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which it ought to be conducted, it has been found impossible to adopt the peculiar system of the Amicable to the system upon which life ins. is now ordinarily conducted." It further recited that no policy-holder of the Amicable had a right to require the directors to undertake any new business of life assu.; that the assets were more than sufficient to meet the eventual liabilities. That the yearly expenses of the So. exceeded £3200. That the number of Amicable policy-holders was 994, insured for £1,146,900, of whom 894 ins. for £1,010, 180, had approved proposed arrangement. Of the remain. ing 100 policy-holders, 86 had not dissented, 4 were neutral, and 7 dissentient. The agreement provided that the whole of the assets of the Amicable should be appropriated for meeting claims under Amicable policies, less only the sum of £1200 per ann. contributed towards management. The Amicable was not to undertake any new bus. The funds of the Norwich were to be liable for Amicable pols.; charter pols. being paid at £227 p. share. The Norwich So. to take over funds of the Amicable, which latter to be formally dissolved. Compensation of officers of Amicable provided for.

Adopting the language of Mr. Farren in the foregoing account of the Amicable So., it may be seen "by what gradual means the important system of pecuniary provision against the evils of premature death was being estab. Without observance of the distinction of age; without any definite notion as to the value of each nominee's expectant share of the mortuary dividend-yet an assembly of private individuals as early as 1705-6 considerately felt that if the general notions as to the tenure of life admitted of being acted on to provide an annuity for an individual himself, so pecuniary matters might be equally arranged to provide support for such members of his family as might eventually survive him." The So. so constituted lasted for 161 years. It was essentially a thing of the past; but its hist. cannot fail to be of interest to all succeeding generations. AMICABLE SO., MORTALITY EXPERIENCE OF.-The mortality experience of this So. has been separately pub. on three distinct occasions, each of which we must pass under review. Under date 1st Dec., 1778, Mr. Charles Brand, the then registrar, compiled the experience of the So., giving the following as his reasons for so doing:

The variety of tables of observations on the bills of mort. for different places, and the different sums they gave when applied to value annuities from, first induced me to consider some method to take an actual duration of lives, from a register of experienced facts: I therefore applied myself to the books of the Amicable So. and extracted from thence the date of the admission of every member on whom a claim had been made, the age when admitted, and the day on which the member died. I likewise computed the time each member lived, and arranged them according to their respective ages, the totals and averages whereof have produced the result contained in the above table of durations.

The table of expectancy of life is formed by appropriating that share of life which each member would have enjoyed, had all the members of the succeeding ages been admitted, when at the given age; and had there been a greater number of instances in the earlier or later periods of life, I should not have combined them, but given them distinct and separate, according to their ages; yet I hope I have obtained such a number of facts as will give a foundation for fixing the value of annuities on the lives of those individuals who may be supposed to have no disorder which may tend to the shortening of their days."

There are tables of observations on bills of mort. which have been communicated to the public by two very ingenious mathematicians, Dr. Halley and Mr. Simpson; the former gives a calculation, founded upon five years' observation on the bills of mort. for Breslau; the latter upon ten years' observations on the bills of mort. for Lond. ; both authors being, however, very sensible how defective those bills were, they only gave them as the best from whence any conclusions could have then been drawn. We have likewise been favoured, in Monsieur de Buffon's Natural History, with tables formed from the observations of Monsieur du Pre de St. Maur, of the French Academy, and there pub. by his authority; they comprehended the observations on three parishes in Paris and twelve in the country; those combined give expectations of lives which to a fraction correspond with the above table, until the ages of 52, etc., and the difference then arises from the want of a sufficient number of instances to continue the usual decrements of life, which the nature of this institution would not admit of; but notwithstanding these corresponding circumstances, the tables of observations on bills of mort. ought to give an expectancy of life much less than a register of lives collected with care and attention. Because such bills must contain the deaths of those who were debilitated (in number not ascertained); when they give a greater, they are apparently defective, and therefore ought not to be too implicitly relied on.

Mr. de Moivre in his book on the Doctrine of Chances, strongly recommends a register to be taken of individuals, ascertaining their ages and occupations, in order to deduce from thence some more certain grounds to obviate those difficulties, which have but too justly been attributed to the imperfect and chimerical returns made as general bills of mort. Having in a great measure complied with his wish, by here giving the result of a register of 3826 persons who have been members of a public inst., I shall, as soon as other engagements will permit me, proceed to form a complete set of tables for the value of annuities, attending at the same time to that particular risque and contingency annexed to those in early life.

Here is Mr. Brand's Table of " Durations," which possesses great interest on account of its being the first "Experience" Table ever compiled.

