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Same day, Hampshire So., Bell Court, near Aldersgate, on a Subs. on Birthdays of Single Persons," Claim and Div. 2 months; and Births 6 weeks. [This appears to be some new phase in the business which we do not at present understand.]
On 22 Jan., at the Hand and Pen, Jewin St., by Horn Alley, 6 Subs. for Marriages and Births, by way of Claims and Div.-one month. "To pay for policies only till 19 Feb. afterwards to pay subs."
Same day, by British So., Hedge Lane, Charing Cross, 2 Subs. on Births.
On 23 Jan. appeared the following: "At the office, Ironmonger Lane, near Cheapside, proposals delivered out and entries received for estab. a So. of Mutual Contributors on the Births of Children, in a very easy, convenient, and beneficial method; and on secure and lasting foundation."
On 24 Jan. there was opened by the Substantial So. a General Ins. Office in St. Lawrence Lane, for Ins. on Births, etc., "where security will be given in the hands of the Trustees for £10,000, in land," etc.
On 27 Jan. was opened by Society Without Loss, in Little Piazza, Covent Garden, a new Subs. on Births; 7s. 6d. per week, div. of £750 “in month or 6 weeks. Note-At same place, a person will, on Thursday next, for 17s. 6d. paid by him, receive £60 17s. 6d." About this date there was founded another Nuptial So. at Jacob St., near Dockhead, Southwark, and it opened 3 Subs. on Births. Ist, 100 subs., to go with child 2 months, and the child to live 21 days after the birth, etc."
On 29 Jan. opened at Hand and Pen, Jewin St., a Subs. on Births. Div. and Claim. On 31 Jan. was opened by the Safe and Secure So., next door to Red Cow, in Charles Court, in the Strand, a Subs. for Births.
Feb. I opened at the Ship, St. Bartholomew Cloisters, Smithfield, a Subs. on Births. Same day, by the Most Fair and Just So., Redcross St., 3 Subs. on Births, £1,000, £500, and £300.
Same day, by So. of London Charitable Insurers, Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row, an Office on Births, 2, 3, 4, and 6 months-£300. "The child to live 24 hours."
Some day, the Amicable So. of Bell Court, announce a Subs. on Births at 1, 2, 3, and 4 months.
Same day, at the Pastry Cooks, St. Martin's Court, St. Martin's Lane, were opened 3 Books on Births, I month.
On 3 Feb. the Most Secure So., at the Ship and Fox, Strand, opened 4 Subs. on Births; 2 on Div. plan; 2 on Claim plan.
Same day, the Third Secure So., at the Hand and Glove, opened 2 Subs. on Births, by claims.
Same day, the Profitable and Secure So., at the Blue Ball in Arundel St., announced a Subs. on Births at 1 month.
On 5 Feb. there were opened at the Feathers, Shandois St., Covent Garden, 2 Subs. on Births by claims.
On 7 Feb., the Fairest and Most Beneficial So., at Sword Cutters, Corner of St. Paul's Churchyard, opened a Subs. on Births, by way of contributions, to begin on 19 and 20 Feb. "The claim of Subs. entering before or on 17th inst. may become payable in a month or so."
Same day it is announced from the Dover Castle, Billingsgate, that an office of Ins. on Mar. and Births was opened, "where are several proposals both by weekly Div. and Claims. All entering before 18 inst. to have Policy for one month. No money to be paid before 5 or 6 March."
Same day the Opposing Office, Crown Court, announced a Subs. for Births with weekly or monthly Div. "This office meets with very great encouragement, by reason the like freedom is not given to the subs. in any yet extant of this nature; neither is there any office like it for profit and advantage to the subs. No time is limited before. . . . Birth of a Child."
On 8 Feb, Faithful So., Pratt's Coffee House, announce a Subs. on Births, by div. Same day was opened at Union office, Bishopsgate-without, 2 Subs. on Births, monthly div.
On 9th Feb. there was opened by the Hampshire So., Bell Court, near Aldersgate, a subs. "On Birthdays of all persons" for 6 weeks.
On 15 Feb. there were opened at the Feathers, Shandois St., Covent Garden, 2 subs. on Births, weekly div.
Same day there was opened by Grand Office of Ins., Crane Court, Fleet St., a Subs. on Births by way of Claims and Divds.
