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The ann. bill for 1833 gave the christenings at 27,090, and the burials at 26,577. Out of these the causes of death were returned as 66 unknown in 887, or I in 30. The character of the bills was sadly changing for the worse about this period. As early as 1823 St. George's, Hanover-square, had ceased to make any returns. In 1832 the parishes of All Saints', Poplar, and St. John's, Wapping, followed its example; and in 1834 the clerks of St. Bartholomew's the Less, and St. George's, Queen-square, became defaulters. The Co. of Parish Clerks had no authority by which they could make these contumacious parishes supply correct or indeed any information.

A writer in the Companion to the Almanack, for 1835, pointed out, that in order to have these interesting records made perfect, or nearly so, it would be requisite that the cause of each death should be certified by a well-educated practitioner; and to qualify him for doing this, an anatomical examination of the body would be necessary in many or most cases. The friends of the deceased (he adds) would thus have an opportunity of comparing the physician's diagnosis given during life with the actual appearances found after death; and the check thus afforded to careless practice, or vague diagnosis, would advance medicine in a very material degree. The first step towards the change he desired was close at hand.

Consequent upon the increasing inaccuracy of the then existing B. of Mort., and perhaps even more upon the advancement of medical science towards a proper classification of the causes of death, while the increasing education of the people constantly pointed to scientific advancement, the attention of the legislature became directed to the subject of an improved system of returns for the births, marriages, and deaths of the entire pop. At length, in 1836, there was passed the GENERAL REGISTRATION ACT, which inflicted a death-blow upon the old B. of Mort., rapidly raising up a more perfect system in its stead. This will be spoken of at large under REGISTRATION.

At the foot of the B. of Mort. issued by the Co. of Parish Clerks in 1837 was the following notice :

By the operation of the new Regis. Act, much difficulty has occurred in obtaining the reports of christenings and burials, in consequence of which, in some parishes, the reports have been wholly withheld; and in those of several other parishes, where the office of searcher has been discontinued, the disease of which deaths have taken place has been necessarily omitted.

All such were therefore added to the deaths from "unknown causes."

Mr. Milne, in his famous art. in the Encyclo. Brit., pub. about 1837, offered the following general recommendations concerning the form, scope, and period to be comprised in B. of Mort. :

1. The form for the births should be such that the sexes are distinguished, and the born alive from the stillborn. The number of marriages should be stated. The deaths of the two sexes should be shown under 1 year; from 1 to 2, from 2 to 5, and then in intervals of 5 years, up to 100, over which all deaths should be shown separately, and the sex stated.

2. The value would be greatly enhanced by inserting in them the contemporaneous wages of labourers in agriculture, and of the workmen employed in the more common kinds of trade and manufacture carried on among the people they relate to; also the prices of the necessaries of life which persons of these descriptions consume the most of, together with anything uncommon in the seasons or the crops, and every material change in the circumstances of the people.

3. A bill should be pub. for each year separately, to show how the rates both of mort. and fecundity vary with the circumstances of the people in different years; and from these yearly bills others can be derived for longer periods.

The Reg.-Gen. Report for 1838 gave the deaths of the year, at each age, for the whole of England and Wales. This was but an indication of the efficiency which these reports were destined speedily to attain. The want of such returns for Scotland and Ireland then forced itself strongly to the front.

It appears to have been considered desirable not to let the old system of a weekly B. of Mort. die out. Accordingly the matter was taken in hand by the Reg.-Gen., who, with the machinery of the Gen. Regis. Office at his command, could supply a true statement, capable of being a guide to the prob. in cases of serious epidemic, and otherwise. The first Bill of the new series was accordingly pub. for the week ending 11th January, 1840. The area of the new bill was enlarged, and included many districts which were never even contemplated by the old bills. The total area embraced was now extended to 46,858 At the close of the present paper we shall give some details of the parishes and districts included. A return of the weekly births was not included in the new bills until 1845.


In 1843 Mr. Edwin Chadwick read before the Sta. So. a paper On the Best Modes of Representing Accurately, by Statistical Returns, the Duration of Life, and the Pressure and Progress of the Causes of Mort. amongst Different Classes of the Community, and amongst the Pop. of Different Districts and Countries; and the same is printed in vol. vii. of the Journ. The main object of this paper was to illustrate the errors created and maintained by taking the proportions of deaths as exponents of the average ages at death; or of the chances of life to the pop. It will be referred to under other heads in this work.

