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or his foes.

One confpicuous inftance oc

curred before the battle of Marathon.

the ten generals chofen to

he was one

Athenian army,
that a divided command is


command the

but, fenfible fubjected to

manifold inconveniencies, he exerted all his influence for Miltiades; and, at the fame time, zealoufly fupported a 'proposal of Miltiades to meet the Perfians in the field. His difintereftedness was ftill more confpicuous with regard to Themistocles, his bitter enemy. Sufpending all enmity, he cordially agreed with him in every operation of the war; affifting him with his counfel and credit, and yet fuffering him to ingrofs all the honour. In peace he was the fame, yielding to Themistocles in the administration of government, and contenting himself with a fubordinate place. In the fenate, and in the affembly of the people, he made many proposals in a borrowed name, to prevent envy and oppofition. He retired from public bufinefs at the latter part of his life, paffing his time in training young men for ferving the state, inftilling into them principles of honour and virtue, and infpiring them with love to their country. His death unfold


ed a signal proof of the contempt he had for riches he who had been treasurer of Greece during the lavishment of war, did not leave money fufficient to defray the expence of his funerals: a British commiffary, in like circumftances, acquires the riches of Croefus.

The scene of the other example is Fouli, a negro kingdom in Africa. Such regard is paid there to royal blood, that no man can fucceed to the crown, but who is connected with the first monarch, by an uninterrupted chain of females: a connection by males would give no fecurity, as the women of that country are prone to gallantry. In the last century, the Prince of Sambaboa, the King's nephew by his fifter, was invefted with the dignity of Kamalingo, a dignity appropriated to the prefumptive heir. A liberal and generous mind, with undaunted courage, rivetted him in the affections of the nobility and people. They rejoiced in the expectation of having him for their King. But their expectation was blafted. The King, fond of his children, ventured a bold measure, which was, to inveft his eldest fon with


the dignity of Kamalingo, and to declare him heir to the crown. Though the Prince of Sambaboa had for him the laws of the kingdom, and the hearts of the people, yet he retired in filence to avoid a civil war. He could not, however, prevent men of rank from flocking to him; which, being interpreted a rebellion, the King raised an army, vowing to put them all to the sword. As the King advanced, the Prince retired, refolving not to draw his sword against an uncle, whom he was accuftomed to call father. But, finding that the command of the army was beftowed on his rival, he made ready for battle. The Prince obtained a complete victory: but his heart was not elated. The horrors of a civil war ftared him in the face: he bid farewell to his friends, difmiffed his army, and retired into a neighbouring kingdom; relying on the affections of the people to be placed on the throne after his uncle's death. During banishment, which continued thirty tedious years, frequent attempts upon his life put his temper to a fevere trial; for, while he exifted, the King had no hopes that his fon would


reign in peace. He had the fortitude to furmount every trial; when, in the year 1702, beginning to yield to age and miffortunes, his uncle died. His cousin was depofed; and he was called, by the unanimous voice of the nobles, to reign over a people who adored him.






N the following flight Effay, intended for novices only, it satisfies my ambition, to rival certain pains-taking authors, who teach hiftory in the perfpicuous mode of queftion and anfwer. Among novices, it would he unpardonable to rank fuch of my fellowcitizens as are ambitious of a feat in parliament; many of whom facrifice the inheri tance of their ancestors, for an opportunity to exert their patriotism in that august affembly. Can fuch a facrifice permit me to doubt of their being adepts in the mysteries of government, and of taxes in particular? they ought at least to be initiated in these myfteries.

It is of importance, that taxes, and their effects, be underflood, not only by the members of our parliament, but by their electors: a re


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