On 16th Feb. it was announced from St. Paul's Coffee House, that a subs. would be taken on Births, "Security in Lands £1500,"
On 17th Feb. appeared the following announcement: "Not to ensnare any one, but for the profit of 1050 Subs. this day 17 inst., near the Dean's Head, in Dean's Court, in St. Martin's Le Grand, will be opened 16 Books on Ins. on Marriage and Birth-four for one month, and four for two months on each. Any person for 16s. may enter into 4 books, and if full will be entitled to £600, by the best and newest scheme extant."
Same day was announced from "King St. fronting St. Andrew St., near Seven Dials,"
as just opened, 3 Subs. on Births, weekly div. "Claims may be made in one month from date of policy."
On 20 Feb. there was announced from Bee Hive So., at Golden Bee Hive by St. Clement's Church, Strand, an office on Births at 6 weeks.
Same day there was opened by the Nonsuch & most advantageous So. on Marriage, 4 Subs. on Birth of Children.
Same day by Just and Substantial Office, Parrot and Cage, St. Martin's Lane, Strand, Subs. on Births at 1, 2, and 3 months.
On 22 Feb. the Conjugal Office, Hanging Sword Court, Fleet St., announced a subs. to be taken in on Births, &c.
On 23rd Feb. the office at the Cow's Face, Crooked Lane, announced 3 Subs on Births. Div. 10s., 5s., 2s. 6d. 25. each policy.
Same day there was announced from the Plummers in Bow Lane, at the Corner of Watling St., a Subs. on Births by weekly Div.
On 24 Feb. there was announced from Seven Stars, Cheek Lane, Smithfield, a Subs. on Births, Birthdays, etc., by way of Claims and Div
Same day it was announced by Original Loyal So. that persons might enter on Births at 8 weeks, on 20 Feb. 30 Div. paid on birth of child."
On 24 Feb. the office at Dean's Head, Dean's Court, St. Martin Le Grand, announced: "Another new book on Births-3 months."
About this date the Substantial So. announced that all persons entering into the said Office on Births before 8 March should be at liberty to claim in 6 weeks from date of their pol.
On 27 Feb. the General Office, Talbot Court, Gracechurch St., opened a Subs. on Births, etc., by Div., some by 6 months, 3, 2, and 1.
On same day it was announced from Martin's Office, Essex Street, Whitefriars, that there had been paid to each Claimant for Div. on Births £39 7s. 6d. for £1 10s. charge. On 28 Feb. the Impartial and Friendly So. opened 2 Subs. on Births by weekly Div. 25. entrance; 5s. weekly-£500 or Div. ; 25., 2-£300 or Div.
About this date there was issued from the Ins. Office "at the Great New House, in Knowles Court (the sign of the Crown being at the Gate), in Little Carter Lane, near the East End of St. Paul's Church," a notice of Subs. at a certain charge upon Births at 6 and 8 weeks, on payment of 125, 6s., 45., or 25., weekly, to divide in full £3600. And also upon Births at 36 weeks.
On 3 March the Profitable So., Palgrave Head Court, announced a Subs. for Births at a certain charge (weekly Div.), 1, 2, 3 months; 1000, £500, £300.
We suddenly meet with a suspension of these schemes. The reason is at hand. About the 5th or 6th of March, 1711, there was passed the Anne, c. 6, the 57 sec. of which, after reciting as we have already shown under APPRENTICESHIP INS., imposed a penalty of £500 upon any person erecting or setting up any such office after the 8th day of March
Consequent upon the passing of this Act, the following very extraordinary Petition was presented to Parl. :
The case of Dorothy Petty, in relation to the Union Society, at the White-Lyon by Temple-Bar, whereof she is Director. The said Dorothy (who is the daughter of a Divine of the Church of England now deceas'd) did set up an ins, office on Births, Marriages, and Services, in order thereby to serve the public and get an honest Livelyhood for herself.
The said Dorothy had such success in her undertaking that more claims were paid, and more stamps us'd for policies and certificates in her office than in all other the like offices in London besides; which good-fortune was chiefly owing to the fairness and justice of her proceedings in the said business: For all the money paid into the office was entered in one book, and all the money paid out upon claims was set down in another book, and all people had liberty to peruse both, so that there could not possibly be the least fraud in the management thereof.
That the stamp office (by modest computation) hath received out of such offices, and chiefly out of the Union So., Three or four hundred pounds weekly for stamps, as is well known in the Stampoffice.
