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ful stocks being ins., or fraud attempted upon the Asso. in the matter of losses," while accurate information upon every subject with which the Asso. was concerned would be obtained by having "resident directors in every parish in which members reside," would save this Asso. from the too common fate of ins. offices of this class. An early report said:

It must be apparent that a proprietary co. can never possess the same advantages, and so cannot select their risks. Their losses must of necessity, therefore, in proportion be greater. And again, the working expenses of this Asso. are confined to matters only absolutely necessary: there being no paid staff of officers, which in proprietary cos. is indispensable. These circumstances clearly demonstrate that under the mut. system low rates, security, and punctuality of settlement, are procurable.

The early experience of the Asso. appeared to justify this view. In the year 1850-1, the Asso. ins. 1468 head of cattle, 153 horses, and 5 pigs, of the aggregate value of £15,376. In 1851-2 there were ins. 2199 head of cattle, 219 horses, and 3 pigs-total value £22,492. The average ins. value of cattle was £8 per head; of horses £22 per head; of pigs £1 10S. The losses in those years were: Cattle, 77; horses, 8-giving the per-centage in relation to number ins.: cattle, 3'501; horses, 3'653. The rates for cattle were 24 p.c.; for horses 34 p. c. The report for 1851-2 says:

The losses on horses have been considerably less, in proportion to value, than those on cattle; and the directors therefore recommend that the rates on that class should be reduced to those exigible for cattle, excepting the progressive per-centage in value.

The year 1850 was marked by an unusual number of deaths amongst cattle from pleuro-pneumonia, and the directors are of opinion that this year there has been little abatement of that scourge. It will be seen that the per-centage of deaths from that disease is about 2, while from others only 1. Keeping in view previous exp., it must be apparent that as regards cattle, pleuro-pneumonia is most to be feared; and as that epidemic has appeared among the best stocks, and in the most healthy places, where least expected, agriculturists ought to be impressed fully with the advantages of ins. against such contingencies.

The following is a T. of the diseases of which the Cattle died:

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COAL. A general term for various substances, characterized especially by the presence of carbon, associated with smaller quantities of other matters, gaseous and mineral. The principal varieties of coal are lignite, bituminous, and anthracite.

Coal is one of the most important mineral products of Gt. Brit. It was prob. used by the ancient Britons, but the Romans do not mention the fact at the time of their invasion. Sea-coal was prohibited from being used in and near Lond. in 1273, as being "prejudicial to human health."-Stow. Even smiths were obliged to burn wood. Graunt, Petty, and other early writers considered coal smoke as calculated to produce barrenness in a pop. [LONDON.]

The Reg.-Gen. says in his 27th Rep. [returns for 1864]:

Fire is a necessary of life in this climate, and a warm hearth mitigates the severity of winter. Fire is as much required by the poor as the rich; and a tax on coals, like a tax on salt, presses with undue severity on people of small means. Coal at the pit's mouth costs about 5s. a ton, and anything that facilitates its carriage and distribution in cities, by the abolition of duties and monopolies, or by laying down railways, if it lead to a diminution of cost, will preserve many lives that come to an untimely end in such severe weather as has reigned during the last winter months [Jan., Feb., and March, 1864].

These remarks especially apply to the present position of the coal trade, coals being at the present moment [Feb., 1873] at a higher price than has prob. ever prevailed in this country at any former period.

COAL GAS.-Gas for illuminating purposes, produced from coals, as distinguished from that produced from mineral oils, or from the atmosphere. [GAS.]

COAL MINES, Deaths from ACCIDENTS IN.-This subject will be considered fully under MINERS.

COAL MINES, INS. OF.-See COLLIERY INS.

COAL TRADE MUTUAL INS. Asso. was founded at South Shields in 1813, for insuring maritime cargoes. In 1849 the Asso. took the title of Coal Trade Eligible Mut. COAL TRADE MUTUAL INS. Asso., founded at South Shields, also in 1813, apparently under the same management as the last-named Co., for the purpose of ins. ships, as distinguished from cargoes.

