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The 6th census of Gt. Britain, 1851, took a wider scope than any of its predecessors. It was made to consist of two parts: (1) Compulsory-comprising an enumeration of persons and houses; and an account of the age, sex, relationship, civil or matrimonial condition, occupation, and birthplace of all the inhabitants; (2) Voluntary-consisting of an elaborate inquiry as to the then existing provision for education and religious worship, and the extent to which that provision was made use of, viz. an enumeration of all the day schools and Sunday schools throughout the country, and of the scholars attending them.
The new features introduced into the compulsory portion of this census were the ascertainment of the various relationships, as husband, wife, son, daughter; the civil condition, as married, unmarried, widower, or widow; and the number of the blind and deaf and dumb-all very valuable details.
In 1853 Mr. Edward Cheshire pub., Results of the Census of Gt. Brit. in 1851, with a Description of the Machinery and Process employed to obtain the Return. He says:
The inquiries undertaken at the census of 1851 were of a far more extensive character than those pursued at any previous enumeration; for it was resolved to exhibit not only the statistics of parishes, and of Parl. and Municipal boroughs, but also of such other large towns in England and Scotland as appeared sufficiently important for separate mention; and the statistics of all the ecclesiastical districts and new ecclesiastical parishes, which during the last 40 years had been created in E. and W. The local machinery by which the objects thus contemplated were to be attained differed considerably in England and Scotland. In England and Wales the Regis, districts, which for the most part are conterminous with the unions were made available for enumerating the pop.; but in Scotland, which is, unfortunately, without any Regis. [a Regis. Act for Scotland was passed 1854], the census was taken through the agency of the sheriffs of counties, and the provosts, and other chief magistrates of Royal and Parl. burghs. The total number of enumeration districts thus apportioned in Gt. Brit. and its Isles was 38,740; to each of these a duly qualified enumerator was appointed.
It was necessary that these enumeration districts should be formed with a careful reference to the various divisions of the country, the pop. of which was to be separately distinguished in the returns. Accordingly, the instructions issued to Registrars in England, for the formation of these districts, directed that while the boundaries of parishes should be taken as the basis upon which to frame the various divisions, attention should be paid to other boundaries.
In the Companion to the [Brit.] Almanack, 1855, there is an interesting art. on the Census of the United States, 1850. [UNITED STATES.]
In 1855 Mr. Geo. Scott addressed to the Assu. Mag. [vol. vi., p. 47], a paper in the form of a letter, On Certain Means furnished by the Census of 1851 for Extending the Application of the Principle of Assu. to the Social Condition. The point of his paper was the providing annu. for unmarried females. His views took practical shape soon afterwards in the founding of the Female Provident L. office.
At the Social Science Congress held at Bradford, in 1859, a paper was read by Mr. Horace Mann, What Information, as to the Social Condition of England and Wales, would it be most desirable to Collect at the Census of 1861. The object of the paper appeared not so much to suggest as to invite suggestions. He said:
Perhaps no opportunity is ever presented so favourable to an extensive collection of facts upon many points of social importance as that which is afforded by the decennial census. The necessary existence, for the purpose of enumerating the pop., of an elaborate machinery covering every portion of the land, and penetrating to every individual tenement, suggests of itself the desirableness of making as much as possible of so costly and complete an apparatus during the short period of its operation.
He then reviewed the range of the then more recent Census inquiries, especially of the last. On the same occasion Mr. J. T. Hammick read a paper, On the Direction in which the Census Inquiry may be Extended in 1861. He suggested several points for further development, especially as regarded sickness and infirmity. Mr. Nicholas Waterhouse also read a paper, Suggestions for the Next Census.
Mr. A. G. Finlaison, in his Report on Tontines and L. Annu., 1860, calls attention to the fact, that the purposes for which a census is generally taken have remained much the same from the days when Moses numbered the Children of Israel.