That as a clause in a late Act, whereby such offices were suppressed, is worded, Hundreds of Her Majesty's subjects who were to be paid last by the rules of the said offices, lose vast sums of money, and others for being first entered will run away with all; for the said clause preserves the contracts made before the 8th day of March last, and in the same time disables the persons concerned from performing of them, they being not allowed to subscribe after that time under a severe penalty.
That the smallness of the sums paid into this So. from time to time by persons who cannot afford to pay £10 at a time, which is the least that can be put into the last Lottery, shows that this office can in no ways interfere with Publick funds or Lotteries: and the said director and all other parties concerned are so far from intending any such thing, that if it is thought of any advantage to the Gov., they are willing that the money that shall hereafter be paid into the said office shall be returned weekly into the Exchequer; and that small Exchequer bills or Tallies shall be taken for the same, and distributed in lieu of ready money amongst the claimants.
Therefore it is humbly hoped by a great many thousands of persons concerned in the said So., that the Hon. the Commons of Gt. Brit. will, by another clause in some other Act, give all parties concerned further time for winding-up their bottoms; and so explain the said former clause, as that none of Her Majesty's subjects already engaged in the said Union So. may be losers by it, especially since this said office is so fairly managed, and so useful to the public, as is before mentioned; and besides that it is (with submission) usual to rectify a mistake by a subsequent act committed in a former Act passed the same Sessions, which to omit other instances appears by the votes of this Hon. House of 13 April, 1711, which sets forth that a motion was made, That it be an instruction to the Committee, etc., To Rectify a mistake (in the very same Act hereinbefore mentioned), in relation to coals shipped for exportation to Ireland or the Isle of Man.
The system of Ins. on Births was not entirely suppressed by reason of the last-named Act. We find that at a quarterly meeting of the Quarterly Contribution, "kept at Ironmonger-lane," held in April, 1712, it was ordered that from and after 25 March then last, that on new-born children "no claim will be allowed to be good whose child shall not live 7 days after its birth; and the woman before delivery to continue pregnant with such child 24 weeks, exclusive the day of such entry or date of such their certificate.” [GAMBLING INS.]
It may be well to note here, that many of the modern offices ins. either for or against the failure of issue, but under circumstances very different from those practised at the period which we have just passed in review. [ISSUE, INS. AGAINST.]
BIRTH-RATE.-The per-centage or proportion of births (ann. or otherwise) in relation to marriages; in relation to the number of females; or in relation to the entire pop. BIRTHS, REGISTRATION OF..-In England, by the 70th Canon, and by the Statutes of 6 & 7 Wm. and Mary, c. 6 (1695), and 4 Geo. IV. c. 76 (1823), the minister of every parish was required to keep a regis. of births. By the Registration Act, 6 & 7 Wm. IV. c. 86 (1836), it was enacted that the parent or occupier of a house in which a child is born might within 42 days after the birth give notice to the district registrar, and should give such information on being requested by that officer to do so. No birth to be regis. after 6 months from date. Children born at sea were to be regis. in "Marine Regis. Book." This Act of 1836 has been frequently amended. Of these amendments, details will be given under REGISTRATION.
The form for general regis. of births comprises the time of birth, name, and sex of child; the name, surname, maiden surname, and profession or occupation of parents; the signature, description, and residence of the informant-who must be the father or mother, or in case of their inability the occupier of the house (sec. 20); the date of regis., and signature of the registrar; and also the child's baptismal name-if any be given within 6 months after regis.
The Act relating to the regis. of births, etc., in Scotland, is the 17 & 18 Vict. c. 80, passed in 1854. Its main requirements resemble those of the English Act. It has been amended by 18 & 19 Vict. c. 29 (1855); and 23 & 24 Vict. c. 85 (1860). [SCOTLAND.]
The Act relating to regis. of births in Ireland is 26 & 27 Vict. c. 11 (1863). Its requirements also resemble those of the English and Scotch Acts. BIRTHS, TAXES UPON.-A tax was first imposed upon births in 1695, by 6 & 7 Wm. III. c. 6; but as marriages and burials were also made the subject of taxation on the same occasion, we propose to treat of the whole subject under MORTALITY TAX.