COALS, STOWAGE OF.-Many ships have been burned at sea from the spontaneous combustion of coals. The Select Parl. Committee on Fire Protection, which sat in 1867, drew the attention of some of the scientific witnesses to the subject. The following is from the examination of Dr. Lyon Playfair, Professor of Chemistry at Edin. :

3058. In what condition are coals most apt to produce spontaneous combustion? When they contain much sulphur, and when they are damp. There is not much fear of spontaneous combustion when they are stowed away quite dry and dusty. 3059. My question refers specially to the shipment of coals. In shipping coal to the East Indies, they are very apt to take fire, are they not? Yes. 3060. What is the cause of that? If there is a slight deviation of temperature the coal has a tendency to take fire. It raises its disposition to take fire from spontaneous combustion very much. There are numerous cases where the temperature has not been above 140°, and the coal took fire, and there are one or two cases where the temperature was not above 120° where the coal ignited. 3061. You say that the coals are more likely to take fire if they are damp? Yes. 3062. If a ship was a little leaky the coals would have a tendency to spontaneous combustion? Yes, if the dampness came into contact with the coal. 3070. The South Wales [anthracite] coal is more free from sulphur than other coals, I believe? Yes, those that are used for steam purposes. I have examined all the South Wales coal for the purposes of the Admiralty, and I have found where they are good specimens they do not contain much sulphur. 3071. Have you anything to suggest to the Committee with regard to ships in loading coal? A fire that takes place by spontaneous combustion in coal almost always commences from one point. Ships should use the simple plan that storekeepers do on land, of keeping iron rods and putting them down in various parts of the coal, and by taking them out and occasionally feeling them, they would know where the elevation of temperature was, and they would be able to cut down to the exact spot and put the fire out before it extended. 3080. Do you think that the spontaneous combustion of coal on board a ship can in any degree arise from friction from the motion of the vessel? No; I think not. [COLLIERIES.]

COAST.-The sea-shore, and the adjoining country; in fact, the sea-front of the land.— Smyth. Very important results follow from the degree to which the coast is indented by inlets, bays, gulfs, rivers, estuaries, or other natural interruptions of a straight line; and in proportion as the coast-line of an island or continent is longer as compared with the simplest possible line inclosing the same area, so is their general facility of access, shelter for ships, and a capacity for commerce. The most important trading countries are always those with the longest coast-line.-Brande.

COASTING VESSELS.-Vessels engaged in the coasting trade constitute a special class of risk in Marine underwriting. They are not insured for the voyage as are sea-going vessels mostly, but by the year. As a rule, they seek protection from local marine ins. clubs, the managers of which are supposed better to understand the nature of the risks to which they are exposed. There are various legal enactments affecting vessels of this class. 1562. By 5 Eliz. c. 5, no person was to load in any bottom, whereof "any stranger born" is the owner, any kind of fish, victual, wares, or things to be carried coastwise. Repealed.

1793. By 33 Geo. III. c. 2, no ammunition, saltpetre, or gunpowder was to be carried coastwise, on pain of forfeiting the vessel or boat, with all guns, ammunition, furniture, tackle, and apparel. Officers of Customs might seize the same.

1833. By 3 & 4 Wm. IV. c. 52, all trade by sea from one part of the U.K. to another to be deemed coastwise.

1849. By 12 & 13 Vict. c. 29, no goods or passengers to be carried coastwise from one part of the U.K. to another, or to or from the Isle of Man, except in British ships; or from one part of the British possessions in Asia, Africa, or America, to another part thereof, except in Brit. ships.

1854. By 17 & 18 Vict. c. 5, foreign ships admitted to the coasting trade; such ships to be subject to same rules as Brit. ships.

1855. By 18 & 19 Vict. c. 96-Customs Laws Consolidation Act-the last-named provisions re-enacted.

COBB, B. F., Sec. of Globe Marine since its estab. in 1870.

His

COCKER, EDWARD.-The famous arithmetician, born in Lond. in 1631, and died in 1677. The works which most perpetuate his memory were not pub. during his lifetime. Arithmetic was first pub. in the year of, but after, his death. The 40th ed. was pub. 1723. Many eds. have since appeared; and "according to Cocker" has become a proverb in matters of calculation.