In this year several large parishes on the south and south-west sides of Lond. were added to the bills-the area of which now extended to 58,553 acres.

In 1846 considerable add. were made to the bills, by including Hampstead on the north, and Lewisham, Plumstead, Eltham, etc. on the south; extending the area to 78,029 The pop. within this area in 1841 was 1,872,365.


In 1852 Mr. W. R. Wilde, Assistant Census Commissioner in Ireland, read before the Sta. Sec. of the Brit. Asso. at Belfast, A Short Account of the Early B. of Mort. in Dublin, from which we have already quoted.

In 1854 Mr. John Angus, of the Gen. Registry Office, read before the Statis. So. a paper: Old and New B. of Mort; Movement of the Pop.; Deaths and Fatal Diseases in Lond. during the last Fourteen Years; and the same is printed in Statis. Journ. xvii., p. 117. The author says:

To the plague the public of Lond. owed their bills of christenings and burials; to the acknowledged value of such records in connexion with the property of individuals, and only in a second degree to the knowledge of their importance in political arithmetic, we are indebted for the present system of regis. of births, deaths, and marriages. This is another illustration of a natural law, by which contrivances to which men are led by fear, love of property, or other powerful impulses of the mind, become fertile in new suggestions, and subserve innumerable uses, which enrich the storehouse of knowledge and dispense incalculable benefit to mankind.

The expression "within the B. of Mort." is still not unfrequently employed. The late Sir Richard Mayne, Chief of the Metropolitan Police, said before a Parl. Committee in 1862, that he had often tried to ascertain what the limits of the B. of Mort. were. He had sent to the Board of Works, to the Board of Health, and to Dr. Farr-three very likely places, but none of them knew! It surely must mean within the entire range of the parishes included in the Bills "for the time being "--expanding, therefore, as new parishes are embraced.

In the Medical Record (New York) for Sept., 1871, there was an art. on B. of Mort. by Dr. S. H. Dickson.

Before closing this paper, we must say a few words concerning the present B. of Mort. issued weekly in Lond. We have the hill last issued before us; Weekly Return of Births and Deaths in Lond. and in Twenty other Large Towns in the United Kingdom. By authority of the Reg.-Gen., pub. by Eyre and Spottiswoode, 9, East Harding-street, Fetter-lane, Lond., E.C. No. 15, 1872, vol. xxxiii. Week ending Saturday, April 13. Price Id. This is the heading. Then follow contents of the bill, of which we can only give a running abstract:

Reg.-Gen. Office, Somerset House, 15 April, 1872. United Kingdom.-During the week ending Saturday, the 13th inst., 5800 births and 3712 deaths were regis. in Lond., and twenty other large cities and towns of the U.K. The aggregate mort. from all causes in these towns was at the rate of 26 deaths ann. to every 1000 persons estimated to be living.

In Edinburgh the ann. rate of mort. was 31 p. 1000 persons living; in Glasgow, 33 p. 1000; and in Dublin, 42; the fatal cases of smallpox in Dublin, which had been 67 and 44 in the two previous weeks, rose to 83 last week, and were equal to an ann. death-rate of 14 p. 1000.

Eighteen Large English Towns.-The ann. rates of mort. last week in the eighteen English cities and towns were as follows: . .

Lond. In Lond. 2574 births and 1470 deaths were regis. last week. After making due allowance for increase of pop., the births exceeded by 259, while the deaths were 170 below, the average numbers of the corresponding week of the last ten years. The ann. death-rate from all causes, which in the two previous weeks had been equal to 26 and 25 p. 1000, further declined last week to 23. The rate was 21 in the west, 23 in the north, 24 in the central, 24 in the east, and 23 in the south groups of districts. The 1470 deaths included 49 from smallpox.

The mean temperature last week was 51°4 and 6°3 above the average; an excess was shown on each day.

The deaths referred to diseases of the respiratory organs, including phthisis, were 458 last week, against 597 and 505 in the two preceding weeks.

In Madras.

In Calcutta.

To different forms of violence 50 deaths were referred. Indian Cities.-In Bombay. Foreign Cities.-In Paris 814 deaths were returned in the week ending last Friday, and the ann. death-rate was equal to 23 p. 1000 of the estimated pop.

