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ship alone-" which was $1,000 more than the [other] owners had authorized me to sell her for."

As the eighteenth century passed away the improvements in merchant shipping, so far as improvements were made, were due chiefly to the enterprise of slavemerchants, and at the beginning of the nineteenth century there was nothing afloat of their size that could overhaul the slavers that were turned into privateers during the war of 1812.

In the nineteenth century the slave-trade had relatively much less influence on shipping, but it is certain that the Venus from Baltimore was the forerunner of the splendid Yankee clippers whose voyages previous to the Civil War astonished the maritime world. It is certain, too, that the building of small, swift schooners enriched many a Yankee ship-yard owner in the years before our Civil War. If the sole end of government were the promotion of business interests, then it might be said that those officials who winked at the doings of slavers served their country well.

What goods were used in the slave-trade has been recorded in many official documents. Here is the bill of lading of the Sierra Leone, a Yankee slaver in the middle of the eighteenth century.

"Shipped by the Grace of GOD in good Order and well conditioned, by William Johnson & Co., owners of the said Schooner, called the Sierra Leone, whereof is master under God for this present voyage, David Lindsay, & now riding at Anchor in Harbour of Newport, & by God's grace bound for the Coast of Africa: To say," etc. The usual list of rum, food, and shackles follows, with "sixty musketts, six half barrels Powder" and so on, the bill ending at last with

these words: "And so God send the good Schooner to her desired Port in Safety. Amen."

There is no reason to suppose that the invocations to the Deity were a mere vain following of custom. There is the record of "one good old elder, whose ventures on the coast had uniformly turned out well." He "always returned thanks on the Sunday following the arrival of a slaver in the harbor of Newport, that an overruling Providence has been pleased to bring to this land of freedom another cargo of benighted heathen, to enjoy the blessing of a Gospel dispensation." As the author of "Examen de l'Esclavage en Général," a French pro-slavery work, says: "Devotion was at that time the great occupation in Europe; and it was believed that Christians and sugar might easily be made at the same time."

In 1801, when the prices on the slave-coast were at the highest, the following goods were given for one prime slave. The list is quoted from Gower Williams :

"One piece of chintz, 18 yards long; one piece of baft, 18 yards long; one piece of chelloe, 18 yards long; one piece of bandanoe; seven handkerchiefs; one piece of niccannee, 14 yards long; one piece of cushtae, 14 yards long; three pieces of romalls; forty-five handkerchiefs; one large brass pan; two muskets; twenty-five kegs powder; 100 flints; two bags of shots; twenty knives; four iron pots; four hats; four caps; four cutlasses; six bunches beads; fourteen gallons brandy." The total cost of the articles was £25.

The captain of another slave-ship, writing in 1757, gives a list of his cargo as follows:

"Have on bord 140 hhds. Rum for owners, 100 lbs. Provitions, 12 Thousand lbs. bread, six 4-pounders, 4

swevles & 4 cowhorns [a kind of gun], small arms, &c."

In the earliest days rum was the best article for the purchase of slaves. At the end of the eighteenth century, when slaves were obtained chiefly by murderous raids, arms were of first consequence. And then when the slavers established great depots and barracoons on the slave-coast a time came when coin was wanted more than any other commodity.

When Commodore M. C. Perry was in command of the African squadron he sent the following letter to Washington:

UNITED STATES FRIGATE MACEDONIAN,

At Sea, January 28, 1844. Goods suitable for the African trade, to comprise a cargo for a vessel of two hundred and fifty tons.

40 hogsheads tobacco, long leaf and small head, Virginia. 100 barrels powder, in 10 and 20 pound kegs. American cotton goods, consisting of furniture and apron checks, bleached and unbleached muslins, blue handkerchiefs, calicoes, blue drill, blue bafts or salempores, English dry goods, viz.. blue and white bafts satin stripes, romanes, tomcoffees. 100 barrels beef, pork and mackerel. 100 barrels flour, 25 barrels kiln-dried cornmeal. 2,000 pounds refined sugar, 1,000 pounds brown sugar, 20 kegs butter, 20 kegs lard, 20 boxes sperm candles, 50 boxes soap. 2,000 pounds hams, 1,000 pounds sides and shoulders, 400 pounds beef tongues. 300 pounds cheese, 20 boxes raisins, 50 barrels pilot and navy bread. Half dozen quarter casks of wine, madeira, port and sherry. Tea in two-pound caddies, young hyson and gunpowder, 500 pounds coffee. Crockery, consisting of C. C. wash basins, painted quart and pint mugs and jugs, say 100 dozen of each. Tin pans, assorted sizes, say 50 dozen. Tin buckets with bales, four gallon size, 100 dozen. Wooden buckets, painted, say 25 dozen. Gentlemen's boots and shoes, 100 pairs, assorted, principally large sizes. Ladies' shoes,

kid and prunelle, 100 pairs, assorted. Gentlemen's half hose, ladies' cotton stockings of good quality, 50 dozen each. 100 dozen palm-leaf hats, assorted. Blank books, paper, ink and quills, in equal proportion, say $50 worth. 400 pounds

white lead, 30 gallons paint oil, 30 gallons lamp oil. Brass kettles and pans, say 1,000 pounds, two-eighth kettles. About $500 laid out in articles of good quality for ladies; muslin, lace, insertion, silk gloss, silk stockings, small quantity of black silk, needles, pins, thread in spools and hanks, ribbons for bonnets, a few bonnets &c. 10 boxes good Spanish cigars in quarter boxes. If there be plenty of room, put in 500 feet of boards. 20 kegs of cut nails, assorted sizes, say 4, 6, 7, and 8 penny. 2 dozen silk and 5 dozen cotton umbrellas. A small quantity of ale, porter, and cider, the best quality, say 50 dozen each of ale and porter, and 25 of cider.

Cutlasses and muskets are in demand for trade, but can be furnished much cheaper from England than from the United States. Those brought out are of an inferior quality.

This list has been received from an authentic source, and is now forwarded to the Navy Department, by

M. C. PERRY,

Commanding African Squadron.

NOTE.-Whiskey, or rum, is a profitable article of traffic, but

is purposely omitted in this list.

CHAPTER V

ON THE SLAVE-COAST

Physical Features of Land and Sea-Peculiarities of the Aborigines and some Characteristics that were not Peculiar to Them-Gathering Slaves for the Market-A Trade that Degenerated from a System of Fair Barter into the Most Atrocious Forms of Piracy Conceivable-Utter Degradation of White Traders-The Slaughter at Calabar-Prices Paid for Slaves-The Barracoons of Pedro Blanco and Da Souza-When Negroes Voluntarily Sold Themselves.

THE chief source of supply for the devouring slavemarket of the West throughout the whole history of the trade, and practically the only source during the years when the trade was legal, was found along the Atlantic coast of Africa, between Cape Verde, at the north, and Benguela, or Cape St. Martha, at the south. The sea here makes a great scoop into the land, as if the Brazilian part of the South American continent had been broken out of the hollow in the African coast. Two great rivers and a host of smaller streams come down to the sea within its limits, and its contour, as a whole, is that of a mighty gulf, but there is neither bay nor inlet throughout its whole extent that forms a good harbor for shipping. And the off-shore islands, too, are few in number and small in extent. The land at the beach is almost everywhere low, even though hills and mountains may be

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