In 1684 was pub. Cocker's Decimal Arithmetick, wherein is shown the Nature and Use of Decimal Fractions in the usual Rules, and the Mensuration of Planes and Solids, together with Tables of Interest and Rebate for the Valuation of Leases and Annuities, present or in reversion, and Rules for calculating those Tables; whereunto is added his Artificial Arithmetick, showing the Genesis or Fabrick of the Logarithms, and their Use in the Extraction of Roots, the Solving of Questions, in Anatocism and in other Rules in a method not usually practised; also his Algebraical Arithmetick, containing the Doctrine of Composing and Resolving an Equation, with all other _Rules requisite for understanding that mysterious Art, etc., composed by Edward Cocker. Perused, corrected, and published by John Hawkins, writing master at St. George's Church, in Southwark.

In the preface is the following:

In 1677, I pub. Mr. Cocker's Vulgar Arithmetic, therein promising the speedy printing of his Decimals, etc.; but other extraordinary circumstances occasioned its not seeing the light till now. By the vulgar art learners may be qualified for the ordering of bus. in the greatest concerns of trade and commerce; and for such ingenious souls, whose fancies lead them to a further scrutiny of arts mathematical, was this treatise composed, which will lead them, without any other guide, into the con

templation of more sublime speculations, an inheritance entailed only upon the industrious sons of art. Therefore, courteous reader, if thou intendest to be a proficient in the mathematics, begin cheerfully, proceed gradually, and the end will crown thee with success. Cry not out at difficulties, ne plus ultra, for diligence will overcome them all.

The 6th ed. was pub. in 1729. It is dedicated to the Right Worshipful Sir Peter Daniel and Peter Rich, Esq., Aldermen of the City of London, and Thomas Lee and James Reading, Esqs., Justices of the Peace.

In the Vulgar Arithmetic there is a page recommendatory, declaring, on the faith of the witness, that Edward Cocker was studious and accomplished in the mysteries of numbers and algebra, of which he had a great collection of choice MSS. and printed treatises in several languages, and that his arithmetic was worthy of all acceptation.

Ingenious Cocker! now to rest thou'rt gone,

No art can show thee fully but thine own!

Thy rare arithmetic alone can show

The vast sums of thanks we for thy labours owe.

COCKREL, J., was Man. of Aberdeen Marine about 1844.

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CODE.-A collection or system of Laws. "The Code" is a designation frequently applied to the Code of Justinian on account of its eminence. [CODEX JUSTINIANEUS.] CODE NAPOLEON.-The Code so designated constitutes the Civil Law of France. In 1800 the first Napoleon directed a commission of eminent jurists to frame a code of laws for the kingdom. A draft was completed by 1801, but the Code was not finally adopted until 1804, and it was then designated "Code Civil des Français.' When Napoleon became Emperor, the name was changed to that of "Code Napoleon.' Other codes have since been formed, making the number of codes six in all-but these are very often, although erroneously, spoken of as the "Code Napoleon." All such parts of the Code as relate to Ins. will be spoken of under the proper heads. [ACCIDENT.] [F. INs.] [FRANCE.] CODEX.-A roll or volume; also a code, as the Codex Justinianeus, etc. CODEX JUSTINIANEUS. -The Code of Justinian. In Feb. of the year A.D. 528 the Roman Emperor Justinian I. appointed a commission consisting of 10 persons to make a new collection of imperial constitutions. The commission was directed to compile one code from those of Gregorianus, Hermogenianus, and Theodosius, and also from the constitutions of Theodosius made subsequently to his code, from those of his successors, and from the constitutions of Justinian himself. The Code was completed, but within six years after its pub. it was suppressed as imperfect, and replaced by a new ed., technically known as the Codex Repetitiæ Prælectionis, which is in fact "the Code." It is divided into 12 books; each book into titles, and each title into laws. The fourth and eighth books treat more particularly of matters coming within our present scope, as Contracts; Novation; Usury. [CIVIL LAW.]

CODEX VISIGOTHORUM.-A Code of laws promulgated by the Visigoths, while in possession of Spain, after the fall of the Roman Empire of the West. This Code is still held in estimation in Spain under the denomination of FUERO JUZGO. In this Code we find nothing relative to maritime commerce, except the earliest testimony of the right granted during the middle ages to seafaring strangers or foreigners of being judged by the magistrates and arbiters of their own nation, and according to their own laws. From this Pardessus infers that the countries from which these foreign navigators came, and which could be no other than the south of Gaul, Italy, and the Greek Empire, had maritime laws or usages formed from the remembrances and traditions, if not from the documentary records, of the Roman law.-Reddie. [CONSULAR COURTS.]