The Commissioners appointed to take the Census of 1861 were the Reg.-Gen. (Major Graham), Dr. Farr, and Mr. Hammick. In June of the same year they pub. a preliminary report, in which the following details were given :
The Act for taking the Census of England required that the 31,000 Enumerators employed should copy into as many books, the householders' schedules and other particulars collected by them in their several districts. These books were to be placed, with the schedules, in the hands of the 2197 Registrars, who were to subject them to a strict examination, and make all necessary corrections. This being accomplished, the books and other documents were to be trans. before the 30th April [the Census was taken 8th April] to the custody of 631 Superintendent-Registrars, who were required to test the accuracy of their contents by a further process of revision.
The Census in Ireland embraced inquiries regarding the religious denomination, and the answers obtained were regarded as most satisfactory. The Census in Scotland embraced some important details regarding "house accommodation."
At the meeting of the British Asso. held at Manchester in the autumn of 1861, Mr. Hammick presented a paper, On the General Results of the Census of the U.K., 1861, in which many most interesting details were furnished.
In the Assu. Mag., vol. x., p. 1, is given an abstract of the results of the Census of 1861. In 1862 there appeared from the pen of M. Maurice Block an interesting account of
the Census in France in 1861. The substance of these papers will be found in the Statistical Journ., vol. xxv., p. 72.
In 1865 Mr. W. L. Sargant read before the Statistical So. a paper, Inconsistencies of the Census of 1861, with the Reg.-Gen. Reports; and the Deficiencies in the Local Registry of Births. The principal conclusions at which he arrived are the following:
1. That the census of 1861 is not to be implicity trusted, but requires further investigation. 2. That male infants below 1 year old are underrated by 36,546 or 12 p.c.; and the female infants by 30,831 or 10 p.c.; that in the 2nd year of life the deficiencies are 11 and 11 p.c.; in the 3rd year, 2 and 1 p.c.; and in the first 5 years taken together, 63 and 6 p.c.3. That this difference of error between male and female infants is prob. owing to the better regis. of male births, and not to a worse enumeration of males in the census. 4. That the males and females together, of all ages under 20, are apparently underrated by 510,440; but that some considerable deductions have to be made from this number. 5. That the males and females together, of all ages, are prob. underrated by more than half a million. 6. That the deficiency in the census is far greater in some districts than in others. 7. That the regis. of births is very imperfect in places; Liverpool and Hull appearing to be the worst, with Lond., Cheltenham, Plymouth, and Portsmouth following in order of demerit. 8. That we have but few materials for comparing the Census of Scotland with calculations made from the regis. of births; but that, as far as we can judge, the Scottish census is as inaccurate as the English one.
In giving these "conclusions," it must not be understood that we indorse them. Our purpose is to supply the substance of, or give reference to, all information upon the subject of which we are treating.
In the same year Dr. Farr read before the same So. a paper, On Infant Mort., and on Alleged Inaccuracies of the Census, in which he reviewed and answered the preceding paper. The two productions throw a flood of light over the question of the mort. of infants. [INFANT MORTALITY.]
In view of the 8th Census, then approaching, several of the learned sos. took action in 1870. The Council of the Statistical So. urged the repetition of the religious and educational census-this time to be made compulsory, especially as to answering the question whether every child or person beyond the age of 7 could read or write. It also urged inquiries as to house accommodation in accordance with the preceding Census of Scotland. The National Asso. for the Promotion of Social Science appointed a Special Committee, consisting of Mr. George Godwin, Dr. Stewart, Mr. Lewis, Mr. Walford, Mr. Safford, Mr. Powell, and Mr. Aldis. That Committee, after several sittings, passed the following series of recommendations :
1. That the Census of 1871 should be taken as nearly as possible at the same date as on the former occasions of 1851 and 1861.
2. That this Committee very strongly urges upon the Government the desirability of adopting a uniform system in taking the Census of 1871 for each of the three divisions of the U.K.; this uniformity not having been observed hitherto.
