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was the remote and which the immediate cause; yet this difficulty does not change the fact that the death is to be attributed to the proximate, and not to the mediate cause. Nor is the difficulty in questions of this kind any greater than that which arises in questions of negligence, contributory negligence, and many others which are constantly the subjects of judicial investigation. [See also DEATH, CAUSES OF.] [CERTIFICATE OF CAUSE OF DEATH.]

CAUSTON, WILLIAM REAY, was for many years a most active agent in Gloucester for the Norwich Union Fire and Life offices.

CAUTIONER.-A surety. The term is more particularly used in Scotland.

CAVE, STEPHEN, M.P., Banker, Bristol; ostensibly the author of the "Life Assu. Cos. Act, 1870."-Mr. Cave filled the office of Vice-President of the Board of Trade under the Conservative Administration, 1866, and while in that position [about 1868] introduced a motion to the House of Commons praying for an inquiry into the mode of conducting ins, bus. in Gt. Brit. The belief then was that the measure was aimed at the Albert and European offices. The inquiry was not granted; and whether it would have been productive of any good is therefore only problematical. In 1872 he moved the House for an inquiry into the causes which had led to the failure of those offices; but here again he was defeated. Mr. Cave is not officially connected with any ins. office. CAVE, THOMAS, M. P., was Man. Director of the Anchor F. and L. Ins. Co. from 1855 down to its amalg. in 1857. He made great efforts to place the Co. on a solid foundation, but without success. Mr. Cave was for a short period after the amalg. connected with the Bank of Lond., etc., Ins. Co.

CAVEAT.-A warning or caution-literally, that he take heed. A process used in the Ecclesiastical Courts to prevent the proving a will, or the granting of administration, or the institution of a parson. When a Caveat is entered against proving a will or granting administration, a suit usually follows to determine either the validity of such will, or who has a right to administer. There are some other cases in which a Caveat is resorted to, as a means of raising an issue, or delaying proceedings.

CAXTON LIFE Assu. So., founded in 1854, with an authorized cap. of £100,000. The orig. prosp. said:

The intrinsic value of L. assu. is now so universally admitted, that he whose income depends on mental or physical exertion for making provision for those near and dear to him, cannot be held blameless in not availing himself of it, especially as its advantages may be secured by the exercise of a little self-denial, even where incomes are limited and precarious.

The Gov. under which we live, duly appreciating the importance of L. assu., has wisely reduced the stamp duties hitherto imposed, as an encouragement to its more general adoption.

Although the title of a so., provided it indicate the objects contemplated, is usually deemed but of little import, yet some value is attached to that of the "Caxton," from the fact that the literary and commercial world have alike benefited by his exertions. Caxton introduced into England the pressthe most powerful engine in the universe; and as a merchant, by his diplomatic skill, opened to Brit. enterprise the ports of Holland and others, which for many years previously had been closed against it. . . . For these and other signal services, on Caxton were conferred various marks of Royal favour. "Every description of L. assu. transacted, including residents in the U.K. and in foreign countries." Then, under "advantages of this So.," there was the following:

Non-forfeiture of pol. Where pol. on which 3 years' prems. shall have been paid, and not being in connexion with loans, are discontinued, from whatever cause, the whole amount of the prems. which have been paid will be returned whenever the life shall drop, to the representatives of the assured, after deducting one year's prem, and expenses; such return however will be lost unless claim be made within 6 calendar months after decease of the insured.

"Pol. never disputed-except in cases of fraud." "Half the prem. may remain on credit for 5 years.' Lives "under average of full health" ins. [Diseased Lives.] [SUBSTITUTION OF LIVES.] [BUILDING SO. INS.] [LOANS.]

We believe the founder of this Co. was Mr. Thos. Pott; Mr. James Charles Hardy was Man. Director and Sec.; Mr. W. E. Hillman, Consulting Act.

In 1856 the Co. passed into a winding up, under the Court of Chancery, having been eaten up with printing and other preliminary expenses.

CAXTON LIFE, FIRE, LOAN, ANNUITY, AND GUAR. SO., projected in 1852, but did not get beyond prov. regis.

CAYAGIUM.-A duty or toll paid to the king for landing goods at some quay or wharf.— Cowel.

