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As the hist. of this So. is but too illustrative of that of many other sos. of that period, we add the following details concerning it :

The articles provided for payment of ann. subs., etc., that a member who continued a year in arrear should forfeit the money paid; lose all claim on the fund; and cease to be a member of the So.: that no member should become entitled to any efficient benefit from the So. until he had been a member seven years; had completed his seven years subs.; and had attained the age of 60 years. The art. further provided for the appointment of a board of directors, with power to call extraordinary general meetings, as they should see occasion; providing further, that any twelve or more members should have power to convene an extraordinary general meeting in the manner specified.

The art. then, pointing out the mode in which the fund arising from the subs. and fines should accumulate during seven years, directed that at the end of seven years the clear cap. should be valued and ascertained; and the subsequent subs. and ann. produce thereof should be applied in discharge of the current expenses and annuities due or to become due; and that every subs. who should have been a member seven years, and should then have attained the age of 60 years, should be entitled to a clear annu. of £60 for life; and the widow of every such annuitant to an annuity of £30, or in certain cases of £60 for her life, if she continued a widow. In case of several annu. falling due about the same time, some might be deferred for a period not exceeding three months.

If at the end of seven years the funds and income therefrom were insufficient to meet annuities and other outgoings, subs. might be raised to members and annuitants (with exception in favour of any annuitants who had become blind).

On 31st July, 1806, a resolution was adopted by the directors on the report of a committee, to the effect that the So. could no longer exist, and recommending that it be dissolved, and every member be paid his principal and int. Some annuitants appealed, on the ground that if the funds and income were insufficient for the purposes of the So., the subs. must be raised and funds provided. The directors answered that the orig. tables of the So. were founded in error and could not support the promised annuities. Only 20 out of 122 members present at the meeting had objected to dissolution of So. The directors acted upon the opinion of Mr. W. Morgan and Mr. Fairman (author of a work on the Public Funds).

After a good deal of litigation, the Court of Chancery ultimately directed inquiries as follows: 1. To ascertain the state of the So., defect of plan, etc.; 2. To provide a remedy, viz., by add. subs. adequate to the objects; by paying the arrears, and providing for the present and future annuities.

It seems clear that the intention of the majority of the members was, at the end of the seven years, to dissolve the So. and obtain repayment of their money; and in that way to defeat the rights of those who had become entitled to their annu. This proceeding the Court properly frustrated.

AMICUS CURIE (Lat. friend to the Court), a stander by, who informs the Court when doubtful or mistaken of any fact or decided case.

AMITY LIFE. This Co. was projected in 1853 by two solicitors, who did not proceed with the enterprise in the spirit indicated in its title, and so the Co. came to grief. AMSTERDAM.-We propose to note briefly the ins. incidents connected with this, as with other continental cities. It must not be understood that we purpose to attempt a complete hist. of the progress of ins. in them. It may rather be considered that we mention (as a rule) such incidents as arise out of, elucidate, or tend to complete the hist. of ins. in our own country.

We shall pursue the chronological arrangement, mentioning any very special incidents under a separate heading. Thus an important Marine ordin. was promulgated from here in 1598. This will be spoken of in conjunction with later ordin. under AMSTERDAM, INS. ORDIN.; and much light will be thrown upon the various branches of the ins. practised in Northern Europe at an early date.

Several important improvements made in fire-engines have originated in this city. The two Dutchmen, Van der Heide, who were inspectors of the apparatus for extinguishing fires here, invented about the year 1672 hose for fire-engines, which up to that time had been unknown. They used leather for its manufacture. The introduction of hose led naturally to many improvements in fire-engines, in which these same men were prominent. They adapted their engines to the use of suction hose, which in many respects was even of more importance than the use of hose in the ejection of the water; although the last, by enabling the engines to be stood in positions of safety, was of very great practical advantage. [FIRE-ENGINES, Hist. of.]

Beckmann (Hist. of Inventions) relates how at the fire of the Stadthouse, in 1652, the old engines then in use were of very little service. The city lost by ten conflagrations, while the old apparatus was in use, 1,024,130 florins; but in the following five years, after the introduction of the new engines, the loss occasioned by forty fires was only 18,355 florins.

These new engines were made with the improvements of the Van der Heides, who had in 1677, five years after they had first tried experiments, obtained an exclusive privilege to make these engines for a period of 25 years. In 1682, their engines being sufficiently distributed throughout the city, the old ones were laid aside.

In 1695 there were 60 of these engines in the city, the nearest six of which were to attend each fire. In the course of a few years they were common in all the towns of the Netherlands.

