number of steam boiler explosions which occur in this country is much larger than would be supposed by a casual observer. This Co. has kept note of some 500 which have occurred during the past 10 years; and there are many of which the public hear little or nothing. The loss of life resulting from the 500 explosions named has exceeded 800 persons. The fact that the number of explosions experienced by this Co. has been below the general average, is considered by the officers of the Co. to be an evidence of the benefits resulting from periodical inspection. The average number of inspections annually made by the Co. exceeds 55,000. Upwards of 22,000 boilers have been insured with the Co.
The actual guarantees afforded to insurers in this Co. are: (1.) Responsible inspection of the boilers ins., by officers of the Co., not only at periodical intervals, but at any other
time when necessary, with written reports of results. (2.) The risk to the Co. of all damage otherwise than by fire that may result from explosion of boiler, or collapses of the flues, not only to the boiler, but to the surrounding property up to the amount insured. The Co. further undertakes, by special contract, all repairs of boilers necessitated by " wear and tear"; also the periodical inspection and indicating of engines, etc. The following is the T. of prems. for ins. against damage from explosion of boiler and collapse of flues, including periodical inspection and reports on the condition of
Example.-1. Boiler Class A, working at 60lbs. pressure, amount, £200. Prem.,
ThCo. also insures boilers, with internal furnaces, if in good condition, and adapted to the pressures required, up to the amount of £300 for an ann. prem. of £1 11s. 6d. each. The ins. in this case covers all damage to the boiler itself, its mountings, and the adjacent property, up to the full amount ins., in case of actual explosion; but this class of ins. does not cover any damage to, or injury of, the internal flues in case of collapseaccidents of very frequent occurrence, resulting from deficiency of water, owing to negligence on the part of the attendants.
Then again there may be inspection without ins. The rate for this is 17s. 6d. per boiler p.a. ; or in case of a number of boilers a special contract may be made. This payment secures periodical inspection every 3 or 4 months, and a written report containing information and advice.
The Co. also issues pol. of ins. on the lives of enginemen, stokers, and all persons attendant upon boilers and engines; also workpeople employed in manufacturing estab. liable to injury or death from boiler explosions.
It would be difficult to conceive any inst. which has been productive of more real good than this particular Co., and impossible to find one which has been attended with more marked financial success. This success is mainly due to practical management, especially to the able and unceasing devotion of its Chief Engineer and Man., Mr. R. B. Longridge. The ann. reports of this gentleman, prepared for his board, and printed for more general use and reference, are regarded not only with great interest by those immediately concerned, but have a far wider range of usefulness in the information they convey regarding the causes of explosion in the boilers which come more especially under his notice by reason of disaster.
The subject of ins. steam boilers will be treated of at large under STEAM BOILER INS. BOILING TO DEATH.-The punishment for poisoning inflicted by 22 Henry III. c. 9 (A.D. 1267), which was repealed by 1 Edward VI. c. 12 (1547).
BOILS (Class, ZYMOTIC; Order, miasmatic) are not generally considered dangerous, yet every year some deaths are recorded as resulting from them. In 1867 there were II
males, 7; females, 4. In the case of the males, 3 were in the first year of life; I between 45 and 55; 2 between 55 and 65; I between 75 and 85. In the case of the females, I was in the first year, I in the second; I between 10 and 15; 1 between 35 and 45. BOLOGNA, STATUTE OF, enacted prior to 1408; printed 1498.-This is supposed to contain a reference to the practice of marine ins. See GENOA, MARITIME STATUTES OF. BOLTON AND SOUTH LANCASHIRE FIRE INS. Co.-This scheme was projected in 1845, but does not appear to have taken root. Its proposed cap. was £500,000, in shares of £20. BOMBAUGH, C. C., M.D., the accomplished ed. of the Baltimore Underwriter.-He was a medical officer in the U.S. army, and on retiring in 1865, with impaired health, entered upon his present enterprise, in which we wish him permanent success. Mr. Bombaugh
is medical examiner for several life offices. BOMBAY.-Mr. Hewlett, the health officer of the city of Bombay, in his report for the year 1867, states that the number of deaths regis. during that year amounted to 15,500. There has been a great improvement in the public health since 1865, when the deaths were 28,631, out of a pop. of about 816,562. The ann. mort. in each of the four years 1864-7 respectively to 1000 of pop., was 306, 350, 207, and 190. The mort. from the principal epidemic diseases in each of these years, to 1000 living, was as follows: Cholera, 59, 35, '4 and 'I; smallpox, 2'1, '7, 1'3, and 1'3; measles, 2, 5, 6, and '02; fever, 154, 229, 12'1, and 6·9. The deaths regis. in 1867 from each of these diseases
were: Cholera, 111; smallpox, 1055; measles, 24; and fever, 5674. Of the deaths from smallpox 836 were those of children who had not completed their ninth year. Vaccination was not compulsory, and during the last ten years no less than 9857 persons had died from this disease. Including the stillborn, the deaths numbered 16,088; 11,890 bodies were buried, 3354 burnt, and 844 exposed to carrion birds. Mr. Hewlett states that the Parsee towers of silence should be closed; such an intelligent race as the Parsees should abandon a mode of disposal of their dead which, after all, is only a continual reminder of the tyranny of the ancient oppressors of their race in Persia before their migration. Of the 15,500 deaths, 1836, or 12 p.c., were those of infants under a month old; 3388, or 22 p.c., were those of children aged one month and under 2 years; 1204, or 8 p.c., were children aged 2 and under 5 years; 45 p.c. of the total deaths were those of children under 10 years of age. In the district of Parell, where there was not one built drain, the mort. in 1866 reached the high proportion of 40'1 per 1000; and in the Esplanade district, where two native infantry regiments were quartered, the mort. was 352 per 1000. These regiments were stationed in close proximity to a huge cesspit; out of 227 deaths in the district last year 163 occurred among persons in the regimental and other lines, 75 deaths being caused by fever.