BISCHOFF, JAMES.-In 1834 he pub. a pamp., Marine Ins.: their Importance, their Rise, Progress, and Decline, and their Claim to Freedom from Taxation. This pamp. will be found appended to Vaucher's Guide to Marine Ins., pub. 1834. In 1836 it was pub. in a distinct form.
BISHOP, J., was Sec. of Victoria Life (No. 1), from 1842 to 1844.
BISHOP, JAMES, was Sec. of Mut. Benefit Ins. Inst. from 1842 down to the date of its passing out of existence (1858).
BISHOP, JOHN, was Sec. of Property Protection So. from 1857 to the time of its discontinuing bus. in 1866.
BITES, DEATHS AND INJURY FROM.-We were much amused, not to say surprised, on looking over the out-patient accident books of the various London hospitals for two months, to find that of 124 "bites" of different kinds entered, 18 were attributed to men or women, which number was in excess of any other animal, with the exception of dogs, who were accused of inflicting the large number of 85. Horse-bites numbered 12; cat-bites, 5; the monkey and donkey being accused of one each. The two remaining were simply entered as "bites." We certainly have no reason to be proud of our exalted position. British Medical Journal. The accident ins. cos. sustain a considerable number of claims yearly in consequence of bites of dogs, horses, and especially of pigs, the latter most dangerous. BLACK BOOK OF THE ADMIRALTY.-A book in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, containing a collection of ancient sea laws, and among them the Roles d'Oleron. This book appears
to have been commenced in the reign of Edward III., 1327-57, and to have been continued under Richard II. and Henry IV.; and its object was obviously to form a sort of manual or practical collection for guiding the Admiralty in its jurisdiction. The documents contained in it are in the old Norman French; but they were in the reign of Charles II. translated into English, by Thomas Bedford, upon the suggestion of Sir Leoline Jenkins, one of the Judges of the Court.
Amongst other things the book contains a record of the Inquest made in 1375 at Queenboro', by order of Edward III., before William de Latymer, Chamberlain and Keeper of the Cinque Ports, and William de Nevyll, High Admiral. The articles propounded at that Înquest, 18 in number, had for their object the determining of points which had not been foreseen either by the Roles d'Oleron, or by the articles which had been added to them in the Black Book. They all relate to points in Maritime Law; as also do the 63 regulations subsequently entered.
The Black Book also contains the police and penal regulations, as they were recast
and digested into 59 articles in the Latin language, by Roughton. This portion of the work is authenticated by the subscription of the Duke of Norfolk, who was High Admiral in the beginning of the reign of Henry VIII.; but it appears to have been afterwards revised and enlarged as new circumstances arose. An English translation of this section of the book was made in the reign of Elizabeth, when Sir Julius Cæsar was Judge of the Admiralty (about 1591); and another translation in 1639, in the reign of Charles I. The old writers on Maritime Law, as Seldon, Exton, Coke, and Prynne, have all availed themselves largely of the Black Book, which has in some sort answered the end of the Ins. Ordinances possessed by other maritime countries. We are glad to say that the work is now brought within the reach of all who care to consult it, by being pub. as one of the "Record Series" under the authority of the Master of the Rolls. The first vol. of the Black Book was thus pub. in 1871, edited by Sir Travers Twiss, Q.C., D.C.L., late H.M. Advocate-General. This ed. will be chiefly quoted in these pages. BLACK DEATH-The Black Death, though usually treated as an aggravated outbreak of the Oriental plague, which is by very general consent traced to Egypt as its birthplace, has had assigned to it an origin more remote. Hecker fancies he finds the source of it in China, in 1333, fifteen years before it showed itself in Europe; and Anglada traces it by three distinct routes from Black Cathay; the northern route by Bokhara and Tartary, the Black Sea and Constantinople having brought it by the Bosphorus into the Mediterranean, and so into Europe. In the interval between 1333 and 1347 China was visited with drought, famine, torrents of rain, floods, earthquakes, swarms of locusts, and pestilence; and at length, in 1348, Europe began to suffer by the same visitations. The Island of Cyprus was converted into a desert by a frightful earthquake, hurricane, and inundation following the outbreak of the plague; and there was observed-what was noticed in many countries and cities afterwards-a peculiarly offensive state of the air, sometimes spoken of as a stinking mist, possibly due to the dead locusts, which had "never perhaps darkened the sky in thicker swarms,” and by countless unburied bodies of men and beasts. On the 25th Jan. of the same year (1348), an unexampled earthquake lasting several days visited Greece, Italy, and the neighbouring countries, shaking down or swallowing up whole villages, and inflicting severe injury on every large city. Others occurred from time to time in all parts of the Continent of Europe, and in England up to the year 1360.