CAZENOVE, JOHN, was sec. of Family Edowment from 1843 to 1858.

CELESTIAL GIFTS.--Hufeland speaks of Light, Heat, Air, as the "three celestial gifts, which with great propriety may be called the friends and guardian spirits of life.' [AIR] [COLD.] [HEAT.] [LIFE.] LIGHT.]

CELIBACY [from calebs, unmarried].-An unmarried, or single state of life. The effect of Celibacy upon the duration of life has been the subject of much comment and some observation. We shall consider that part of the case under MARRIAGE, INFLUENCE of.

The monastic life was preached by St. Anthony, in Egypt, about A.D. 305. The early converts to this doctrine lived in caves and desolate places till regular monasteries were founded. The doctrine was rejected in the Council of Nice, A.D. 325. Celibacy was enjoined to bishops only in 692. The Romish clergy generally were compelled to a vow of celibacy in 1073. Its observance was finally estab. by the Council of Placentia, held in 1095. The privilege of marriage was restored to the English clergy in 1547. The marriage of the clergy was proposed, but negatived, at the Council of Trent in 1563.- Vincent.

Among the illustrious philosophers of antiquity the following were unfriendly to matrimony: Anaxagoras, Democritus, Diogenes, Dion, Epicurus, Heraclitus, Plato, and Pythagoras; and among the modern the following: Akenside, Angelo (Michael), Bayle, Bentham (Jeremy), Boyle, the three Caraccis, Collins, Drake (Sir Francis), Essex (Earl of), Fénelon, Gibbon, Goldsmith, Gray, Hampden, Handel, Harvey, Haydn, Hobbes, Hume, Leibnitz, Locke, Malthus, Newton, Pascal, Pitt, Pope, Reynolds (Sir Joshua), Smith (Adam), Thomson, and Wolsey. [POPULATION.] CELLAR DWELLINGS.-The number of persons living in cellars in some of our large towns was found to be so considerable, and the direct mort., as well as the danger to the public health, so great in consequence, that the Legislature took up the subject, and by means of the Public Health and Local Government Acts, and the Metropolitan Management Acts, have provided remedies for lessening these evils to a very great extent. CEMETERY [from the Greek, to set to sleep].-A place of burial, differing from a churchyard by its locality and incidents. By its locality, as it is separate and apart from any sacred building used for the performance of Divine service; by its incidents, that inasmuch as no vault or burying-place in an ordinary churchyard can be purchased for a perpetuity, in a cemetery a permanent burial-place can be obtained. CEMETERIES.-The ancients had not the unwise custom of crowding all their dead in the midst of their towns and cities, within the narrow precincts of a place reputed sacred, much less of amassing them in the bosom of their fanes and temples. The burying-places of the Greeks and Romans were at a distance from their towns, and the Jews had their sepulchres in gardens (John xix. 41), in the fields, and among rocks and mountains (Matt. xxvii. 60). The present [recent] practice was introduced by the Romish clergy, who asserted that the dead enjoyed peculiar privileges by being interred in consecrated ground.-Haydn.

Some 300 years ago (1552) Bishop Latimer, contrasting the custom of the citizens of Nain with those of the citizens of Lond., said:

And here you may note, by the way, that these citizens had their burying-place without the city, which no doubt is a laudable thing, and I do marvel that Lond., being so rich a city, has not a buryingplace without, for no doubt it is an unwholesome thing to bury within the city, specially at such a time when there be great sickness so that many die together. I think that many a man taketh his death in Paul's churchyard, and this I speak of experience; for I myself when I have been there to hear the sermons have felt such an ill-favoured unwholesome savour that I was the worse for it a great while after. And I think no less that it be the occasion of much sickness and diseases; therefore the citizens of Nain had a good and laudable custom to bury their corses without the city, which ensample we may follow.