The following is an authentic outline of the regulations in force in 1715, for the safety of the city in cases of fire. They were communicated for the information of residents in Lond., after a serious fire in the last-named city about that date.

1. The law positively forbids all crowding to the place; nobody that is not a neighbouring inhabitant dares enter the street where a fire is broke out, for he would immediately be clapt in jail.

2. A sufficient number of men are listed, who are obliged to serve at extinguishing fires (the porters,

for example); these are under the most exact regulation and discipline. They are disposed into classes, and each class is governed by a master, who is authorized by the magistrate. The masters are settled inhabitants at different parts of the city, and have each a list of the names and habitations of the men that are under him. The masters are bound to appear at the first notice of a fire, and the men upon the same notice are bound to attend upon their masters. Every man possesses a brass ticket, which he brings with him and delivers to his master, which is a token of his appearance, and entitles him to a reward of half-a-crown or more, according to the service he has performed. He that does not appear, or he that departs without leave of the master, is fined or otherwise punished; and disobedience or neglect is severely punished. And in short, the men are under the same discipline as soldiers, and like soldiers too are exercised, and taught how to work an engine, and to do all other the services that are necessary in suppressing fires. All these men wear painted hats; that is, thick felts painted all over with red, blue, green, yellow, etc., to distinguish the class they are of.

3. Engines are placed in all parts of the town locked up in little houses made for them; the keys whereof are kept by the master, who is obliged to take care to keep the engines in good order. The buckets are hung up in the citizens' houses in convenient number and at convenient distances, and at every such house the picture of a bucket is set upon the wall. And long poles with large hooks to them, ladders, and ropes, and other necessaries, are kept in the churches to be made use of as occasion offers.

4. To encourage alacrity, a reward of £10 is given to the men that bring in the first engine, £5 to the second, and half that sum to the third. And lastly, the magistrates afford all possible assistance in supporting the authority of the masters of the firemen. By these methods we are protected from the rage of fire; and why the same methods should not preserve you too, I cannot see. Thus much I am sure of, that by order and discipline the greatest works may be performed; but from confusion and irregularity no good effects can arise.-Amst. Jan. 31, 1715.

The mania for new projects, especially of Ins. Cos., which had been so prevalent in England during 1720, and for several years preceding, extended itself to Holland. We find from a cotemporary authority, under date Amsterdam, 26th July, 1720, the following: We are a little alarm'd at the daily multiplication of new projects among us. We are now beginning one here of a nature very particular, and its circumstances surprising. The subs. is to be extremely great; but as nothing is paid down at first but half a florin, it is not to be doubted but that the subs. will be quickly fill'd, tho' it be for no less than 100 millions. The contriver or undertaker of this is said to be an Englishman; the gentlemen of that nation being, it seems, at present more fam'd for projecting than any other. We do not, however, know what measures they intend to take for the carrying on a design of this magnitude till they make known their scheme; but it is to be call'd (as they all are) a Co. of Ins.

The bill of mort. for Amsterdam shows the deaths for the nine years 1728 to 1736, both inclusive, to have been as follows:

Years. 1728 1729 1730 1731 1732 1733 1734 1735 1736.
Numbers. 11,164 9,618 8,912 8,383 7,332 10,691 7,764 6,533 9,206.

Average, 8,844.

The number of burials in this city in 1740 was 10,056 persons, being 2,500 more than in the preceding year. The ships which came into Amsterdam in the same year were 1,645, being 168 fewer than in 1738. In 1742 there arrived 1,591 ships. In this same year (1742) Kerseboom pub. in this city a fol. vol. containing a mort. table deduced from the registers of annuitants in Holland and West Friesland. [KERSEBOOM'S TABLE OF MORT.] A So. was founded in Amsterdam about 1765 for granting annu. on survivorship. Thus, if a life aged 20 desired to secure an annu. provided it survived another person aged 60, this So. promised for the ann. payment of 110 florins the following benefits: If the oldest life failed in the first year after admission, an annu. of 100 florins; if in the 2nd year, 200; if in the 3rd year, 300; if in the 4th year, 400; if in the 5th, or any subsequent year, 500 florins. This So. opened an agency in Lond., and hence the attention of Dr. Price was drawn to it. In the first edition of his Obs. on Reversionary Payments (1771), after reviewing the scheme of this So., he says:

It is, therefore, evident that the scheme of this So. is in this instance grossly defective. There are other instances in which it is even more defective; and the whole of it, like the schemes of most of the Lond. Sos., appears to have been contrived by persons who had no principles to go upon. And yet it has been much encouraged. Many have entered themselves into it from different parts of Europe; and the printed plan acquaints us, that it is now in possession of an ann. income of 200,000 florins. What disappointment then must it in time produce? Mr. Cadell can procure from his correspondents in Holland any information for those who may want to know more of this So. But indeed I should be sorry to find it much enquired after in Lond.