The Black Death reached England in Aug. 1348, appearing first in the county of Dorset; thence spreading through Devon and Somerset, to Bristol, Gloucester, Oxford, and Lond. ; in fact through the whole country. It took three months to reach Lond. ; few places are thought to have escaped, and only a tenth part of the inhabitants were thought to have remained alive. Dr. Guy, from whose work on public health we have selected the preceding outline, as likely to be less exaggerated than accounts from other sources, says there is no room to doubt that the symptoms of the Black Death were those belonging to the Oriental plague. [PLAGUE.] Those who desire more detailed information may consult the work of Hecker, a German physician, "The Black Death in the 14th Century," translated into English in 1833; or Dr. Guy's work, "Public Health," 1870. Hecker has estimated the loss of life in Europe from this visitation at 25 millions; other writers as high as 40 millions. Asia and Africa, including China, 37 millions.
A pestilential visitation in Dublin in 1866 received the name of the Black Death. Dr. Stokes suggests as an appropriate name for the disease malignant purpuric fever; it has also been designated black fever, and cerebro-spinal typhus, etc., etc. BLACK MAIL.-An impost levied in former ages by Scottish Barons and Border Knights, now said to be sometimes levied by Knights of the Quill. Happily it is a custom nearly played out. BLACK, MORRICE ALEXANDER, F.J. A., Act. of Australian Mut. in Sydney since 1868. Mr. Black entered the Aberdeen Mut. in 1846. He studied actuarial science under Mr. Yeates, then Act. of the Northern. A few years later he came to Lond., and after a short term of service in the Anchor, he entered the Law Property in 1851. In 1857 he became Chief Clerk and Act. of the English Widows' Fund, and there learnt that honourable dealing is sometimes very much overlooked in public bodies. He made a valuation of the pol. in the office upon an understanding that he was to be remunerated for so doing. The valuation was skilfully and properly made, except in one minor matter, where he acted under instructions from his superior officer; but Mr. Black was never paid for his labour. He had recourse to a Court of Law, but only to find, as thousands previously had found, that law and justice are by no means one and the same. It was upon the incidents of this case- Black v. English Widows' Fund—that the late Prof. De Morgan based his letter-Warning to Actuaries.
Towards the end of 1858, Mr. Black became Act. of the Lond. and Yorkshire. In 1864 he became Sec. of the Home and Colonial.
In 1861 Mr. Black pub.: The Assu. of Diseased and Doubtful Lives on a new Principle. This principle will be explained in detail under DISEASED LIVES, INS. OF. In the mean time we may here state that the subject received a good deal of attention; and its merits or otherwise were canvassed in the Assu. Mag. during the year 1863 [vol. x. pp. 268 and 350]. Several of the English offices still follow Mr. Black's method.
In 1863 he pub. a Chronological and Statistical Chart of Life Offices Estab. in the United Kingdom from 1706 to 1863. A useful compilation.
In 1867 An Analysis of Marine Ins. Cos. Accounts, showing their Profits and Losses, Liabilities and Assets; together with Tables Illustrating the Combined Experience of Twelve Companies. A most instructive and useful pub. to all engaged or interested in Marine Ins. BLACK SEA.—This sea is proverbially subject to furious gales, as even the most experienced marine ins. underwriters know to their cost. A dreadful storm raged from 13 to 16 Nov., 1854, causing great loss of life and shipping, and sacrificing valuable stores for the allied armies. By the treaty of 1856 the Black Sea was opened to the commerce of all nations. BLACK, WILLIAM, M. D., pub. in 1781, Observations, Medical and Political, on the Smallpox and Inoculation; and on the Decrease of Mankind at every Age, with a Comparative View of the Diseases most fatal to Lond. during 90 years; Including an Attempt to Demonstrate in what manner Lond. may save near 2000, Great Britain and Ireland between 20,000 and 30,000, and Europe about 390,000 lives ann.
In 1788 he pub. A Comparative View of the Mort. of the Human Species at all Ages; and of the Diseases and Casualties by which they are Destroyed or Annoyed.