A Table of the Duration of Lives in the corp. of the Amicable So. for a perpetual Assu. Office from the institution of the So. (in 1706) to the year 1777, both inclusive, being upwards of 72 years.

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• There being but few lives at these ages, it became necessary to combine them to form proper averages.

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13 6493

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About 1811 Mr. John Pensam, the then registrar of the So., took out of its books such a statement concerning the lives ins. as to constitute, in some sort, a Life Table. That statement was never pub., but its compiler used it to test the experience of the So. against the Northampton Table. The result was in favour of the Amicable lives, which Mr. Pensam said he attributed very much to the benefit of selection. Not, however, to medical selection, of which the So. did not avail itself in the earlier part of its hist.

In 1841 Mr. Galloway, the then registrar of the So., for the "use of members," pub. its experience, and also furnished in detail the data on which it was based. The observations extended over a period of thirty-three years, from the reconstruction of the So. in 1808 to the 5th April, 1841. Three determinations of the law of mortality were included in these observations. The first, grounded on the duration of the lives of those members only who had been admitted into the So. since the beginning of 1808, upon insurances on single lives for the whole period of life. The second, on the duration of the lives of those members who, having been admitted in previous years, formed the old So., on the 5th April, 1808; and the third, on the combined data furnished by both classes.

The first of these determinations was prescribed by the So.'s 6th Charter, which directed that the ann. valuations required for ascertaining the amount of the dividend to be paid on claims, by the deaths of members, shall be made from a table of mort., deduced from the experience of the So. itself during a specified period of time; and the second and third were subsequently undertaken for the purpose of rendering the investigation complete, by including in it the total experience of the So. since 1808. Mr. Galloway says: In collecting the materials for these tables great pains were taken to insure the most scrupulous accuracy. In the early part of the period over which the observation extends the office registers were not arranged with a view to the present investigation, and a large proportion of the members were assured in more than one policy, while the record of the second assu. did not always contain a reference to the first, much difficulty was experienced in ascertaining the exact number of persons who had stood the chances of life in the So. After repeated comparisons of different sets of books, and reference to the money accounts in all cases of discrepancy, a list, correct (I believe) in every respect, was at length prepared, containing the following particulars:-1. The name of each individual on whose life an assu. was effected for the first time; 2. His office age at admission; 3. The date of his admission; 4. The date of his death, or discontinuance, if not living, in the So. on the 5th April, 1841, which are all the data required for the construction of the tables. The ages at admission were certified by extracts from baptismal registers or by affidavits, and the dates were carefully checked. In estimating the relative value of the results brought out, the accuracy and certainty of the data may perhaps be regarded as compensating in some degree the smallness of their number.-Intro.

The question of persons, and not policies, being thus set at rest, the next point to notice is the method of reckoning the ages. The plan adopted was to consider that each member on admission had completed exactly the half of his current year; but a subsequent test showed each member to be about two months older than is assumed at admission, discontinuation, or death in the tables.

The data so obtained_was arranged on the plan adopted by Mr. W. Morgan for the Equitable Experience. By this disposition of the materials (continues Mr. Galloway) a distinct and complete view is given of the duration of the lives, and of the assu. of each class separately, as well as of the whole taken collectively; in short, a separate determination of mortality is made for each age of admission, whereby considerable light is thrown on various questions having an important practical bearing on the general subject of life assu.; such, for example, as the effects of selection at the different ages. But he adds, "It is true that the materials from which the present table is constructed are much too scanty to allow of its indications being safely adopted for the solution of such questions.' Subsequent similar valuations were to be made every ten years, but we have no records of any others.

The number of members admitted between 5th April, 1808, and 5th April, 1841, was 3,530; of whom, 505 discontinued their policies, and 798 died, leaving 2,227 surviving at the last-named date. Of the members prior to 5th April, 1808, living after that date, there were 1,088; of whom, 994 died, 30 discontinued their policies, and 64 still survived

• When the So. was first instituted, and until the year 1732, the ages of those who became members were not limited (as they now are) to between 12 and 45; but many instances happened afterwards, by exchanging older for younger members, for those above the age of 45.

+ There being but few lives of these ages, it became necessary to combine them to form proper averages.

in 1841. Thus a total of 4,618 lives-or deducting discontinued policies, 4,083 liveswere under observation, and 1792 deaths, including a few which have been reckoned twice, probably from being in both series.

Table showing the probabilities and mean duration of Life, resulting from the total experience of Amicable So. from 5th April, 1808, to 5th April, 1841.