The mort. p.c. among the different castes or races in 1867 was as follows: Boodhists and Jains, etc., 7:02; Brahmuns, 138; Lingaets, 3'63; Bhatias, 104; Hindoos of other castes, 150; Hindoo out-castes, 367; Moosulmans, 265; Parsees, 171; Jews, 2 86; native Christians, 2.57; Indo-Europeans, 169; Europeans, 2:57; negro-Africans, 5'30; Chinese, 363. Of the 816,562 inhabitants of the town of Bombay 61,994 are returned as belonging to Asarcophagous castes, or persons of non-flesh-eating races; the mort. among these was 2:05 p.c., while the mort. among the Sarcophagous castes, or flesh-eating races, was 1.89 p.c. The meteorological returns record the mean barometric pressure in the year 1867 at Colaba Observatory at 29 823 inches; the mean temperature of the air in the shade was 789 degrees; the absolute range was 308 degrees. The mean dew point was 71.5 degrees. 65 48 inches of rain fell at Colaba in 110 days.
The Co. issued no wholeone year, not renewable For 3 years, renewable p.c. For 5 years, renewable
We propose to give the T. of Mort. for Bombay, and much other important information regarding European health and longevity there, under INDIA. There is a very complete fire brigade in this city. BOMBAY LIFE Assu. Co., founded in Bombay, 1 May, 1823. term L. pol. It had three classes of short-term ins., viz. :-For without a fresh certificate of health, prem. aged 30, 3 p.c. without fresh certificate of health, ann. prem. aged 30, 3 without fresh certificate of health, ann. prem. aged 30, 4 p.c. BOMERIE, from the Flemish word Bome, which signifies the keel of a vessel. It is variously written by different authors Bomerie, Bodmerie, Boddemerii. A term of marine commerce particularly in use on the coasts of Normandy. It is a sort of contract or loan at a gross average, assigned to the keel of the vessel; it differs from Assu. in that there is nothing due in virtue of this contract in case of shipwreck, but only when the vessel arrives safely in port.-Savary. [BOTTOMRY.]
BON ACCORD L. AND F. ASSU., GUARANTEE, REV., AND ANNU. Co, founded in Aberdeen in 1845, with an authorized capital of £500,000 in 25,000 shares of £20. The D. of sett. recites: "That a new assu. co. in Aberdeen, for the purposes after mentioned, will be of local and public utility, as well as of advantage to the partners," etc. The L. pol. of the Co. were to be absolutely indisputable. Mr. William Gerden was Sec. In 1849 the bus. of the Co. was trans. to the Northern. The Co. was conducted on the proprietary system.
BON ACCORD MARINE INS. Co., founded in Aberdeen in 1839, and continued its bus. down to 1848, when it passed into liquidation. BONA. This term, according to the Civil Law, includes all sorts of property movable and immovable.-Story's Conflict of Laws. BONA MOBILA ; movable effects and goods. BONA PERITURA; perishable goods. BONA VACANTIA; stray goods, those things in which nobody claims a property, and which belong to the Crown by virtue of its prerogative.-Blackstone.
BONA FIDE.-With good faith; implying the absence of all fraud or unfair dealing or acting, whether it consists in simulation or dissimulation. It can best be defined with reference to things opposed to it, namely mala fides, dolus malus, both of which phrases, and specially the latter, are often used in a technical sense. It is of the essence of ins. contracts of all descriptions that they be entered into bona fide.
BOND [from the French to bind].-In Law a deed whereby the obligor, or party binding himself, obliges himself, his heirs, executors, and administrators to pay a certain sum of money, called the penalty, to another (the obligee) at a day appointed. There is a condition added that if the obligor does some particular act the obligation shall be void; otherwise shall remain in full force. Annuities are often secured under bonds of this character-hence Annuity Bonds. A bond may be absolute or conditional. See also POST OBIT BONDS.
BOND CREDITOR.-A creditor whose debt is secured by a bond.