Under BURIAL we have already given many details regarding modern legis. on the Up to 1865 there had subject of burials; we need not therefore repeat them here. Lond. is now well been raised, under the authority of various Acts, no less a sum than £1,400,000 for providing parochial cemeteries. That sum is now largely increased. provided with cemeteries: the first, Kensal Green, 32 acres, was opend just 40 years since 2nd Nov., 1832. The others as follows: South Metro. and Norwood, 40 acres, 1837; Highgate and Kentish Town, 22 acres, 1839; Abney Park, Stoke Newington, 30 acres, 1840; West Lond., Kensington Road, 1840; Nunhead, 50 acres, 1840; City of Lond. and Tower Hamlets, 30 acres, 1841; Lond. Necropolis and Nat. Mausoleum, Woking, 2000 acres, 1855; City of Lond., Ilford, 1856. More recently the Gt. Northern. That the general estab. of cemeteries is an active element in improving the health of the people, is a proposition without a negative. [BURIAL.] [PUBLIC HEALTH.] CENEGILD (from the Saxon).-An expiatory mulct paid by one, who killed another, to the

kindred of the deceased.

Moses numbered the CENSUS.-A numbering of the people. The term originated in Rome, being derived from censors, upon whom fell the duty of numbering the people. The numbering by David was imputed to him The Greeks had Israelites, B.C. 1490; David, B.C. 1017. as a crime, because he had done it in a spirit of pride and vain-glory. a census, prob. introduced by Solon, between B. C. 638 and 658. Certainly previously to When instituted there it was for the Solon no census had been instituted at Athens. purpose of determining the rights of the citizens by property, rather than birth, as previously. Demetrius Phalereus is said to have taken a census of Attica, B. C. 317.

Rome from a very early period had a census of its citizens. It is believed to have been instituted by Servius Tullius, who commenced to reign as its 6th king in B. C. 578. Lenglet du Fresnoy says the first census of Rome was taken B. C. 566. The censors, or magistrates, to whom the task of preparing the census was entrusted, were amongst the principal officers of the State; indeed the office was regarded as so honourable and important that it was an object of the highest ambition. Every Roman citizen was obliged to disclose his name, his age, the place of his residence, the name and age of his wife, the number of his children, slaves, and cattle, the value of his property, and the class and century The declaration of the parties was confirmed by an [legion] in which he was enrolled. oath; and in the event of its being discovered that they had made a false return, they were punished by the confiscation of their property, and the loss of liberty. Those who neglected to enrol themselves in the census were subjected to the same punishment; it being held, as Cicero has informed us, that an individual failing to enrol himself renounced by that act his right of citizenship, and rendered himself unworthy of freedom. In the

imperial city the census was taken by the censors in person. In the provinces the citizens made their declarations before the provincial magistrates, according to a form or schedule transmitted to the latter by the censors. All these lists being returned to Rome were reduced to a tabular form, so that the total number of Roman citizens, and the slaves and other property possessed by each, could be ascertained at a single glance. These records were preserved in the Temple of Venus Libitina; but none of them have been preserved to us in detail.

It will be discerned by the thoughtful reader that such exact details were prob. required for other purposes than a mere estimation of the number of the pop. It was so. The returns, obtained as described, were required and used for the fiscal purposes of the State; while they also had a distinct value in relation to military organization. Those who desire more details regarding the mode of taking and the purposes of the censuses of both Greece and Rome may, with advantage, consult Smith's Dict. of Greek and Roman Antiquities.

In the first instance the Roman census was taken every 5 years. After a time a good deal of indifference arose regarding it; hence it came to be taken only once in 10 years; and later, but once in 15 years. It is said, upon apparently good authority, that only 75 enumerations were made in the 630 years from Servius to Vespasian; after which it was entirely discontinued. Originally, after the census was taken in Rome, a sacrifice of purification or lustration took place. From this the term of 5 years came to be called a lustrum. The two great jurists, Paulus and Ulpian, each wrote works on the census in the imperial period.

It is stated that the Paternal Government of Peru has from a very early date kept a regis. of all births and deaths throughout the country, and has caused exact returns of the pop. to be made every year by officers appointed by the State.