3. That alike for England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland, the Census "Householder's Schedule" should embrace the following particulars: 1. Name. 2. Sex. 3. Condition (civil). 4. Age (last birthday). 5. Degree of instruction, a, can read; b, can write. 6. Rank, profession, or occupation. 7. Relation to head of family. 8. Where born. 9. Language usually spoken. 10. Professed religion. 11. If deaf, dumb, blind, insane, sick, or infirm; if sick, the nature of the malady to be stated.-[Vide p. 129, Irish Census Report, 1861, Part III., vol. i.]
4. That it would be of the greatest utility if the Government would direct the Census Commissioners for the U.K. in 1871 to undertake, as a subsidiary inquiry, an industrial census, the principles of which were discussed in the last English Census Reports [vol. iii., p. 233]. Such inquiry would include: House accommodation, church and chapel accommodation, school accommodation, manufactures, trades, professions, wages of working classes.
5. That an annual enumeration of merely the number and ages of the pop. is greatly needed, at least for all the principal cities and towns of the kingdom.
The Brit. Asso. at its meeting in Edinburgh appointed a Special Committee consisting of Prof. Jevons, Mr. Dudley Baxter, Mr. Dawson, Mr. Heywood, Dr. Hodgson, and Prof. Waley. Their memorial to the Home Sec. embodied the following:
Your memorialists could specify a great many points in which there was divergence between the Tables of 1861; but they will mention only a few of the more important cases:
1. The detailed pop. T. of Eng., Scot., and Ireland, differ as regards the periods of age specified. The Scotch report gives 21 intervals of age, the Irish report generally 22, and the English only 13. Either one-third of the printed matter in the Scotch and Irish T. is superfluous, or that in the English T. deficient.
2. The classification of occupations is apparently identical in the 3 reports, but there is much real discrepancy between the Irish and English reports, rendering exact comparison difficult.
3. In the Irish report there is no comparison and classification of occupation according to age: classification according to religions being substituted, although such a classification could not be made in England or Scotland.
4. In the appendix to the English report appears a T. (No. 56), giving most important information as regards the number of the pop. at each year of age. Inconvenience has been felt from the want of similar information concerning the pop. of Scotland and Ireland.
5. In the appendix to the Irish report they find some interesting T. (II., III., and IV.), to which there is nothing exactly corresponding in the other reports, so far as they have been able to discover. 6. The T., even when containing the same information, are often stated in different forms and arrangements, seriously increasing the labour of research.
The General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland also memorialized in favour of a religious and educational census, but it was all of no avail. The Ministry of the day did not understand the cry of "let there be light"! Three separate enactments were passed, as before, for the three divisions of the Kingdom, differing indeed in minor points, but all agreeing in excluding any provisions on the new and important points suggested. The Census was taken on Monday, 3rd April, 1871. The instructions given to enu
merators were exceedingly minute; for example, the qualification for a place in the Census was to be alive at midnight on the 2nd of April. The enumerators were expressly enjoined not to include any one who might die before midnight, nor any infant born after midnight. If we look at the facts, there were prob. 3000 births and 1863 deaths during the census day of 24 hours, or 4863 in all. If half of these births and deaths occurred in the night, and were improperly included in the returns, the pop. at any given moment would be overstated to the extent of 2432. This is one of the reasons why exactitude becomes essential. The cost of this last Census was estimated as follows: E. and W. £120,000; Scotland £30,000; Ireland £32,000. This was larger in each case than on any preceding occasion, the remuneration of the enumerators being fixed at a higher scale. The cost of the Census in E. and W. in 1841 was £86,728; 1851, £93,132; 1861, £95,719 (exclusive of postages). This was in 1841, £5 95. per 1000 of the pop. ; in 1851, £5 4s. ; in 1861, £4 155. 5d., or rather more than one penny per head for every man, woman, and child. The Census in Ireland was taken by the Irish constabulary and the Dublin police.
In June, 1871, preliminary reports upon the Census of England, Scotland, and Ireland, were presented to Parl. These, as usual, embodied many points of immediate interest. The more detailed Reports are still in course of preparation.