In the City of New York 655 deaths were regis. in the week ending 23 March, and the equivalent ann. rate of mort. was 36 p. 1000.

Meteorology.-At the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, the mean reading of the barometer last week was 29'97 in.


The mean temperature in the other large English towns furnishing returns ranged from According to returns furnished by the engineer of the Metropolitan Board of Works, the daily average quantity of sewage pumped into the river Thames at Crossness was 213,147 cubic metres, at Barking 292,032 cubic metres, equivalent to about as many tons by weight. Then follow the tables :

1. LONDON.-Births and deaths regis. last week, and in the 15th week of ten previous years. 2. LONDON.-Comparative table of results in the last 13 weeks.

3. Births and deaths regis. and meteorology during the week ending Saturday, the 13 day of April, 1872, in the following large towns.

4. Deaths and rate of mort. in 18 large English towns, and in Dublin, during the week ending Saturday, 13 April, 1872.

5. Deaths in Lond. regis. in the 15th week of the year 1872 [causes of death specified in relation to certain groups of ages].

6. LONDON.-Pop., births, deaths from all causes, and from smallpox, measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria, whooping cough, fever, diarrhoea, violence, etc., regis. in each sub-district during the week ending Saturday, 13 April, 1872. [The districts containing workhouses, hospitals, and lunatic asylums are marked by letters indicating the fact. These districts (of which there are 137) do not follow the parish boundaries of the old bills.]

97 66

7. Meteorological obs. taken at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, during the week ending Saturday, 13 April, 1872 [embracing "phases of the moon,' barometer," "readings of thermometers,' "difference" degrees of humidity, etc.,' wind," ," "rain," "electricity," "sky and atmosphere," "notes."

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The document extends over 8 pages, the size of this work, and may be pronounced to be a perfect bill, embracing all the sound recommendations of all the preceding writers.

Regarding the Bills of the old Co. of Parish Clerks-they have ceased; but the Co. itself remains, and deserves to be cherished in our remembrance. The difficulties referred to at the foot of the Bill for 1837 increased, as it was but natural they should. The Corp. of Lond. withdrew the allowance it formerly made towards the expense of the Bills. The Co. bowed to decrees it could in no wise control. We have recently visited the old Hall; it is solemn as of yore, and even more silent; but it is not deserted. The printing press is indeed broken up; the printer has long since closed up his last "forme"; but the Master and Wardens (whose courteous reception and frugal hospitality we have to acknowledge) now devote their limited income to the good work of charity; to relieving the poor of that useful fraternity of whom the Co. was orig. composed, and but for whose early labours life ins. might have remained, as for centuries it was, a subject of speculative uncertainty. The B. of Mort. forms the base on which the science of life contingencies has been reared; and on the Co. of Parish Clerks, for several centuries, rested the responsibility of furnishing that Bill.

[It has prob. happened that some of the compilations spoken of in this art. are not strictly B. of MORT., but rather come under the designation of PARISH REGIS. or MORT. OBS. The indistinctness of the early writers on this point we find extremely confusing. Under DEATHS, CAUSES OF, other special forms of Bills will be given. Under MORT. OBSERVATIONS, other special details will be noted, as also under PAROCHIAL REGIS. ; while under PLAGUES will be found special reference to the Bills at the period of PLAGUES.]

BILL OF PARCELS.-An account given by the seller to the buyer, containing particulars of the goods bought, and of their price.

BILL OF SALE.-An assignment by deed of personal chattels. The instrument may be absolute or conditional.

BILL OF STORE.-A licence granted at the Custom-house to merchants to carry such stores and provisions as are necessary for a voyage, custom free, authorized by 3 & 4 Wm. IV., c. 52 (1833).

BILL OF SUFFERANCE.-A licence granted to a merchant to suffer him to trade from one English port to another without paying custom.