CODICIL.-A supplement to a will, containing anything which the testator wishes to add, or any explanation or revocation of what the will contains.

CODIGÓ DE Las Costumbres MARITIMAS.-A work pub. by Capmany in 1791, being a collection of the maritime laws of Barcelona, Valencia, etc. [BARCELONA.] [SPAIN.] CODNER'S ASSURANCE.-Under this title was projected, during the South Sea mania, 1710-20, a co. having the avowed purpose of Insurance against Lying. How far it succeeded in its laudable object, and what was the precise nature of the risk to be undertaken, does not appear. A form of proposal and a pol. of this Co. would be of the utmost interest; but, alas! they are not forthcoming.

COLD.-A popular name for catarrh, derived from its cause rather than its symptoms. COLD [Temperature].-Cold, like heat, exists in all bodies. It is indeed said by scientific men that cold has only a negative sense, implying a greater or less privation of heat. The ancient writers frequently speak of cold as typical of death, while heat is designated as the principle of life. We do not intend to enter upon such debatable ground. That cold in a certain sense is inimical to life has long been observed, vide Shakspere in Henry VIII. :-"The third day comes a frost, a killing frost." The effect of cold upon the human system is shown in the most direct form by the large increase of deaths (chiefly from diseases of the respiratory organs) in the more inclement seasons.

We believe the first writer who called scientific attention to this fact was Heberden the younger, who compared the mort. from all causes in the first 5 weeks of 1795 with that of the same 5 weeks in 1796. The temperature in 1795 ranged between 23° and 29°; in 1796 between 43° and 50°. In 1795 the total deaths were 2823; in 1796, 1471-or nearly twice as many in the cold as in the mild winter. How fatal this cold was to aged

VOL. I.

39

persons may be inferred from the fact that while the cold weeks of 1795 destroyed 617 children under two years old, and the warm weeks of 1796, 506, or 6 deaths in the first to 5 in the last; the deaths above 60 were 717 in the cold year, and only 153 in the milder one, or something approaching 5 to 1. Comparisons between cold and warmer weeks of the same year yielded similar results. His obs. were based upon the London

B. of Mort.

The most intense cold ever recorded in Lond. was on the 25th Dec., 1796, when the thermometer was 16 degrees below zero. On the 3rd Jan., 1854, the thermometer marked 4° below zero, Fahrenheit; on 25th Dec., 1860, it fell in some parts of England to 18, in others to 15°, below zero; at Torquay, Devon, to 20° below zero. The cold was excessive for several days before and after that date. In Jan., 1864, the cold was very severe. On 4th Jan., 1867, the thermometer stood at 3° below zero at Hammersmith and Hornsey [suburbs of London]; on 7th Jan. following at 55° above. [CLIMATE.] Sir Henry Halford, an eminent physician of the present century, in his well-known brilliant essays, delivered in Latin, and pub. in 1831, included one "On the Effects of Cold." The Reg.-Gen., in one of his quarterly R. for 1864, said:

When the thermometer falls to the freezing-point of water, the mort. is raised all over the country; and the pop. of Lond. is excessively sensitive to cold; thus the corrected average deaths of the 2nd week of Jan. are 1550, but the actual number of regis. deaths this year was 2427. The mean temperature of the preceding week, instead of 378 had fallen to 267; and the temperature of one chill night [Thursday, 7th Jan., 1864] had descended to 143, or to 1707 below the freezing-point of Fahrenheit; and 877 lives were extinguished by the cold wave of the atmosphere." The excess of the rate of mort. during the months of Jan., Feb., and March, 1864, was 228 in the country districts and small towns; 284 in the large town districts, exclusive of Lond.; and 511 in Lond. above the average.

The Reg.-Gen. for Scotland, in one of his reports a few years since, said the descent of temperature below freezing-point in Scotland caused "a greater increase in deaths than the most deadly epidemics to which the inhabitants are liable." [HEAT.] [TEMPERATURE.] COLE, GEORGE, was Sec. of Birkbeck in 1852.

