Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

XII. The famous hofe bones' were dug up and publicly burnt in the

XII. The famous AMALRIC, native of BENE, and profeffor of logic CENT. XIII. and Paris,

year 1209, although he had abjured his errors before his death, and a con-
fiderable
umber of whofe difciples and followers were committed to the
flames on account of their abfurd and pernicious doctrine, was, un-
doubtedly, of the fame way of thinking with the fect whofe opinions we have
been now confidering [b]. For though the writers of this barbarous age
have given very different and confufed accounts of this man's opinions,
and even attributed fome doctrines to him which he never maintained, it is,
nevertheless, certain, that he taught, that all things were the parts of one
fubftance, or, in other words, that the univerfe was God, and that not only
the forms of all things, but alfo their matter or fubftance proceeded from the
Deity, and must return to the fource from whence they were derived [c].
From thefe abfurd and blafphemous principles he deduced that chimerical
fyftem of fanatical devotion, which we have already expofed to the view of
the reader, pretended to demonftrate the poffibility of incorporating or tranf-
lating the human nature into the divine, and rejected all kinds of external
worship, as infignificant and ufelefs. The difciples of this enthufiaft were
men of exemplary piety, were diftinguifhed by the gravity and aufterity of
their lives and manners, and fuffered death in the moft dreadful forms with
the utmost resolution and conftancy. One of the moft eminent among
thefe was DAVID of Dinant, a Parifian doctor, who ufually expreffed the
fundamental principle of his matter in the following propofition: God is the
primary matter, or fubftance of all things. He compofed a work entitled,
Quaternarii, with feveral other productions, which were chiefly defigned to
He
affect and gain the multitude: but, after all, was obliged to fave himself

particularly in the province of Spoleto and the countries adjacent. Such are the terms of the pontif's
letter; in nonnullis Italia partibus, tam Spoletana provinciæ, quam circumjacentium regionum.

[b] This did not escape the notice of the enemies of the Beghards, or Brethren of the free spirit, in Germany, much less that of the Inquifitars, who, in their Refutation of the 89 Sentences of the Beghards mentioned in the preceding Note, exprefs themselves thus: (Sententia 68.) Dicere quod omnis creatura eft Deus, hærefis Alexandri eft, qui dixit, materiam primam et Deum et Hominem, hoc eft montes, effe in fubftantia, quod poftea quidam David de Dinanto fequutus eft, qui temporibus nofiris de hac barefi de Francia fugatus eft, et punitus fuiffet, fi deprehenfus fuiffet.

is

[ocr errors]

[(c) The account given by FLEURY, in his Ecclefiaftical Hiftory, of the opinions of AMALRIC,
very different from that which is here given by Dr. MOSHEIM. The former obferves, that
AMALRIC, OF AMAURI, taught that every Chriftian was obliged to believe himself a member of Jofus
Chrift, and that without this belief none could be faved, and he obferves alfo that his disciples intro-
duced errors ftill more pernicions, fuch as the following: "That the power of the Father had
"tinued only during the Mofaic difpenfation, that of the Son 1200 years after his entrance upon
earth, and that, in the x111th century, the age of the Holy Spirit commenced, in which the facra-
ments and all external worship were to be abolished; that there would be no refurrection ; that
"heaven and hell were mere fictions," and many more fentiments of that nature which, as the
⚫ learned SPANHEIM † imagines, were falfely imputed to AMALRIC, in order to render his memory
odious, because he had oppofed the worship of faints and images. See FLEURY, Hift. Ecclefias.
livr. lxxvi. § 59.-Dr. MOSHEIм looks upon AMALRIC to have been a Pantheift, and many men
of eminent learning are of this opinion. See among others JOH. GERSON apud JAC. THOMASIUM,
as alfo BRUCKER's Hift. Philofoph. tom. iii. p. 688.]