BINARY ARITHMETIC (counting by twos).-A species of arithmetic invented by the renowned Leibnitz about 1703. It is founded on the shortest and simplest progression, viz. that which terminates with the second cipher. In the binary notation, therefore, only two characters are required, I and o, the zero having the power of multiplying the number it follows by two, as in the common notation it multiplies by ten. The No. one is represented by I; two by 10; three by 11; four by 100; five by 101; six by 110; seven by 111; eight by 1000; nine by 1001; ten by 1010, etc. This method of notation, though it may be applied with advantage in the investigation of some properties in numbers, is inconvenient for common purposes, on account of the great number of characters required, even when the numbers to be expressed are small. -Brande. BINOMIAL ROOT, in Algebra, composed of only two parts connected with the signs plus or minus. The term was first used by Recorda, in his Algebra, pub. about 1550. The celebrated binomial theorem of Newton was first mentioned in 1688 -Hutton. BIOLOGY, from the Greek, signifying an account of life.-Another term for signifying Physiology, or the Doctrine of Life. This term was used by Treviranus, of Bremen, in his work on Physiology, pub. 1802-22. Biology includes zoology, anthropology, and ethnology. Herbert Spencer's Principles of Biology, pub. 1865-67. BIRCH, DR., formerly Sec. and Historian of the Royal So.-He is generally reputed to have been the compiler of a Collection of the Yearly B. of Mort. pub. anonymously in 1759, and containing, in add. to reprints of Graunt's, Petty's, and Corbyn Morris's pubs., "A comparative view of Diseases and Ages," the materials for which are stated to have been supplied by Dr. Heberden; and there was also a T. of Prob. of Life, calculated by James Postlethwayt, Esq. It appears from personal inquiries made by Mr. Milne during the present century of the son of Dr. Heberden, that Dr. Birch cannot have done more than superintend the work through the press-in the case of such a work not a very easy duty, if carefully discharged, as it was. The work indeed is a credit to all concerned. [HEBERDEN.]

bird, Edward, Man. of F. Department of Royal Exchange from 1830 to 1865. He entered the office in 1802, and passed through the various departments, until he reached the position named. He retired in 1865, having been employed during a period of 63 years in the Corp. He died on 3rd Sept., 1871, in his 85th year.

BIRD, JAMES A., was Sec. of Official and General in 1853.

BIRKBECK LIFE ASSU. Co., founded in 1852, with an authorized cap. of £10,000afterwards increased to £100,000-in shares of £1, "to be paid in full, leaving no further liability." The prosp. said: "This asso. has two distinct departments: one comprising all the transactions of a Life Assu. Co.; the other, that of a friendly so., for assu., relief, maintenance or endowment of members and their kindred, and for the frugal and profitable investment of savings.' Again:

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To a vast proportion of us life assu. presents the only means by which we can effectually discharge the duties of brothers, sons, husbands, and fathers. That it is of the utmost importance to all will be

readily admitted by those who have seen the results of improvidence; the sorrows, sufferings, and sins of the unprovided; and the bitterness of the dying hour disturbed by reflections upon the unprotected condition of those who speedily become widowed or fatherless. . . . . The B. Life Assu. Co. is, by its peculiar economy and organization, expressly adapted to become the certain and safe resource of all such struggling self-dependent men as will subject themselves to a small present payment, in order that they and their families may in any event be secured against destitution and degradation; and is particularly applicable to the circumstances of members of the Civil Service, who, in the majority of cases, are unable to make provision for their families except by ins.

The following were among the special features of the Co.: "No forfeiture in case of disability to continue payment after 3 years' prems. have been paid." "Policies are payable immediately on proof of the death of the insured." "The age and insurable interest of the assurer are admitted on every pol.” “Pol. may be trans. by indorsement," etc. Finally:

The mechanics' institutes and literary institutions spread over the Brit, dominions afford between 600 and 700 local centres whence the Birkbeck L. Assu. Co. is enabled to diffuse the advantages of the most notable device of our time for improving the tenure of human existence. It is therefore thought that this inst. may appropriately bear the name of the great public benefactor who laboured most successfully to improve the people by creating and gratifying the nobler feelings and capacities of our


Among the trustees of the Co. was William Makepeace Thackeray; while at one period Douglas Jerrold was the Chairman, and Blanchard Jerrold the Sec. Mr. Thomas Walker, B. A., was the Act.

By the year 1854 the Co. had acquired a very fair bus. connexion, chiefly of the industrial class. It issued in that year pol. ins. £86,724 3s. 9d., and it paid a div. of 5 p.c. In 1857 the bus. was trans, to the Home Counties Life; and in the same year the joint bus. was trans. to the Whittington.