One of the earliest methods employed with a view to numbering the people in Gt. Brit. was to enumerate the Houses, and then to multiply the houses by the number of people supposed to be occupying them. This method has been frequently resorted to, both here and in Ireland. Another aid was called in. In 1662 the Hearth or Chimney Tax was first imposed. The returns of this tax were supposed to elucidate the number of Families. After the Revolution of 1689, when the taxing of fireplaces was abolished, the computers fell back upon the returns of House and Window Duties. The Poll Tax had been levied on too small a portion of the pop. to be of much value for such estimates. It has been frequently shown that none of these methods could be at all depended upon. The books containing the account of hearth money were long since lost, and it is by no means certain whether Dr. Davenant, in stating the number of houses in England and Wales in 1690, as given in the Hearth Books, really meant the buildings in which families lived, or the families themselves. The returns of the House and Window duties were still less worthy of credit. The collectors were only required to make out and return to the Commissioners of Assessed Taxes, lists of houses within their respective collections chargeable with the duties in question. All cottages exempted from the usual taxes to church and poor were also exempted from the house and window duties; and there was no obligation on the officers to return an account of their numbers. The earlier returns of assessed taxes have never been regarded as very accurate. All these points are necessary to be considered in dealing with the various estimates made in the absence of the authority and the means for an exact enumeration.

Again, the regis. of births and burials have frequently been resorted to as means by which to estimate the magnitude of the pop. In applying them to this purpose, districts in various parts of the country were selected, forming as nearly as possible a fair average of the whole; and a census being taken of the pop. in them, it is learned, by dividing that pop. by the number of births and the number of deaths, the proportion which they respectively bear to the whole number of inhabitants in the districts that have been surveyed; and hence it followed, that to learn the pop. of the entire kingdom it was only necessary to multiply the total number of births, or the total number of burials, as given in the regis., by the proportion which either of them had been thus proved to bear to the whole pop. Thus, supposing that the average proportion of deaths to the pop. had been ascertained, by examinations being made in different parishes, situated in different parts of a country, to be as I to 45 or 50, the entire pop. would plainly be equal to the entire number of deaths in a year multiplied by 45 or 50; or if the proportion of births to the whole pop. had been ascertained, in the same way, to be 1 in 28 or 30, the pop. would be the product of the yearly births by 28 or 30. It is plain, therefore, that if the regis. of births could have been relied on as accurate, this would form a compendious and not unsatisfactory mode of forming an estimate of the pop. But the early regis. were in almost all cases very far indeed from being accurate. [PARISH REGIS.]

But though the regis. of births and deaths were kept with the most perfect accuracy, it would still be no easy matter to determine the exact amount of the pop. by their means. What may be considered the average and ordin. rate of mort. in a country-and the same thing is true of the average and ordin. proportion of births-is liable to be deeply affected by the occurrence of scarce and calamitous years, and conversely [FOOD, ITS INFLUENCE ON LIFE AND DEATH]; and unless all such exceptional circumstances were allowed for, error of greater or less amount must invariably be found in such estimates.

The earliest country in modern Europe which adopted a census of its pop. by actual enumeration was Sweden. A census of its entire pop. was taken in 1749, and again 1752 and 1755. [SWEDEN.]

One of the earliest English writers who appears to have discerned, or at least to have pointed out, the value of an exact enumeration of the people was Corbyn Morris, who in his Obs. on the Past Growth of the City of Lond., etc., first pub. 1751, suggested a B. of mort. arranged so as, after a series of years, to furnish such information. He says:

Under the B. of mort. proposed, one noble instance of information, which might clearly be drawn from it at any period, readily suggests itself. This is, that the total number of persons living of all ages, and also the respective numbers living of each age, might from hence accurately be ascertained: supposing this bill to have been kept for a time past, equal to the utmost extent of life, and also the accession of foreigners during that time to have been nearly equal to the egression of natives.

De Moivre, in the 3rd ed. of his Doctrine of Chances, 1756, speaks of the importance of Taking the numbers of the living, with their ages, through every parish in the kingdom: as was in part ordered some time ago by the Rt. Rev. the Bishops; but their order was not universally obeyedfor what reason we pretend not to guess. Certain it is that a census of this kind once estab., and repeated at proper intervals, would furnish to our governors, and to ourselves, much important instruction, of which we are now in a great measure destitute; especially if the whole was distributed into classes, to married and unmarried; industrious and chargeable poor; artificers of every kind; manufacturers, etc.; and if this were done in each county, city, and borough separately, that particularly useful conclusions might thence be readily deduced; as well as the general state of the nation discovered; and the rate according to which human life is wasting from year to year.