* The perfon here mentioned is ALEXANDER, the Epicurean, of whom PLUTARCH speaks in his Symposium.
+ See SPANHEMIX Hift. Ecclef. Sac. xxii. p. 1694
4 X 2

by

Amalric.

·CENT. XII. by flight [d]. The bishops, affembled in council at Paris in the year 1209, confidered the philofophy of ARISTOTLE as the fource of all thefe impious doctrines, and, on that account, prohibited the reading, or explaining, either in public or private, the metaphyfical, and other productions of the Grecian ftage [e].

Joachim.
Wilhelmina,

XIII. If we may depend, upon the accounts given by certain writers, AMALRIE and his followers received with the utmost docility and faith the predictions, attributed to JOACHIM abbot of Flora, concerning the refolmation that was foon to be brought about in the church by the power of the fword, the approaching Age of the boly Ghost that was to fucceed thofe of the Father and the Son, and other things of that nature, which raifed the hopes, and occupied the thoughts of the Spiritual Francifcans. Whether thefe accounts may be depended upon or not we fhall not determine. To us they appear extremely doubtful. It is, however, true, that certain persons. were fo far deluded by thefe pretended prophecies, as to form new fects with a view to their accomplishment, and to declare war against the eftablished church, its fyftem of doctrine, and its forms of worship. Among other fanatical fectaries, there arofe one of a moft extraordinary kind, a. Bohemian woman named Wilhelmina, who refided in the territory of Milan. This delirious and wrong-headed. woman having ftudied with attention the predictions concerning the Age of the boly Ghost, was extravagant enough to perfuade herself, and, what is ftill more amazing, had influence enough to perfuade others, that the holy Ghoft was become incarnate in her perfon för the falvation of a great part of mankind. According to her doctrine, "None were faved by the blood of JESUS, but true and pious Chriftians; "while the Jews, Saracens, and unworthy Chriftians were to obtain falvation through the holy spirit which dwelt in her, and that, in confequence there-of, all that had happened to CHRIST, during his appearance upon earth in the human nature, was to be exactly renewed in her perfon, or rather in. that of the holy Ghoft, which was united to her." This mad-woman died at Milan in the year 1281, in the moft fragrant odour of Linctity, and her memory was not only held in the higheft veneration by her numerous fallowers and the ignorant multitude, but was alfo honoured with religious. worship both in publie and in private. Her fect, nevertheless, was difcovered by the curious eye of perfecution in the year 1300, and fell into the clutches of the inquifitors, who deftroyed the magnificent monument "that had been erected in her honour, had her bones raised and committed to the flames, and in the fame fire confumed the chief leaders of this wretched: action, among which there were perfons of both fexes [f]

See MARTENE, Thefaur. Anecdotor. tom. iv. p. 163. where there is an account of the hereftes for which feveral priests were burnt at Paris in the year 1209-NATAL. ALEXANDER, Hift. Eccl. Sac. xiif. cap. iir. art. ii. p.76.-Du Bois, Hiftoria Ecclef. Parif. tom. ii. p. 244 BOULAY, Hift. Acad. Parif. tom. iii. p. 24 48. 53.—JAC. THOMASIUS, De Exuftione Mundi Stoica, p. 199.

[] LAUNOIUS, De varia Ariftot. fortuna in Acad. Parif. p. 127.

The Milanefe hiftorians, fuch as BERNARD, CORIUs, and others, have related the adven-
XIV. It

XIV. It was upon predictions fimilar to thofe mentioned in the preceding CENT. XIII. fection, that the feet of the apostles, founded its difcipline. The members of The feet called. Apoftles..