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In his 4th ed., 1783, Dr. Price says: "This So. was so wretched a deception that it was impossible it should long stand its ground; and I am told it now exists no more.' Beawes, an English writer on M. Ins. matters in the middle of the last century, says: It is generally believed, and by many affirmed, that more ins. are made at Amsterdam than with us, or indeed in any other port in the world; their extensive commerce by sea, and the extraordinary number of vessels continually sailing from thence, naturally occasions many to follow the practice of ins.; but what has yet augmented this business and multiplied the policies of ins. almost to infinity, has been that honour and integrity with which their underwriters were formerly characterized, as their policies were then only subscribed by men of large fortunes.

It is certain that the heavy duties on M. Ins. inflicted in Gt. Brit. did for a time drive much of the business into Holland. [MARINE INS., HIST. OF.]

The pop. of this city has not shown the steady progress incident to many cities:
In 1622, on the authority of Struyck, it was

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,, 1753, on the same authority after investigation 200,000.

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1777, on the authority of Quetelet

1787, on the authority of Lobatto

1826, on the same authority

1830, on the authority of Quetelet

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These are mostly estimates based upon calculations of the number of deaths at those periods. For half a century or more there appears to have been a steady decrease.— Milne, Ency. Brit.

In 1830 Herr Lobatto pub. a work on Life Ins. containing a table of mort. for the city of Amsterdam. The deaths in the city in the earlier part of the present century were said to be I in 22 of the pop.

In every serious case of fire now, the police and military are in attendance, to act in conjunction with the chief fire-master.

AMSTERDAM, INS. ORDINANCES OF.-The first ordin. relating to affairs of Ins. in this city was promulgated in 1598. This was very soon after the city began to take a position of importance, and while the Netherlands were yet in subjugation to Spain. We refer to this fact to account for certain resemblances between this early ordin. and the Consolato del Mare. Subsequent ordinances were promulgated in 1673, 1744, 1756, and 1776, respectively. These ordin. are called by nearly all writers Marine Ordin.: no doubt because, in the main, they were designed for the regulation of Marine Ins; but this was not to the exclusion of other branches of ins.: hence we prefer to call this and the other similar ordinances we shall have to deal with in these pages-many of them of much earlier date than the present-"Ins. Ordinances." The parts of the ordin. of 1598 relating to other branches of ins. than marine will be noticed more in detail under their appropriate heads. The following is a brief summary of its provisions as to Marine Ins., which were very ample, and implied long familiarity with the practice :

Ins. to be 10 p.c. under value of goods shipped. If over 2000 livres, all beyond that may be covered, but one-tenth of the 2000 to be always at risk of insured. Ship's name, captain's name, name of loading port and destination, to be inserted in pol., etc. If in either port of destination or port from which vessel sailed no news be heard of ship or merchandize for one year and one day from date of ins.-if destined for places in Europe and Barbary-goods to be held for lost, and claims to be paid in three months. As to other places more remote, the time to be observed, two years. Ins. for Europe and Barbary made three months after ship sailed, and for more remote places, six months after, to be null and void, unless notice be properly given to insurer [of the date of sailing?]. Captain not to enter into any other port or change the voyage, only according to pol., on penalty of nullity, unless required by necessity. Then follow provisions as to detention of ships by rulers of foreign countries, and what is to be done in cases of undue detention and consequent damage of cargo, etc. Ins. on ship artillery or munitions of war not to exceed two-thirds value. No ins. whatever to be made on freight or equipage, nor on powder, bullets, victuals and the like which are consumed in any way. Captain or crew not to ins. wages or effects, except merchandize, in case they have any beyond what they receive for their wages. An action in average ought to be entered within 1 years, if the average occurred within limits of Europe or Barbary, and three years if beyond said limits, from the time the ships have been entirely unladen. In case of loss, claims arising in any other manner, actions to be entered within similar terms-time to commence from epoch when accident happened.

As to merchandize going or coming by land or rivers, it is to be regulated in the way the merchants find best in contracting. The proprietor himself, however, must run the risk of one-tenth of the value. Carriers not to do ins., nor to ins. their carriages and horses, except for half their value, and their wages not at all. Those who ins. on things liable to corruption, or on munitions of war, or silver, coined or not, to have the same mentioned in pol., otherwise ins. null.