In 1783 the War of Independence in the American Provinces terminated. A Constitution had to be provided for the new U.S. In that Constitution pop. was made the basis of representation. This involved a periodical census of the people. It was resolved that this should be taken every 10 years. The first census of the U.S. was taken in 1790.

The pop. was then returned at 3,929,827.

Various writers, many of whom will be noticed under POP. and various other heads, continued to urge the importance of a correct enumeration of the people of Gt. Brit. ; and at length urgency became so great that the Gov. yielded. The first systematic enumeration of the people of Gt. Brit. was therefore fixed to be taken in 1801. It must not be supposed that the proposal was carried through Parl. without opposition. On the contrary, it excited a good deal of alarm. Many considered it in the light of a preparatory measure for some more efficient plan of taxation, or some new scheme with respect to the levy of the militia. These fears operated rather outside than inside the House, and tended in many instances to false or defective returns.

The Act under the authority of which the first enumeration was to be taken is the 41 Geo. III. c. 15, An Act for taking an Account of the Population of Gt. Brit., and of the Increase or Diminution thereof. The day named for the enumeration was the 10th March. Many preparations were required to be made. The rector, vicar, overseer, or other authorized person in each parish in England-and in Scotland the parochial schoolmaster —was to fill up in a schedule sent for the purpose answers to the following questions : Ist.-How many inhabited houses are there in your parish, township, or place; by how many families are they occupied ; and how many houses therein are uninhabited? 2nd.-How many persons (including children of whatever age) are there actually found within the limits of your parish, etc., at the time of taking this account, distinguishing males and females, exclusive of men actually serving in His Majesty's regular forces or militia, and exclusive of seamen either in His Majesty's or belonging to registered vessels. 3rd. What number of persons in your parish, etc., are chiefly employed in agriculture; how many in trade manufactures, or handicraft; and how many are not comprised in any of the preceding classes?

4th. What was the number of baptisms and burials in your parish, etc., in the several years 1700, 1710, 1720, 1730, 1740, 1750, 1760, 1770, 1780, and each subsequent year to the 31st day of December, 1800, distinguishing males from females?


5th. What was the number of marriages in your parish, etc., in each year, from the year 1754 inclusive to the end of the year 1800?

6th.-Are there any matters which you think it necessary to remark in explanation of your answers to any of the preceding questions?

The information so obtained was valuable in the degree of its completeness. It will be spoken of under POPULATION, OCCUPATIONS, etc. The powers of the Act did not extend to Ireland.

In 1811 the second census of Gt. Brit. was taken; the form of returns being much the same as in the first. The prejudices attending the first enumeration had almost entirely passed away.

In 1813 the first census was taken in Ireland; but was regarded as a failure. (See 1821.) At the 3rd census of Gt. Brit., 1821, a return of the ages of the people" was first introduced. In 1821 also a very complete census was taken in Ireland. [IRELAND.] In 1829 there was pub. a pamp., Proposals for an Improved Census of the Pop. Upon this there was founded an able art. in the Edin. Review [vol. 49]. The writer pointed out in a forcible manner that an actual enumeration, or census, of the people "is the only means that can be safely depended upon for ascertaining their numbers." He

reviewed many of the previous appliances, and showed how, and why, they had failed. He remarks:

Although the happiness of a country does not depend on the circumstance of the inhabitants being few or many, but on the proportion which they bear to the supply of necessaries, conveniences, and enjoyments at their disposal, still it is on many accounts extremely desirable to know their exact number. A nation, having only 10 millions of people, might be decidedly more powerful than a nation with 20 millions, if they were less instructed, less industrious, or less rich. But other things being the same, there can be no doubt that the political power and importance of a nation will be in a very great degree dependent on the amount of its pop. Although, however, the magnitude of a nation had no influence in determining the place which it must occupy in the scale of nations, still there are many most interesting subjects of inquiry which cannot be successfully prosecuted till this magnitude be known. It is impossible, for example, to determine the extent to which levies of individuals, either for the military service, or for any other object, may be safely carried, unless the pop. has been enumerated and classed. It is clearly too for the interest of a very large class of persons, or rather, we should say, of the public, that those questions which depend on the expectation or prob, duration of human life, such as those relating to L. ins., the constitution of friendly sos., and the value of L. annu., should be accurately solved. But this cannot be done without the aid of T. truly representing the laws of mort.; and these cannot be prepared without the aid of censuses, enumerating not only the total number of persons in a country or district, but the numbers at every different age from infancy upwards. The solution of such questions is not, however, the only, nor, perhaps, the greatest service, that may be derived from enumerations of the pop. By comparing together censuses made with the requisite care, and embracing a sufficiency of details, we obtain authentic information, not otherwise attain able, with respect to the proportion which the sexes bear to each other; the changes in the channels of industry; the increase and decrease of different diseases; the effect of epidemics; and an immense variety of other subjects, which are not merely matters of rational and liberal curiosity, but come home to our business and bosoms, and exercise a powerful influence over human happiness.