COLEMAN, J., was Joint Sec. of Norwich Mut. Marine during its short career-1846-54. COLES, JOHN, Stockbroker, was trained to L. ins. bus. in the office of the Legal and Commercial, which he entered in 1850. He passed into the Victoria Life on the amalg. of the L. and C. with that Co. in 1859, and he retired from ins. pursuits in 1863.

In 1857 he contributed a letter to the Assu. Mag., On the Method of Valuing Whole-term Assu. on Single Lives by Classification.

In 1868 he read before the Inst. of Act. a paper: Railway Debenture Stock considered as a Security for the Investment of the Funds of a Life Assu. So. This is a practical and useful résumé of the facts and considerations relating to the subject.

etc.

COLIC (scientifically Colica [or Kolica], from the Greek, signifying the colon).-A painful contraction of the muscular coat of the colon, without inflammation or fever. It has various sub-distinctions among medical practitioners, implying the cause of the ailment. Then there are several popular distinctions, as Devonshire colic, painters' colic, etc., Colic was termed by Sydenham, and other old English writers, the Dry Belly-ache. COLLAPSE (from the Latin collapsus, a falling together).-Prostration, or shock to the nervous system; interruption of the powers and actions of life, immediately following any severe injury.-Hoblyn. COLLATERAL.-Indirect, sideways, that which hangs by the side; as "collateral security"-something added to or placed alongside the chief or orig. security. COLLECTANEƐ MARITIMA, being a collection of public instruments, etc., etc., tending to illustrate the Hist. and Practice of Prize Law, by Chr. Robinson, London, 1801. COLLET, THOMAS WILSON, Sec. of the St. Katherine Docks, gave evidence before the Select Parl. Committee on Fires in the Metropolis, in 1862. The substance of his evidence will be found under Docks. He explained to the Committee that in the event of a fire the Dock Co.'s certificate was the only document upon which the merchant or owner could recover from the ins. office. [CLAIMS, Fire.]

COLLIER, NOAH, was Sec. of Consolidated during the years 1850-53.

COLLIERIES, ACCIDENTS IN.-Under this head may be classed two descriptions of casualty, viz. (1) loss of life to the workmen ; and (2) damage to the mine by explosion or otherwise. The former we shall treat of under MINERS; the latter under COLLIERIES, EXPLOSIONS IN, and COLLIERIES, INS. OF.

COLLIERIES, EXPLOSIONS IN.-Explosions in collieries are caused by reason of the FIREDAMP, to which coal mines in some districts of Gt. Brit. are peculiarly liable, coming into direct contact with flame. The peculiar merit of the miner's lamp, invented by Sir Humphry Davy, is that while it furnishes light sufficient for the purposes of the miner in his work, it prevents, so long as it is kept properly closed, the contact of fire-damp with the flame. But the miners, prob. from the want of correctly understanding the principle of the lamp, disregard all injunctions regarding its use; or if this be rendered impossible by the vigilance of the overseers, they introduce light by other means, as by igniting lucifer matches for the purpose of smoking, and hence, from time to time, arise those serious casualties to property, as well as life, to which collieries are still, although not necessarily so, subject.

Much scientific attention has of late been drawn to the subject of colliery explosions; and it is found that nearly all serious casualties from fire-damp have arisen when great

depression of the barometer has been observed. At such times there is considerable difficulty in obtaining proper ventilation, and as a rule a more than ordinary amount of air should be sent down into the mines. The managers, especially in very gaseous pits, should take care that this precaution is attended to, the neglect of which, under the circumstances indicated, is almost criminal. The terrible accidents at the Oaks and Talk-o'-the-Hill collieries in 1866 happened after a sudden fall of the barometer. On the 10th of Dec. the mercury stood at 30'40; on the 11th there was a fall of nearly one inch, and that fall continued till the 13th. During that interval the explosions at the above-named collieries occurred.