In 1872 there were pub. the following documents relating to the 9th Census of the U.S. : (1). Statis. of Pop., consisting of a most elaborate series of returns in T. I. to VIII. inclusive. (2). Statis. of the Blind, Deaf and Dumb, Insane and Idiotic (by States and Territories). (3). Statis. of Wealth, Taxation, and Public Indebtedness. (4). General Statis. of Agriculture (by States and Territories). We have to thank the President of the U.S., and also the Hon. Francis A. Walker, Supt. of the Census, for their thoughtful interest in sending us early copies of these important publications.
At the present time nearly every European country except Turkey has a Census of its pop. taken with more or less regularity. The value of the information so brought together cannot be overestimated. Much of it is presented in various forms through these pages. Many interesting articles thereon will be found in the pages of the Statis. Journ., beyond those already quoted. The various reports of the Census Commissioners, however, are the great storehouses of such facts, and these will be referred to in some detail in our art. on POPULATION.
CENTENARIAN.-A person who has reached a 100 years of age. There has been, and still is, a good deal of controversy regarding centenarianism. A great many of our bestinformed writers regard 100 years as the natural limit of the life of man, and to that age they assert a certain per-centage of all mankind attain. There is another class who assert that such a theory is preposterous, and contrary to Scripture authority. Taking advantage of the difficulties surrounding the proof of birth prior to a complete system of regis. being introduced, they discard every alleged Centenarian where the proof is incomplete. We do not intend to pursue the subject here: it will be treated fully under LONGEVITY, where it will be shown that there are numerous well-authenticated instances of centenarianism.
In 1872 Sir George Duncan Gibb, Bart., read before the Anthropological Institute a paper, The Physical Condition of Centenarians, as derived from Personal Observation in Nine Genuine Examples. [LONGEVITY.]
In 1872 also there was a case reported from Rochester, Illinois, U.S., of a man who had reached 103 committing suicide.
CENTENARIAN LONGEVITY.-By this term is implied the period of life beyond 100 years enjoyed by centenarians. Mr. Babbage drew attention to this subject in 1826, and compiled a T. of mort. applicable to such cases, without, however, having the opportunity of testing the credibility of the cases reported. His T. will be given in a following art. Mr. Milne offers some obs. thereon. [CARLISLE T. OF MORT.] [LONGEVITY.] CENTENARIAN TABLE OF MORTALITY.-Mr. Babbage, in his Comparative View, pub. 1826, included a T. which he had deduced from the lives of alleged centenarians. The T., he said, was formed from a collection of 1751 persons, who had reached the age of 100 and upwards. The greater part were selected from Easton's work, 1799; but some few of the names in that vol. were rejected as occurring twice, or as being of doubtful authority. Some additions were made by Mr. Babbage from other sources. They had all died before the commencement of the present century.
Mr. Babbage says, in reference to the data on which the T. is constructed:
About the ages marked by round numbers, as 110, 120, and 130, there appeared to be more deaths than the proper allowance but the most singular, and which deserves notice, from its not being explicable on the same principle, was the large number which occurred at the age of 102, both amongst females and males, but particularly amongst the latter. Traces of this will be found in the diminished decrement of lives at 101, and the large increase at 102, but in the original list the disproportion was much greater.
In order to form the present T. 150 was assumed as the extent of human life, although there were two or three authentic instances of persons of greater age. Commencing with this period, wherever too large a number of deaths were found in any one year, they were equalized by transferring some of them to such of the preceding years as appeared to be deficient; thus it was imagined that the tendency to overrate the age of old people would be in some measure compensated.
TABLE OF 1751 PERSONS REACHING THE AGE OF 100 AND UPWARDS:
[In modern mort. T. the positions of the 2nd and 3rd cols. of this T. would be reversed. We give it as its compiler arranged it.]
CENTRAL LOAN, LIFE, AND REVERSION.-A co. under this title was projected in 1849; but prov. regis. was the limit of its attainment. CEOLA.-A large ship.-Blount.