He said-speaking of course only of the first three-"There is good reason to think that no one of the censuses taken in this country is nearly so accurate as it might have been." He expounds his reasons for this statement, and adds:

Let not

A census in which the occupation of every individual and his age were specified would be a most invaluable document; not only would it show the number of individuals belonging to each separate profession or calling, but it would serve to exhibit the influence which different employments exercise on the rate of mort.; while by comparing different censuses of this sort future inquirers would obtain an accurate knowledge of the changes produced by the progress of society, both as respects the_numerical relations of the different classes to each other, and as respects their longevity. therefore the approaching opportunity of obtaining a correct census-a census worthy of the country and the age-be neglected. If the census to be taken in 1831 be executed with due care, both as respects the enumeration and the classification of the people, it will be one of the most important documents ever prepared under Parl. authority; and will not only afford a vast deal of information of immediate practical utility, but will be a point of comparison to all future times.

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So far from these wise counsels prevailing, the census of 1831 retrograded a step; and a return of the "ages," which had been introduced in 1821, was on this occasion not asked for !

In 1830 a Parl. Committee sat and took evidence, in view of the census of 1831; but, as we have said, all efforts at improvement proved useless on that occasion.

In the census of 1841 the "ages of the people "- -one of the most important points of value for scientific purposes-were again taken. A special committee of the then newly formed Statistical So. of Lond. had been appointed in the preceding year (1840), with a view of making suggestions for improving the machinery to be employed in the census, and of enlarging its scope. This Committee made a very able report [Statis. Journ. vol. iii., p. 72], from which we take the following passage:

But a

The Committee conceive that a census to be made by Gov., extending, as in every country it has extended, beyond a mere counting of heads, contemplates various purposes besides the mere ascer tainment of numerical strength. Some of these concern immediate administration census is also generally extended to circumstances influencing the condition of the people, such as their industrial occupations; and to various facts illustrative of that condition, belonging to the field of vital statistics. It is in solicitude for the collection of the largest amount of these data, and for assuring to them a scientific correctness, that the Committee feel their appointment to the present labour to have originated.

This census was the first taken under the newly-formed organization of the Reg.-Gen. In 1842 Mr. G. R. Porter read before the Statistical So. a paper: An Examination of Some Facts obtained at the Recent Enumeration of the Inhabitants of Gt. Brit., so far as the same have been pub. by the Census Commissioners [Statis. Journ., vol. iv., p. 277, and vol. vi. p. 1].

In 1843 there was read before the Brit. Asso. at Cork, a paper, Obs. on the Census of the Pop. of Ireland in 1841, by Capt. Larcom, one of the Commissioners for taking the census [Statis. Fourn., vol. vi. p. 323]. The paper is one of considerable interest.

In 1848 the Rev. E. Wyatt-Edgell read before the Statistical So. a paper, Remarks on the Plan adopted for taking the Census in 1841, with suggestions for its improvement. One of his suggestions was that the census should be taken at Christmas instead of in June, as it had previously been taken.

In 1849 a census of the pop. of Bombay and Colaba was taken. A statement showing the relative numbers of young, adult, and aged persons, classed according to religious persuasions, is given in vol. i. of Assu. Mag, p. 83. [BOMBAY.]

In 1850 another Committee of the Statistical So. was appointed, in view of the census of 1851. Among other recommendations of this Committee was one that the classification of houses be made similar to that of the Irish census of 1841, viz. by adding to the number of houses inhabited and uninhabited the number of rooms in each.

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