It is believed that these variations in the pressure of the atmosphere occur periodically; and as they are always immediately indicated by the barometer, the most simple test is ready at hand. Mr. G. J. Symons, in a letter quoted in the Times, 21st Jan., 1873, said that on the 12th of Feb., 1866, he reported that at 4°30 P.M. on the previous day the barometric pressure at his station, reduced to sea-level, was only 28.606 in. In 1872 he had similarly to report an even lower reading-viz. 28.332—at 4'47 P.M. on the 24th of Jan. He now adds a few data respecting the depression of Sunday (19th Jan., 1873), which was greater than any except that of 1872. Before doing so, however, he calls attention to a fact which is either a singular coincidence, or, perhaps, something of more importance. The interval between the first two depressions is, roughly, six years, accurately 2173 days, which, divided by the six years, gives 362 days and an hour or so; and the interval between the depression of 1872 and that of Jan. 20, 1873, is almost the same. It seems to him remarkable that, out of a series of obs. extending over 16 years, three out of the four lowest points fall into a regular period; but he is far from asserting that it is more than a coincidence.

Messrs. Negretti and Zambra, in the same issue, call attention to the very low state of the barometer, which, within 48 hours, had fallen nearly 1 inches, "indicating a change of atmospheric pressure which may be called almost unprecedented." They remark that an enormous amount of gas must have escaped during this time, and that mines in which fire-damp exists, and which would be perfectly safe with the barometer at 30, are now highly dangerous. They add that an Act was passed for compelling proprietors of mines to have a barometer, but that it unfortunately cannot compel miners to be cautious, or even to look at the barometer. Perhaps it may be due to this timely warning that no serious colliery explosion has occurred on this occasion. The following are the lowest readings since January, 1857 :

Hour.

Year.

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Month.
December 26

February 11

January 24

January 20

6 A.M.
4' 30 P. M.

4'47 A. M.

I'O A. M.

Reduced to Sea-level.

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It is in this manner that scientific observation and research is coming to our aid in practical every-day life.

Mr. H. W. Porter, B.A., in his obs. on the Reports of the Reg.-Gen., 1860, speaking of the number of persons annually killed by explosions, etc., in coal mines, says:

A great proportion of these accidents-prob. the whole number caused by explosions-may be considered to be preventible; and that this is the fact may be fairly assumed from the circumstance of the death-rate in different mines varying considerably, according to the precautions taken in each. [COLLIERIES, INS. OF.] [FIRE-DAMP.] [MINERS.]

The following is a list of the principal colliery explosions in Gt. Brit. of which we can obtain any record at the present moment:

1857-Feb. 19th, Lund Hill, near Barnsley; 180 miners perished. The discipline of the pit had been very lax.

1858-A number of explosions occurred. The chief were at Bardsley, at Duffryn [near Newport, Mons], and at Tyldesley, near Leeds.

1860-March 2nd, Burradon, near Killingworth; 1st Dec., Risca, near Newport, Mons; 22nd Dec., Hetton, Northumberland.

1862-Feb. 19th, Gethin, near Merthyr Tydvil; 22nd Nov., Walker, near Newcastle-onTyne; 8th Dec., Edmund's Main, near Barnsley.

1863-March 6th, Coxbridge, near Newcastle; 17th Oct., Margham, S. Wales; 26th Dec., Moestig, S. Wales.

1865-3rd May, Claycross; 16th June, New Bedwelty pit, near Tredegar, S. Wales; 20th Dec., Gethin, Merthyr Tydvil.

1866-Jan. 23rd, Highbrook, near Wigan; 14th June, Dunkinfield, near Ashton; 31st Oct., Pelton Fell, near Durham; 12th Dec., Oaks colliery, near Barnsley [350 miners killed]; 13th Dec, second explosion in same pit [28 searchers, including Mr. Parkin Jeffcock, mining engineer, killed]; 13th Dec. also, Talk-of-the-Hill, Staffordshire.

1867-27th Aug., Garswood colliery, near St. Helens; 8th Nov., Ferndale, Rhonnda Valley, near Cardiff, about 178 lives lost. Attributed to naked lights.

We regret that we cannot supply the data for a more complete T. It seems clear that a more perfect set of obs. would at once indicate the most dangerous districts, as well as the most dangerous periods of the year. December claims a fatal pre-eminence in the above list; and this is in accordance with the scientific obs.

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