this fect. made little or no alterations in the doctrinal part of the o

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

religion; what they principally aimed at, was, to introduce among Chriftians, the Timplicity of the primitive times, and more especially the manner of life that was obferved by the apostles. GERHARD SAGARELLI, the founder of this fect, obliged his followers to go from place to place as the apoftles did, to wander about cloathed in white, with long beards, dishevelled hair, and bare heads, accompanied with women, whom they called their Sifters. They were alfo obliged to renounce all kinds of: property, and poffeffions, and to preach in public the neceffity of repentance,. while in their more private affemblies they declared the approaching. deftruction of the corrupt church of Rome, and the establishment of a purer fervice, and a more glorious church, that, according to the prophecies of the abbot JOACHIM, was to arife from its ruins: No fooner was the unhappy leader of this faction committed to the flames [g],, than he was fucceeded in that character by a bold and enterprifing Fanatic, named DuL-CINUS, a native of Novara, who publifhed his predictions with more courage and maintained them with. more zeal than his predeceffor had done,, and who did not hesitate to declare that, in a fhort time, the Roman pontif. BONIFACE VIII, with the corrupt priefts and the licentious monks were to perifh by the hand of the emperor FREDERIC HII, fon of PETER, king of: Arragon, and that a new and moft holy pontif was to be raised to the head of the church. Thefe vifionary predictions were, no doubt, drawn from the dreams of the abbot JOACHIM, who is faid to have declared, among; other things, that an emperor, called FREDERIC II, was to bring to perfection what FREDERIC II had left unfinished. Be that as it may, DuLCINUS appeared with intrepid affurance at the head of the apostles, and acting not only in the character of a prophet, but alfo in that of a general; he affembled an army to maintain his caufe, and perhaps to accomplish, at leaft in part, his, predictions. He was oppofed by RAYNERIUS, bifhop of Vercelli, who defended. the interefts of the Roman pontif, and carried on during the space of two years and more, a molt bloody and dreadful 3war against this chief of the apoftles. The iffue of this conteft was fatal to the latter, who, after feveral battles fought with obftinate courage, was at length taken prifoner, and put to death at Vercelli in the moft barbarous manner in the year 1307, together with Margaret, whom he had chofen for his Spiritual Sifter, according to the cuftom of his fect: The terrible end of DULCINUS was not immediately followed by the downfal of his fect, which fill fubfifted in France, Germany, and in other countries, and stood him. tures of this odd, woman, but their accounts are very different from thofe given by the learned: MURATORI, in his Antiqq. Italice midii ævi, tom. v. p. 91. and which he has drawn from the judicial proceedings, of the court, where the extraordinary cafe of this female fanatic was examined. We are informed by the fame excellent author, that a learned writer, named PURICELLI, compofed.i a hiftory of WILHELMINA, and of her feet.

[8] This unhappy man was burnt alive at Parma, in the year 1390..

against :

CENT. XIII. against the most vehement efforts of its enemies untill the beginning of the xyth century, when, under the pontificate of BONIFACE IX, it was totally belastb extirpated [b].

A true account

of the herely

20 Joachim.

of

XV. This famous JOACHIM, abbot of Flora, whofe fanatical predictions that was imputed turned the heads of fo many well-meaning people, and excited them to attempt reforming the church by the fword, and to declare open war againft the Roman pontifs, did not fall under the fufpicion of herefy on account these predictions, but in confequence of a new explication he had given of the doctrine of a Trinity of perfons in thegodhead. He had in an elaborate work attacked very warmly PETER LOMBARD, the mafter of the fentences, on account of the diftinction this latter writer had made between the divine ellence, and the three perfons in the godhead; for JOACHIM looked upon this doctrine as introducing a fourth object, even an effence, into the Trinity. But the good man was too little verfed in metaphyfical matters, to carry on a controverfy of fuch a fubtile nature, and he was betrayed by his ignorance fo far as to advance inconfiderately the moft rafh and exceptionable tenets. For he denied that there was any thing, or any effence, that belonged in common to the three perfons in the Trinity, or was jointly poffeffed by them; by which doctrine the fubftantial union between the three perfons was taken away, and the unity of the Father, Son, and holy Ghoft was reduced from a natural, fimple, and numerical unity, to a moral one only, that is, to fuch a unity as reigns in the counfels and opinions of different perfons, who embrace the fame notions, and think and act with one accord. This expliCation of the Trinity was looked upon by many as very little different from the Arian fyftem, and therefore the Roman pontif, INNOCENT III, pronounced, in the year 1215, in the council of the Lateran a damnatory fentence against the doctrine of JOACHIM, which fentence, however, did not extend to the perfon or fame of the abbot himself. And, indeed, notwithstanding this papal fentence, JOACHIM has at this day, a confiderable number of adherents and defenders, more efpecially among thofe of the Francifcans, who are called Obfervants. Some of thefe maintain that the book of this abbot was corrupted and interpolated by his enemies, while the reft are of opinion that his doctrine was not thoroughly understood by thofe that oppofed it [2].