BIRKMYRE, W. F., the late, was trained in the office of the North British under Mr. Chisholm. In 1861 he was appointed Man. of the L. department of the Lond. branch of that Co. In 1863 he was appointed Act. and Man. of the City of Glasgow L. He died at an early age in 1864. Mr. Birkmyre was an American by birth. He held diplomas from the Inst. of Act. and from the Faculty of Act. He was employed to make the calculations under which the Hartley Colliery Fund was finally distributed. BIRMINGHAM.-This town, which is near the centre of England, and may be said to be the very centre of the metal trade of Gt. Brit., has no very remarkable ins. hist. Several respectable ins. offices have been founded here, and many of the leading offices have branches. There is an efficient fire brigade, consisting of engines supplied by various ins. offices-the Norwich Union engine is under very efficient management. In the 9th report of Reg.-Gen. (1849) will be found some remarkable statistics regarding fluctuations in the number of marriages, consequent upon the depression or advancement of trade. In 1700 Birmingham consisted of 2504 houses, with a pop. of 15,032. The pop. in 1871 was 344,980. The death-rate p. 1000 of the pop. for the last 5 years has been as follows: 1867, 256; 1868, 259; 1869, 23'1; 1870, 230; 1871, 24'9.

In 1857 Mr. Thomas Green, M. R.C.S., read before the Social Science Congress, a paper: The Mort. of Birmingham Compared with that of Lond. and Seven other Towns. The tables extended over a period of 18 years. Birmingham, during that period, contrasted favourably in point of health with Liverpool, Manchester, and Wolverhampton ; but unfavourably with many other places, including Lond. The author says hereon:

It appears that during the last 7 years there have been in Birmingham 3444 deaths-being an ann. average of 492 more than there would have been if the death-rate had been the same as that of Lond. for the same period.

The death-rate of Birmingham during the preceding 7 years, in relation to some of the adjacent towns, had been as follows:





26'79 per 1000

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26.76 per 1000 25.69

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In 1865 Mr. W. L. Sargant read before the Brit. Asso. a paper: On the Vital Statistics of Birmingham and Seven other Towns. An abstract of the paper is given in the Trans. of the Asso. for that year. We shall speak of the paper under V. STATISTICS. BIRMINGHAM ALLIANCE FIRE INS. CO., LIM., founded in Birmingham in 1864, with an authorized cap. of £500,000, in 20,000 shares of £25. The Co. was promoted under the auspices of the Birmingham Financial Co., and at once took a respectable position. In 1864 its duty return amounted to £657 9s. 2d. in 1865 it reached £1506; by 1868 it had reached 1906 11s. 2d. In 1867 the Co. took the name of the Birmingham Fire Ins. Co.; and in 1870 its bus. was united with that of the Lancashire. BIRMINGHAM ALLIANCE LIFE INS. CO., LIM., founded in Birmingham in 1865, with an authorized cap. of £500,000, in 20,000 shares of £25. The Co. was founded upon the basis of the bus. of the Birmingham and Midland Life, estab. 1862; but branches for accident and fidelity guar. were added. The Co. made steady progress. In 1867 it trans. the accident portion of its bus. to the Accident Co. (No. 1), and about the same period its guar. bus. to the European. In 1870 the name of the Co. was changed to Lond. and Birmingham Assu. Co., Lim., where its hist. will be continued. Barclay Bannerman was Gen. Man, and Sec. of the Co.

Mr. J.

BIRMINGHAM DISTRICT FIRE INS. Co., founded in Birmingham in 1834; and in 1851 it took the name of the District Fire, under which title we shall speak of it more at large. [DISTRICT FIRE INS. Co.]

BIRMINGHAM FIRE INS. CO., LIM.-See BIRMINGHAM ALLIANCE FIRE INS. Co. BIRMINGHAM FIRE OFFICE Co., founded at Birmingham in 1805, with a cap. of £300,000, in 1200 shares of £250 each. In 1810 it obtained a special Act of Parl., 50 Geo. III. c. xc., An Act to enable the Birmingham Fire Office Co. to sue in the name of their Sec. The Act was not to incorp. the Co. In 1824 the Co. collected in fire duty £5161; in 1834, £7042; 1844, £10,196; 1854, £14,233; 1864, £14,992.

