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from Africa to Brazil, that was called the Bom [Sic.] Jesus.

One might multiply these stories by going to the slaver cases that reached the United States Supreme Court, but it would only add to the number of facts without increasing knowledge. The student who may wish to pursue the subject will find all the stories he needs in "Wheaton's Reports," vols. 5, 8, 9, 10, and 12; "Cranch's," 2, and 6; "Peters's," 11, 14, and 15; all of which were carefully examined in preparing this work.

As to the extent of the trade previous to the Ashburton treaty, we can find ample confirmation of all the estimates ever made by the abolitionists if we will examine the official reports of consuls and naval officers. Captain Trenchard of the Cyane, for instance, reported three hundred slavers on the coast while he was there. Over two hundred slavers were nominally owned in Havana in 1818. During the year 1828 no less than 46,160 slaves were imported into Rio de Janeiro alone, and the slavers bringing them reported deaths on the way numbering 5,592 (see Niles's Register, January 9, 1830). Cuba and Brazil had become the great landing territories for slaves, for it was an open traffic there in spite of solemn treaties. The trade was indeed "lucrative in proportion to its heinousness"; the traders "to elude the laws" did but "increase its horrors."

CHAPTER XV

THE NAVY AND THE SLAVE-TRADE

Story of the Half-hearted, Wholly Futile Work of Blockading the African Coast-Reward of an Officer Who Earnestly Strove to Stop the Trade- An Interesting Period in the Career of Commodore M. C. PerryAmerican and British Squadrons Compared-The Sham Work of the Buchanan Administration.

THE first act of Congress to connect our navy in any way with the slave-trade was that of 1800. Section 4 provided "That it shall be lawful for any of the commissioned vessels of the United States to seize and take any vessel employed in carrying on trade, business or traffic, contrary to the true intent and meaning of this, or the said act, to which this is in addition."

Nothing to attract public attention was done by the navy under this act until 1811, when Captain H. G. Campbell, senior officer at Charleston, was ordered by Secretary Paul Hamilton to "hasten" to the St. Mary's River as already noted, to stop the smuggling trade. A similar use of the navy was made in the trouble with Aury.

After the act of March 3, 1819, several ships were sent to the coast of Africa. The Cyane, Captain Ed

ward Trenchard, twenty-four guns, sailed from the United States in January, 1820; the corvette Hornet, Captain George C. Reed, eighteen guns, sailed in June, 1820, and the corvette John Adams, Captain H. S. Wadsworth, twenty-four guns, sailed July 18, 1820. To these was added the schooner Alligator, Captain R. F. Stockton, that sailed on April 3, 1821, reached the coast on May 6, started home in July, sailed out once more on October 4, and left for home on December 17, thus making two cruises on the coast in that year. The schooner Shark, Captain M. C. Perry (a brother of the hero of Lake Erie), sailed on August 7, 1821, and was on the slave-coast a part of September, all of October, and a part of November. Trenchard of the Cyane reported that there were three hundred slave-ships on the coast. Perry reported, "I could not even hear of an American slaving vessel; and I am fully impressed with the belief that there is not one at present afloat." *

The Cyane captured five American slavers, the Hornet took one, the Alligator took four, but three of these were recaptured from the prize-crews. The fourth, the Jeune Eugene, reached Boston and was condemned.

In 1822, Captain R. T. Spence succeeded Trenchard in command of the Cyane. The Secretary of the Navy, Samuel L. Southard, in his report dated December 1, 1823, says that both Spence and Perry "have, for short periods, cruised on the coast of Africa to carry into effect the intentions of the Government. [they] neither saw nor heard of any vessel, under the American flag, engaged in the slave-trade."

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"American State Papers-Naval Affairs," Vol. I., p. 1099.

Thereafter the work of the navy in suppressing the slave-trade was confined to "occasional visits" to Liberia until 1839, when the shame aroused by the frequent reports of the use of the American flag by slavers caused some activity. The brig Dolphin, Commander Bell, and the schooner Grampus, Lieutenant Paine, were sent to the coast, where they merely scared a few slavers. Captain John S. Paine, of the schooner Grampus, having been ordered to the coast of Africa to suppress the slave-trade, assumed that he was to do everything possible within the laws of nations to accomplish the work. He found many slavers provided with double sets of papers. Now, under the laws he could do nothing with slavers bearing any flag but his own. But England having made treaties including the right of search on that coast with a number of continental powers, her cruisers were able to search almost any ship visiting the coast except those under the American flag.

To meet the scheme of double papers Captain Paine and Commander William Tucker, of the British forces, agreed that whenever the Grampus fell in with a vessel manifestly a slaver, and showing any flag except the American, she was to be detained (but not searched) until a British cruiser could be brought to search her. On the other hand, every slaver showing the American flag was to be detained (but not searched) until the Grampus could come to make the search. When Paine reported his plan to Washington he was promptly told that his plan was contrary to the well-known principles" of his Government. The slave-coast was 3,000 miles long. Paine was ordered

to "suppress "all American slavers there with the Grampus.

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In 1842 came the Ashburton treaty, under which we were bound to keep on the coast of Africa a sufficient and adequate" squadron or naval force of vessels for the "suppression" of the slave-trade. England was bound by the same words.*

The fact is, we never had on the coast, for any length of time worth mention, even the eighty guns which the

* A message of President Buchanan under date of April 21, 1858, to the Senate of the United States contains the following tables showing how each nation kept its faith:

The following is a statement of the number of vessels and total number of guns of the British squadron on the west coast of Africa on the 1st of January of each year from 1843 to 1857, inclusive:

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The following is a statement of the number of vessels and total number of guns of the United States squadron on the coast of Africa on the 1st of January of each year from 1843 to 1857, inclusive:

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