These works will be noticed under DISEASES; LOND.; MORT. OBS.; Pop.; etc. BLACKBURN FIRE AND LIFE INS. Co.-This scheme was projected in 1845, but does not appear to have made further progress. The proposed cap. was £500,000. BLACKSMITHS.-The number of males of 20 years and upwards following this sturdy occupation in 1851 was 75,998; of whom 1409 died during that year. The mort. to 1000 living at each of the decennial ages was as follows:-Between 25 and 35, 8; 35-45, 12; 45-55, 17; 55–65, 37; 65-75, 74; 75-85, 167; 85 and upwards, 331. Thus above 55, the mort. is over the average of all occupations, and increasingly so as the ages advance; but this prob. from its having been so light in the younger ages. In the supplement to the 25th R. of Reg.-Gen. (1864) the ann. mort. p.c. in the years 1860–61 was found to be as follows:-Between ages 15-25, 527; between 25-35, 836; 35-45, 1088; 45-55, 1742; 55-65, 3'139; 65-75, 17'717; 85 and upwards, 36'194. BLADDER, DISEASES OF.--See CYSTITIS, GRAVEL, STONE, URINARY Organs. BLAKEMORE, Mr., was for some years (between 1850 and 1857) Superintendent of Agents for Legal and Commercial.
BLAND, ROBERT, M.D., F.R.S.-In the Phil. Trans. for 1781 appeared by this writer, A Table of the Chance of Life from Infancy to Twenty-Six Years of Age. [MORT. Tables.] BLAND, WILLIAM HENRY, late of the Essex and Suffolk Equitable Fire, where he had been as Clerk and Assistant Sec. for upwards of 40 years. He died in 1868, aged 60. BLANDFORD (Dorset).—In June 1731 a fire broke out here which destroyed the greater part of the town. Some of the property was ins., and a good deal of money was raised on "King's Briefs." [FIRE INS., HIST. OF.] In 1735 there was pub. A Brief Account of the Dreadful Fire at Blandford Forum, in the County of Dorset, which happened June iv., M. DCC. XXXI. Together with a Sermon Preached at Blandford, June 4, 1735: being a day set apart by the Protestant Dissenters there for Prayer and Humiliation under the Remembrance of that sad Providence. To which is added a Serious Address to the Inhabitants of that Town, by Malachi Blake. "This Treatise is not only calculated for the inhabitants of Blandford, but proper for other families also." A remarkable incident arising out of this fire was that out of 150 persons lying ill with the smallpox, and all of whom had to be removed into the open air, under hedges, arches, etc., and some of them left for several days, only I died. [INOCULATION.] [SMALLPOX.] BLANE, SIR GILBERT, M.D., a noted physician, who died in 1834. He pub. the following works bearing upon subjects treated of in this work. In 1785 (1.) Observations on Diseases Incident to Seamen; in 1811 (2.) A Series of Addresses to the Public on the Practice of Vaccination; in 1818 (3.) A Statement Respecting the Contagious Nature of Yellow Fever; in 1822 (4.) A Work on the Diseases of Lond. ; in 1830 (5.) A Brief Statement of the Progressive Improvement of the Health of the Royal Navy at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th Centuries; in 1832 (6.) Warning and Admonition to the Brit. Public on the Intro. of the Cholera of India. Mr. Hodge frequently quotes from Sir Gilbert's writings in his able papers on the Mort. arising from Naval Operations. [Assu. Mag., vol. 6, etc.]
BLANKET POLICIES (FIRE) are such as improperly cover different kinds, or different pieces of property, under the same clause. For instance, "1000 on building and stock," or "1000 on two buildings;" or again, "1000 on stock and fixtures." It is bad underwriting to issue these. Let each clause of your pol. cover a specific sum on each particular kind or piece of property. For instance, "£500 on building," and "£500 on stock;" or "£500 on each of two buildings;" or "£500 on stock," and " £500 on fixtures," as the case may be.-Rogers on Fire Underwriting. The designation "Blanket Pol." is,
we believe, confined to the American Continent. BLANKS.-What we term "Forms" here, are called "Blanks" in the U.S. Thus, when a person desires to ins., he is requested to fill up the proper blank. We do not know that there is much choice between the terms. It would be well if the practice of the two countries were uniform.
BLANK POLICIES.-It appears to have been a custom in early days to leave "blanks” in marine policies; hence a ship was insured from London to The practice arose
with a view to prevent capture by the destination of the ship being betrayed. In such