CEPHALITIS.-Inflammation of the brain (Class, LOCAL; Order, Disease of Nervous System). The deaths from this cause in England present very slight variations. consecutive years they were as follows: 1858, 3463; 1859, 3451; 1860, 3518; 1861, 3426; 1862, 3580; 1863, 3869; 1864, 4014; 1865, 4199; 1866, 4146; 1867, 4220. The average over a period of 15 years ending 1864 was 187 to each million of the pop. living.
The deaths in 1867 were: Males, 2337; Females, 1883. Of the males, 1213 died under the age of 5, and the remainder mostly in the younger ages-the decrease being steady as the ages advance. Of the females, 928 died under 5, and then the same as the males. See BRAIN DISEASE.
CEREBELLUM.-The little brain, situate behind the larger brain or cerebrum.
CEREBRUM. This term denotes the vessel which hold the brains, i.e. the skull : hence the brains. The term is restricted to the chief portion of the brain, occupying the whole upper cavity of the skull.
CERTIFICATE.-A testimony given in writing to declare or verify the truth of anything; or of having discharged a duty, or complied with any specific requirements of the law. CERTIFICATE OF AGE.-This must be a transcript of some recognized official record of age, duly verified. If it be taken from any other than an official record, it will be termed a DECLARATION OF AGE.
CERTIFICATE OF BAPTISM.-A copy of the registry of baptism taken from the parish regis., or any other record authorized by law to be kept for such purpose, duly verified. It is by no means synonymous with "certificate of birth," inasmuch as baptism is usually more or less delayed after birth, sometimes for years; and with certain religious sects is altogether disregarded.
CERTIFICATE OF BIRTH.-This is an official copy of the actual entry in any duly authorized register of births, properly certified by the official lawfully in charge of the same. CERTIFICATE OF BONUS.-On a declaration of bonus, a certificate is usually issued to each policy-holder, stating the amount of bonus, either cash or reversionary, and indicating how it has been or may be applied. [BONUS.]
CERTIFICATE OF BURIAL.-A certified copy of any entry of burial in a parish regis., or regis. of burials in any authorized public purial-place.
CERTIFICATE OF THE CAUSE OF DEATH.-No funeral can take place in Gt. Brit. until a copy of the entry in the register of deaths, signed by the registrar, or a certificate by a coroner, setting forth the cause of death, is produced to the minister performing the burial service, except in certain cases provided for by the General Registration Act, and in which the officiating minister has to give notice to the registrar. [FRIENDLY SOS., 1858.] CERTIFICATE OF DEATH.-An official copy of the entry in any register of deaths existing and kept pursuant to law.
CERTIFICATE OF HEALTH.-A certificate issued to a person seeking admission as a member of friendly sos. and other provident asso.
CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION.-The Cos. Act, 1862 (25 & 26 Vict. c. 89), provides (sec. 18), that upon regis. of the memorandum of asso., and of the art. of asso. (where required or desired), the registrar shall certify under his hand that the company is
incorporated, and in the case of a limited company, that the co. is limited, and such certificate shall be conclusive evidence that all the requisitions of the Act in respect of regis. have been complied with.
CERTIFICATE OF Loss (Marine).—It appears to have been the practice for the Clerk of the Chamber of Insurances to grant a Certificate of Loss after a proper investigation had been made into the circumstances of the loss, and the Chamber had become satisfied thereon. We have not met with one of these forms. [CHAMBERS OF INS.]
(Fire).- According to the early practice of F. ins. offices, a certificate had to be furnished by all claimants in respect of F. losses (in add. to their own affidavit or declaration), by the minister and churchwardens, and some other respectable inhabitants of the parish, not concerned in such loss, importing that they were well acquainted with the character and circumstances of the person or persons insured; and did know, or verily believe, that he, she, or they, really and by misfortune, without any fraud or evil practice, had sustained by such fire the loss and damage as his, her, or their loss, to the value therein mentioned. Here is a condition of this effect, as issued by the Sun F. office, under date 1st Nov., 1794:
Art. XI.-Persons ins. sustaining any loss or damage by fire are forthwith to give notice thereof at the office, and as soon as possible afterwards deliver in as particular an account of their loss or damage as the nature of the case will admit of . . . ; and procure a certificate under the hands of the minister and churchwardens, together with some other respectable inhabitants of the parish not concerned in such loss, importing that they are well acquainted with the character and circumstances of the person or persons ins., and do know or verily believe that he, she, or they, really and by misfortune, without any fraud or evil practice, have sustained by such fire the loss and damage as his, her, or their loss, to the value therein mentioned, etc., etc.