The parties contracting ins, to pass them in presence of judges, notaries, or other public persons either by proper and particular pol. schedules, signatures, or obligations, signed by the persons bound, or by witnesses worthy of faith, in the way the parties think proper. All pols. to be made out conformable to this ordin. Ins. might be made upon "good or bad news," etc. No ins, henceforward to be made on the life of persons, nor on any wager of voyage, and similar inventions. If made to be null. [LIFE INS., HIST. OF.]

The Ordin. of 1673 presented no new feature, and therefore we need not dwell upon it. We thus reach that of 1744, which is called, Ordin. of Ins. and Averages of the City of Amsterdam, for the year 1744, and which commences as follows:

Whereas the worshipful gentlemen of the judicature of the city of Amsterdam have experienced that since the pub. of the statutes or ordin. of ins. and averages, and the amplifications thereof, many alterations have from time to time happened in trade; whence sundry matters and articles require to be altered, explained, or amended: therefore the said gentlemen, after advice taken concerning trade, ins. and averages, and on the information of many eminent merchants and underwriters, have thought proper, by virtue of the privileges of this city, and of the letters of grant, approbation, and confirmation granted ex abundanti by their high mightinesses to the said city on the 17th July, 1612, to confirm, enlarge, and explain the aforesaid ordin. and the amplifications thereof; and further, to ordain, enact, and institute, as by these presents is ordained, enacted, and instituted, that in matters of ins. and averages henceforth shall be observed and regarded what here follows.

Then commences "Article the first," which reads:

It is ordered that all stipulations or conditions inserted in any pols. of assu. which are contrary to this ordin. shall be deemed void, and of no value, notwithstanding the contracting parties shall renounce all benefit from this ordinance.

As we cannot follow in detail, or in any useful form, the entire 61st sec. of this ordin., we must content ourselves with noticing a few of its main provisions; and as we propose to place before our readers the various forms of policies issued and used in conformity with this ordin., we think its scope and purport will be made clear without any waste of space.

The first remarkable provision is in Art. 8, which provides that underwriters upon the hull of a ship built of FIR-WOOD shall only be liable to pay half the loss, unless the fact of such wood being employed is named in the policy. We next reach the subject of TRANSPORT INS.-a branch of ins. bus. almost unknown in this little island of ours,

but much practised on the continent of Europe, and in the U. S., where the distances traversed are very considerable. Here is the sec. :

IX. Ins. on goods, wares, and merchandizes, moneys, gold, silver, jewels, pearls, and other precious stones, going or coming by land, or over fresh waters (whereof hereafter, under No. V. a form of pol. is found), may be regulated by the parties in manner as they amongst them can agree, provided it be not contrary to this ordinance. [TRANSPORT INS.]



or whom else it may concern,


The form of pol. here referred to is the following: TRANSPORT INS. POLICY.-We the underwritten do ins. you, wholly or partly, friend or foe, none excepted, viz., each for the sum by us here underwritten, from already sent or to be sent, with the riding post, or embaled, or packed in such packet, case, sack, or box, marked and numbered as follows: already laden, or yet to be laden, in the ship navigating from embaled or packed in such pack, case, or cask, marked and numbered as follows: whereof we by these take the risk for our account, to run from the hour and day that the said ins, goods shall be delivered and brought to the post office, waggon, ship, or other places where it is usual to receive the said goods for the insured design, and that be made to appear to us; and shall continue till what is insured shall be as above arrived at and freely and peaceably, without any loss or damage, delivered in the possession of the insured, his factor, or to whom it is consigned. And the ins, shall need to exhibit no further nor other proof of property or value than only this bare pol., with which we, in case of average, or damage, entirely shall be satisfied, although the wares ins, might be worth, or had cost less or more, as the same were by agreement, and to the satisfaction of both sides, particularly taxed and valued at the sum of which, in case of any accident, shall serve as a rule; and in all events or accidents, such other roads, vehicles, and vessels may be used and employed to forward the voyage, as, according to circumstances of time, by the ins. or any others, shall be judged proper, for the greater benefit and security of the goods ins. authorizing them thereto specially by these presents; as also to lend a hand to the saving and benefiting of the said goods, to sell them and to distribute the moneys in case of necessity without asking our consent; we shall also pay the charges incurred on that account, moreover the damage fallen thereon, whether anything be saved or not; and belief shall be given to the account of charges on the oath of him who shall have taken the same, without alleging anything against it; the said risk consisting of all the perils by water, and by land, tempests, fire and wind, arrests by friends and enemies, detentions by kings, queens, princes, fords, and republics, letters of mart and contramart, villanies, and negligence of the postillions, servants of the office, writers, sailors, waggoners, innkeepers, billets of lodging, parties, robbers and thieves, and all other perils and adventures, which anyways might befall the said goods, heard of and unheard of, usual and unusual, none excepted; putting us, in all such cases, in the place of the ins., to indemnify him for all loss and damage, which he shall have suffered, each in proportion to his sum underwritten, the first as well as the last insurer, to pay within three months after we shall have received the notice of the loss or damage to the insured, or to his attorney, without any deduction; provided in ready cash be paid us for the consideration of this ins. per hundred, under obligation and submission of our persons and goods present and to come; renouncing as persons of honour all cavils and exceptions contrary to these presents: reciprocally submitting all differences which might arise concerning the damages and prems. to the decision of the Chamber of Ins. and averages of this city; choosing in case of our dwelling out of the jurisdiction of the same, for Domicilium citandi et executandi, the house of the sec. of the said Chamber for the time being. Done at Amsterdam, etc.