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The following table shows the mean durations of life at every fifth year of age from 25 to 95, according to Amicable So.'s experience and other tables:

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The Amicable thus indicated a less mortality than the Equitable from 25 to 40; and both agree in giving a more favourable view of the chances of life at those ages than even the Carlisle Table or the Government male annuitants. From 45 to 60, the chances of living over five years are less by the Amicable Table than the Equitable, but the difference is inconsiderable. Above 60, the mort. in the Amicable increases rapidly in comparison with that in the Equitable; and at 65 and all the higher ages it gives the chances of living over five years less than the Northampton Table.

With respect to the series of old members, the circumstances were considerably different, and the rate of mortality differed accordingly. Of the 1,088 lives of which the series is composed, more than half were above the age of 57 when the observation commenced in 1808; and as the limiting age of admission into the So. previous to that year was 46, it followed that more than half had lived in the So. upwards of 11 years, so that they could not be regarded as belonging to the class of selected lives. Besides, the members were not, as in the other series, continually recruited by fresh admissions, no new member having been added to the original list. A comparatively high rate of mort. was therefore to be anticipated from the exp. of this class alone: and such turned out to be the result. The mortality of the new series will be found to coincide very closely with the mean duration of male life in France, as shown by M. Demonferrand's Tables.

It may be stated generally that the principal feature of distinction between the Amicable and Equitable Tables is the greater_mort. indicated by the former at the higher ages, particularly between 65 and 80. In point of absolute value, the experience of the Amicable So. is undoubtedly much inferior to that of the Equitable.

The number

of deaths in the Equitable Table is 5,144, while the number in the Amicable Combined Table is 1792.-Galloway.

Almost all the members of the Amicable were males, and the great majority appear to have been inhabitants of Lond. The ages of admissions of the members of the new series was as follows:

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This review of its mort. exp. appropriately completes our hist. of the Amicable Corp. AMICABLE SO. FOR MARRIAGE, in Bell Court, Bow Churchyard, founded in 1710, for Birth, Marriage, and Service Ins. We give some details of this office under MARRIAGE INS. There appears to have been another Amicable So. for Marriages held at Mr. Gray's, Swan Yard.

AMICABLE So. kept at the Sun and Cross Keys, in Wich St., founded in 1709, as a branch of the Taylors Friendly So. for Ins. upon the Lives of Men, Women, and Children. We shall give further details concerning it in HIST. OF LIFE INS.

AMICABLE SO. OF ANNUITANTS.-This So. was founded in Westminster in 1769, for the purpose of securing to its members an annuity of £26 on arriving at the age of 50. It was one of many sos. of a similar class, founded about the same period. The rate of contribution required from the members was generally inadequate to the benefits promised; and the sos. died out generally about the period when, if properly constituted, they would have been of service to the members. This particular So. continued in operation for some years. The following advertisement was issued by its managers in May, 1777, and has at least one remarkable feature:

Amicable So. of Annuitants for the Benefit of Age, estab. Christmas, 1769. The directors of this So. meet this day, and the first Monday in every month, at the Feathers Tavern, near St. Clement's Church, in the Strand, from 7 to 9 in the evening, for the admission of members of either sex being Protestants. Conditions: Any person may subscribe for one, two, three, or four shares, and when 50 years of age will be entitled to an annuity of £26, £52, £78, or £104 per ann. during life, or such sum as the fund of the So. will admit, except such as become members at upwards of 40 years of age, who must continue members for ten years before they are entitled to the said annuities. Also may be admitted without admission money, paying quarterly payments in proportion. Persons may be admitted from 50 to 54 inclusive to receive the said annuity at 9 years; from 55 to 59 inclusive, to receive it at 8 years; from 60 and upwards at 7 years. Abstracts may be had at the above tavern, and at the Bank Coffeehouse. The Deed of Sett. of this So. is enrolled in the High Court of Chancery.

The ultimate fate of the Co. we cannot trace.

AMICABLE So. of Master BAKERS.-This So. was founded under articles of agreement dated 25th June, 1798. Its object was to raise an annuity fund by means of annual subscriptions, etc. Every subscriber, who should have been a member seven years, and attained the age of 60 years, was to be entitled to a clear annuity of £60 for life, and the widow of every such annuitant to an annuity of £30, or in certain cases, £60 for her life, if she continued a widow. The So. afterwards became involved in litigation, and its affairs came before Lord Chancellor Eldon in the case of Pearce v. Piper.

As the hist. of this So. is but too illustrative of that of many other sos. of that period, we add the following details concerning it :

The articles provided for payment of ann. subs., etc., that a member who continued a year in arrear should forfeit the money paid; lose all claim on the fund; and cease to be a member of the So. : that no member should become entitled to any efficient benefit from the So. until he had been a member seven years; had completed his seven years subs.; and had attained the age of 60 years. The art. further provided for the appointment of a board of directors, with power to call extraordinary general meetings, as they should see occasion; providing further, that any twelve or more members should have power to convene an extraordinary general meeting in the manner specified.