The Hand-in-Hand, Union, Lond. Assu., Royal Exchange, and indeed all the early F. offices, required similar certificates.
CERTIFICATE OF MARRIAGE.-A certified copy of the entry of marriage in any parish regis., or in any of the regis. of marriage provided under the Marriage Laws. [MARRIAGES, REGIS. OF.]
CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION. -The Joint-Stock Cos. Regis. Act (1844), 7 & 8 Vict. c. 110, provided for the issuing of certificates of PROVISIONAL REGIS., and of COMPLETE REGIS. These will be spoken of under those heads. The Cos. Act, 1862, 25 & 26 Vict. c. 89, provides (sec. 191), that cos. not orig. constituted under that Act may be regis. under it; and the certificate of incorp. given by the registrar of joint-stock cos. to any such co. shall be conclusive evidence that all the requisitions under that Act have been complied with; and the date of incorp. in such certificate shall be deemed to be the date at which the co. is incorp. under this Act.
CERTIFICATE OF SHARE.-The Cos. Act, 1862, declares (sec. 31), that a certificate under the common seal of the co. specifying any share or shares or stock held by any member of a co. shall be prima facie evidence of the title of the member to the share or shares or stock therein specified.
The Cos. Act, 1867, provides for the issuing of fully paid-up shares to bearer by means of share-warrants. [SHARES TO BEARER.] [SHARE-WARRANTS.] CESSPOOLS.-It can easily be shown that the mort. bears a certain proportion to the quantity of the poison which the people inhale; and that the quantity is greatest under the cesspool system, which formerly prevailed in Lond., and is now in use in the French, German, and Italian towns. The mort. has gradually fallen in Lond. as the cesspools have been abolished; it is still high in foreign cities where the cesspools are in use. Manchester, where the dirt is allowed to decay behind the houses, and is not thrown into sewers, the mort. was at the rate of 33 per 1000 in the years 1841-50; and in the foreign cesspooled cities the mort. ranges from 30 to 44 in the 1000.-Reg.-Gen., 21st R., 1860. Dr. T. Herbert Barker performed, about 1858, an ingenious series of experiments on animals to determine the effects of each of the noxious principles which arise from cesspools. He placed the animals in a close chamber by a cesspool, with which a tube opening into the chamber communicated, and a lamp was arranged so as to draw a current of cesspool air steadily over the creatures inside. With a pair of bellows Dr. Barker could draw the air from the chamber. A young dog in half an hour became very uneasy and restless; he vomited and had a distinct rigor, and in the course of a day was exhausted. When he was removed, he soon recovered. Another dog was subjected to the cesspool air during twelve days; in the first seven he underwent a series of sufferings not unlike the symptoms of the diseases of children in hot weather; on the ninth he was very ill and miserable. After he was liberated on the 12th day, he remained very thin and weak for six weeks. Dr. Barker then continued his experiments on the effects of definite doses of the gases in the sewers, and killed or poisoned several sparrows, linnets, jackdaws, and dogs.
In the 24th R. of Reg.-Gen. (1863), Dr. Farr took up the question, and observed: The practice of keeping the refuse of the sick and the healthy of successive generations in the cesspools alike of cottages and palaces every day grows more pernicious as the pop. becomes denser; for the water is defiled in wells, and even when the cesspools and drains are emptied into the Thames and other rivers, it is pumped again into the houses only partially purified. The ova of worms and the seeds of various diseases are thus diffused among children; while great numbers of men and women in the prime of life also suffer, and often die of the maladies which are the inevitable consequences of violations of natural laws.