[ocr errors]

[] I compofed in the German language an accurate hiftory, in Ir books, of this famous feet, which is very little known in our times, and I have in my hands materials, that will furnish an inderafting addition to that hiftory. That this fect fubfifted in Germany, and in fome other countries, until the pontificate of BONIFACE IX, is evident from the Chronicle of HERMAN ORNER US, publifhed by Jo. GEORGE ECCARD, in his Corpus Hiftoricum medii avi, tom. ii. p. 906. and may be fufficiently demonftrated by other authentic teftimonies. In the year 1402, a certain member of this apoftolical fect, whose name was WILLIAM, or WILHELMUS, was burnt alive at Lubeck, See CORNERUS loc. cit. p. 1185. The Germans, who were accustomed to diftinguish by the name of Beghards all those who pretended to extraordinary piety, and fought, by poverty and begging, an eminent reputation for fanctity and virtue, gave this title alfo to the fect of the Apostles.

[ See DAN. PAPEBROCHIUS, Difquif. Hiftor. de Flarenfi Ordine, Prophetiis, Doctrina, B. Joachimi, in Attis San&orum Maii, tom. vi. p. 486. which contains The life of Joachim, and feveral other pieces of confequence. See alfo NATAL. ALEXANDER, Hift. Bake/. Sec. xiii. Diff.ii. P. 331.-LUC. WADDINGI Annal. Minor. pom.iv. p.6.

THE

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

Concerning the profperous events that happened to the church during this

[ocr errors]

S

1stcentury.

[ocr errors]

h

the crufades.

EVERAL attempts were made by the monarchs and princes of CENT. XIV. the weft, fet on by the inftigation of the Roman pontifs, to renew Fraided ar the war in Palestine against the Turks and Saracens, and to deliver tempts to renew the whole province of Syria from the oppreffive yoke of thefe defpotic Infidels. The fucceffion of pontifs that refided at Avignon were particularly zealous for the renovation of this religious war, and left no artifice, no methods of perfuafion unemployed, that could have the least tendency to engage the kings of England and France, in an expedition to the Holy Land. But their fuccefs was not answerable to their zeal and notwithftanding the powerful influence of their exhortations and remonftrances,. fomething ftill happened to prevent their producing the defired effect. CLEMENT V urged the renewal of this holy war with the greatest ardor in the years 1307, 1308, and fet apart an immenfe fum of money for carrying it on with alacrity and vigour fa]. JOHN XXII ordered a fleet of ten fhips to be fitted out in the year 1319, to tranfport an army of pious adventurers into Palestine [b], and had recourfe to the power of fuperftition, that is, to the influence of indulgences for. raifing the funds neceffary to the fupport of this great enterprize. Thole indulgences he offered to fuch as contributed generously to the carrying on the war, and appointed legates to adminifter them in all the countries in Europe that were fubject to his ghoftly jurif

[e] BALUZII Vita Pontif. Avenion, tom. i. p. 15.59. tom. ii. p. 55. 57-1374 391,. &c. ANT. MATTHE Analecta veteris api, com.i. p. 577.

[ocr errors]

BALUZI Vita Pontif, Avenion. tom. i. p. 125 tom, P 515,

I

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]
[ocr errors]

diction.

« AnteriorContinuar »