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(hl) Princes, Potentates,

Of hell resounded.
Warriors! the flower of heaven, once yours, now lost,

If such astonishment as this, can seize
Eternal spirits.

The language of the first part of this example being simple narrative, requires a moderate movement, and the middle pitch. In the latter part a transition is made to the high pitch, and a quicker movement, because the language changes from narrative to that of commanding authority.

(q) Away, away, o'er the foaming main!

This was the free and the joyous strain;·

There are clearer skies than ours, afar,

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We will shape our course by a brighter star;

There are plains whose verdure no foot hath pressed,
And whose wealth is all for the first brave guest.

(s p) But alas! that we should go,

Sang the farewell voices then,-
From the homesteads, warm and low,
By the brook and in the glen!

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A thousand hearts beat happily

Soft eyes looked love to eyes which spake again,
And all went merry as a marriage bell;

(1) But hush! hark!

a deep sound strikes like a rising knell ! Did ye not hear it? No, - 't was but the wind, Or the car rattling o'er the stony street. (h) On with the dance! let joy be unconfined;

No sleep till morn when youth and pleasure meet To chase the glowing hours with flying feet(1) But hark! that heavy sound breaks in once more; (i) And nearer, clearer, deadlier than before!

(hl) Arm! arm! it is—it is the cannon's opening roar ! (p) Ah! then and there was hurrying to and fro,

And gathering tears, and tremblings of distress, and choking sighs; (q) And there was mounting in hot haste; the steed, The mustering squadron, and clattering car, Went pouring forward with impetuous speed, And swiftly forming in the ranks of war.

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QUESTIONS. Why is the first part of the first example spoken on the middle pitch? Why the last on the high pitch?


PERSONATION implies those changes or variations of voice, necessary to represent two or more individuals as speaking.

In reading dialogue of all kinds, this principle of elocution is employed; and it will at once be seen that it requires great skill to manage the voice in such a manner, as to represent accurately the characters speaking.

RULE. Consider the condition, the feelings, and the temperament of the characters to be represented, and vary the voice in such a manner as best to personate them.


Plain Dialogue.

Alexander. What! art thou that Thracian robber, of whose exploits I have heard so much?

Robber. I am a Thracian, and a soldier.

A. A soldier! a thief, a plunderer, an assassin! the pest of the country! I could honor thy courage, but I must detest and punish thy crimes.

R. What have I done, of which you can complain?

A. Hast thou not set at defiance my authority, violated the public peace, and passed thy life in injuring the persons and property of thy fellow-subjects?

R. Alexander, I am your captive; I must hear what you please to say, and endure what you please to inflict. But my soul is unconquered; and if I reply at all to your reproaches, I will reply like a free man.

To read the language used by the two characters in this extract in the same tone, and with the same expression, would make it disagreeable even to the most unpracticed ear. The condition of Alexander is that of a king and conqueror; his passions are irritated, and it would be natural to suppose that he would speak in the language of authority and contempt.

QUESTIONS. What is Personation? What is the rule for Personation? How should the part of Alexander, in the example, be read?

On the other hand, the robber is a captive, in the power of Alexander; and, from the very circumstances in which he is placed, would use the language of submission and respect.

Rhetorical Dialogue.

When a writer introduces into his composition, for the sake of vivacity, one individual or more, as speaking, it is called Rhetorical Dialogue, and should be read according to the rule given above.


And Nathan said to David, Thou art the man.

Jesus said, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me?

They turned deadly pale at the fatal rencounter. "I was first at the top," said Bendearg," and called out first, lie down, that I may pass over in peace." "When Grant prostrates himself before Macpherson," answered the other, "it must be with a sword through his body." "Turn back, then," said Bendearg," and repass as you came. "Go back yourself, if you like it,” replied Grant.

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Rhetorical Pause.

RHETORICAL PAUSE is a suspension of voice where grammatical punctuation does not require it.

The rhetorical pause, when properly observed, adds precision and force to the thought or sentiment uttered. When it precedes an important word or clause, it excites expectation and prepares the mind for what follows.

In general, correct taste and good judgment, will better decide its proper length, and where it should be used, than any set rules. The following rule, however, embraces a few of the instances where its use is required, and is introduced for the purpose of calling the learner's attention to the subject. The pause is marked thus, ( | ).

RULE. The rhetorical pause is generally required between a verb and its nominative, before and after an

QUESTIONS. How should the part of the robber be read? What is Rhetorical Dialogue? How should it be read? What is Rhetorical Pause? What is the rule?

intervening phrase, before an adjective when it follows its noun, where there is an ellipsis, and before and after an important word or clause of a sentence.


Industry is the guardian of innocence.

Prosperity gains friends; adversity | tries them.
Some place true bliss in action, some | in ease,
Those call it pleasure, and contentment | these.

The great, invincible Alexander | wept at the fate of Darius. Precipitation | ruins the best contrived plans, patience | ripens the most difficult.


Talents without application | are no security for progress in learning.

Wealth with a benevolent disposition | renders the possessor a blessing to the world.

Hers was a soul | replete with every noble quality.

Add to your faith | virtue; and to virtue | knowledge; and to knowledge | temperance; and to temperance | patience.

Is not the mystery comprehended in one word | sympathy?

I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided, and that | is the lamp of experience.


Exercise 1.- To Illustrate Transition, page 60.

1. Heard ye those loud contending waves,
That shook Cecropia's pillared state?
Saw ye the mighty from their graves

Look up, and tremble at her fate?
Who shall calm the angry storm?
Who the mighty task perform,

And bid the raging tumult cease?
See the son of Hermes rise;
With syren tongue, and speaking eyes,
Hush the noise, and sooth to peace!

2. Lo! from the regions of the North,
The reddening storm of battle pours;
Rolls along the trembling earth,
Fastens on the Olynthian towers.

(h 1 q)

(h q) 3. "Where rests the sword?-where sleep the brave? Awake! Cecropia's ally save

From the fury of the blast;
Burst the storm on Phocis' walls;
Rise! or Greece forever falls.

Up! or freedom breathes her last!"

(1 s) 4. The jarring states, obsequious now, View the patriot's hand on high; Thunder gathering on his brow,

Lightning flashing from his eye.

5. Borne by the tide of words along,
One voice, one mind, inspire the throng;

"To arms! to arms! to arms!" they cry!
"Grasp the shield, and draw the sword,
Lead us to Philippi's lord,

Let us conquer him or die!"

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(p) 6. Ah, Eloquence! thou wast undone;
Wast from thy native country driven,
When Tyranny eclipsed the sun,

And blotted out the stars of heaven.

7. When Liberty from Greece withdrew,
And o'er the Adriatic flew,

To where the Tiber pours his urn,
She struck the rude Tarpeian rock;
Sparks were kindled by the shock-
Again thy fires began to burn!

8. Now, shining forth, thou mad'st compliant
The Conscript Fathers to thy charms;
Roused the world-bestriding giant,
Sinking fast in Slavery's arms!

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