The art. then, pointing out the mode in which the fund arising from the subs. and fines should accumulate during seven years, directed that at the end of seven years the clear cap. should be valued and ascertained; and the subsequent subs. and ann. produce thereof should be applied in discharge of the current expenses and annuities due or to become due; and that every subs. who should have been a member seven years, and should then have attained the age of 60 years, should be entitled to a clear annu. of £60 for life; and the widow of every such annuitant to an annuity of £30, or in certain cases of £60 for her life, if she continued a widow. In case of several annu. falling due about the same time, some might be deferred for a period not exceeding three months.

If at the end of seven years the funds and income therefrom were insufficient to meet annuities and other outgoings, subs. might be raised to members and annuitants (with exception in favour of any annuitants who had become blind).

On 31st July, 1806, a resolution was adopted by the directors on the report of a committee, to the effect that the So. could no longer exist, and recommending that it be dissolved, and every member be paid his principal and int. Some annuitants appealed, on the ground that if the funds and income were insufficient for the purposes of the So., the subs. must be raised and funds provided. The directors answered that the orig. tables of the So. were founded in error and could not support the promised annuities. Only 20 out of 122 members present at the meeting had objected to dissolution of So. The directors acted upon the opinion of Mr. W. Morgan and Mr. Fairman (author of a work on the Public Funds).

After a good deal of litigation, the Court of Chancery ultimately directed inquiries as follows: 1. To ascertain the state of the So., defect of plan, etc.; 2. To provide a remedy, viz., by add. subs. adequate to the objects; by paying the arrears, and providing for the present and future annuities.

It seems clear that the intention of the majority of the members was, at the end of the seven years, to dissolve the So. and obtain repayment of their money; and in that way to defeat the rights of those who had become entitled to their annu. This proceeding the Court properly frustrated.

AMICUS CURIE (Lat. friend to the Court), a stander by, who informs the Court when doubtful or mistaken of any fact or decided case.

AMITY LIFE. This Co. was projected in 1853 by two solicitors, who did not proceed with the enterprise in the spirit indicated in its title, and so the Co. came to grief. AMSTERDAM.—We propose to note briefly the ins. incidents connected with this, as with other continental cities. It must not be understood that we purpose to attempt a complete hist. of the progress of ins. in them. It may rather be considered that we mention (as a rule) such incidents as arise out of, elucidate, or tend to complete the hist. of ins. in our own country.

We shall pursue the chronological arrangement, mentioning any very special incidents under a separate heading. Thus an important Marine ordin. was promulgated from here in 1598. This will be spoken of in conjunction with later ordin. under AMSTERDAM, INS. ORDIN.; and much light will be thrown upon the various branches of the ins. practised in Northern Europe at an early date.

Several important improvements made in fire-engines have originated in this city. The two Dutchmen, Van der Heide, who were inspectors of the apparatus for extinguishing fires here, invented about the year 1672 hose for fire-engines, which up to that time had been unknown. They used leather for its manufacture. The introduction of hose led naturally to many improvements in fire-engines, in which these same men were prominent. They adapted their engines to the use of suction hose, which in many respects was even of more importance than the use of hose in the ejection of the water; although the last, by enabling the engines to be stood in positions of safety, was of very great practical advantage. [FIRE-ENGINES, HIST. OF.]

Beckmann (Hist. of Inventions) relates how at the fire of the Stadthouse, in 1652, the old engines then in use were of very little service. The city lost by ten conflagrations, while the old apparatus was in use, 1,024,130 florins; but in the following five years, after the introduction of the new engines, the loss occasioned by forty fires was only 18,355 florins.

These new engines were made with the improvements of the Van der Heides, who had in 1677, five years after they had first tried experiments, obtained an exclusive privilege to make these engines for a period of 25 years. In 1682, their engines being sufficiently distributed throughout the city, the old ones were laid aside.

In 1695 there were 60 of these engines in the city, the nearest six of which were to attend each fire. In the course of a few years they were common in all the towns of the Netherlands.

The following is an authentic outline of the regulations in force in 1715, for the safety of the city in cases of fire. They were communicated for the information of residents in Lond., after a serious fire in the last-named city about that date.

1. The law positively forbids all crowding to the place; nobody that is not a neighbouring inhabitant dares enter the street where a fire is broke out, for he would immediately be clapt in jail.

2. A sufficient number of men are listed, who are obliged to serve at extinguishing fires (the porters,

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