The Co. was one of great respectability. In 1867 its bus. was trans. to the Lancashire. BIRMINGHAM and General.-This Co. was projected in Birmingham in 1854, and went through all the stages up to complete regis., after which we lose sight of it. BIRMINGHAM LIFE ASSU. AND ANNU. OFFICE, founded at Birmingham in 1810, and worked, we believe, in connexion with the Birmingham Fire Office, founded in 1805. In 1810 the Co. obtained a special Act, 50 Geo. III. c. lxxxix., An Act to Enable the Birmingham Life Assu. and Annu. Office to Sue in the Name of their Sec., and to inrol Annu. The Act was not to extend to incorp. the Co.

The bus. of the Co. was small; and in 1826 the Co. ceased to carry on the same. Its pol. were trans. to Provident Life, before any material loss had occurred. The Co. paid the Provident a cash consideration for taking over the risks.

BIRMINGHAM AND LOND. Assu. Asso.-This Co. was promoted in 1853 by Mr. William Sweeney, Con. Act. We believe the title was afterwards changed to London and Birmingham. The project did not go forward.

BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLAND COUNTIES INS. Co.-An Ins. Co. under this title was projected in 1850 by Mr. E. Oliver, of 6, Temple Row, Birmingham, solicitor, and 6 others, and was completely regis. ; but we hear no more of it.

BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLAND LIFE INS. Co., founded in Birmingham in 1862, with an authorized cap. of £100,000 in 20,000 shares of £5 each, £1 paid. In 1865 the Co. merged into the Birmingham Alliance Life. Mr. J. B. Bannerman was Act. and Sec. of the Co.

BIRT, S., pub. in 1737: Essay to Ascertain the Value of Leases, etc.

BIRTH.-The act of coming into life.

BIRTHS. Many problems regarding births come before actuaries; many more will arise when the next phase of life ins.—that of making a complete provision for prospective families at the time of marriage-shall develope itself. The exact knowledge required by the office before embarking on such an enterprise is accumulating. These increasing facts in the mean time are useful in that not unfrequent branch of business-Ins. against Issue.

It was in 1661 that Graunt, in his Natural and Political Observations, etc., made his famous observation, "that the more sickly the years are, the less fecund or fruitful of children they also be," which (he continued) "will appear if the number of children born in the said sickly years be less than that of the years both next preceding and next following; all which upon view of the tables will be found true, except in a very few cases, where sometimes the precedent and sometimes the subsequent years vary a little, but never both together. Moreover, for the confirmation of this truth, we present you the year 1660, when the burials were fewer than in either of the two next precedent years by 2000, and fewer than in the subsequent by above 4000. And withal, the number of christenings in the said year 1660 was far greater than in any of the three years next aforegoing."

He (Graunt) made many most interesting and sagacious obs. For instance, he was the first to discover that there were more males than females born; but he does not appear to have surmised that female life was of longer duration than male life, and that from this cause there were always more females than males living; indeed, he was led to an entirely opposite conclusion. But his remarks are full of originality, and always suggestive. He says:

The next obs. is that there be more males than females. 1. There have been buried from the year 1628 to the year 1662 exclusive, 209,436 males, and but 190,474 females. But it will be objected that in Lond. it may be indeed so, though otherwise elsewhere, because Lond. is the great stage and shop of business, wherein the masculine sex bears the greatest part. But we answer that there have been also christened within the same time 139,782 males, and but 130,866 females, and that the country accounts are consonant enough to those of Lond. upon this matter. 2. What the causes hereof are we shall not trouble ourselves to conjecture, as in other cases, only we shall desire that travellers would inquire whether it be the same in other countries.

He follows up the subject:

We have hitherto said that there are more males than females; we say next, that the one exceeds the other by about a thirteenth part. So that although more men die violent deaths than women, that is, more are slain in wars, killed by mischance, drowned at sea, and die by the hand of justice; moreover, more men go to colonies, and travel into foreign parts than women; and lastly, more remain unmarried than of women, as Fellows of Colleges, apprentices above 18, etc., yet the said thirteenth part difference bringeth the business but to such a pass that every woman may have a husband, without the allowance of polygamy. Moreover, although a man may be prolific 40 years, and a woman but 25, which makes the males to be as 560 to 325 females, yet the causes above named, and the later marriage of men, reduce all to an equality.

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