It was under this form of pol. that the large consignments of diamonds to and from England, and to and from other parts of the world, all going by the "Mail," were ins. ; and "valued pol." were used, in this case properly enough, because it would be impossible to agree upon any value after actual loss. By valued pol. is meant that a valuation of the actual sum to be paid, in the event of loss, was agreed upon at the time of ins.

Then we arrive at the following somewhat remarkable sections :

XI. It shall also be lawful to make ins. on ships, goods, wares, and merchandizes, which are sunk, spoiled, robbed, taken, or arrested, even after such misfortune has happened, if no knowledge thereof is come to the principal, who causes the same to be ins, at the time of giving of the last order, or to him who gives order for making the ins. or to the correspondent, broker, or others who have procured the said ins. at the time of making it.

XII. But when the ship or goods have been so long sunk, robbed, spoiled, taken, or arrested, that the knowledge thereof could have come to the person who maketh the ins. either by sea or by land, reckoning three miles to two hours, in such the ins. shall be held of no value, except the insured, and also those who procured the ins. for him, declared upon oath that they were ignorant of the damage and loss at the making of the ins. [GOOD OR BAD NEWS.]


XIII. The masters, pilots, sailors, warlike people, and all others who navigate the said ships, shall not cause their hire or wages to be ins., but their ransom from pirates, and the merchandizes they take along with them they may ins. No ins. shall be made on wagers of voyages, and other such like inventions; and no judgment shall be given on them [by the Chamber of Ins.]

XIV. In ins. on the bodies of masters, mariners, and passengers, against infidels and other pirates, the underwriters shall be obliged to pay the sum they have underwritten, as soon as the bills of exchange drawn for the payment of the ransom are accepted; or sooner if it appears that the person ransomed has arrived on Christian ground: but with this proviso, that the full sum ins. for the ransom be laid out, and in case the person was ransomed for less, that the overplus be returned. [CAPTIVITY, INS. AGAINST.]

The form of policy appended to the ordinance for the last-named class of insurance is as follows:

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RANSOM ON CAPTIVITY POLICY.-We, the underwritten, do ins. you, or whom it else may concern, viz., each for the sum by us here underwritten, from to touch everywhere, and all round, and at all places and lands, during the whole voyage, to sail and resail forwards and backwards, also to lie, lade, and relade, at the master's and factor's pleasure, either with or without the knowledge of the insured, or factor, on the body of the person of navigating as on the ship (which God preserve) called whereof the master is And if the said ship happen to be lost, or shall not proceed on the voyage, then we shall continue to run the risk on such other ship or



ships as the said. shall be embarked on, to accomplish the aforesaid voyage, either by water or
by land; and we shall run the risk of being taken by any nation whatsoever, either Turkish, Moorish,
Barbarian, or other infidel pirates, by which the said
may be taken, made captive, carried
away, or ransomed: that in case this happen we will pay each punctually our full underwritten sum
for his redemption, or ransom-money, with the further charges accrued thereon, to the insured or the
bearer of these presents, without any deduction, as soon as advice is come here, and it shall appear to
us that he is redeemed, or that the money is drawn, and the bills of exchange shall be accepted; or
sooner in case it shall appear that the redeemed person is arrived on Christian ground; provided
nevertheless that what the ransom might have cost less shall be returned to the insurers; so that the
money of our underwriting shall only serve for his ransom and redemption, and all dependencies of the
same, and no further. For the accomplishing of what is aforesaid, we bind our persons and goods
present and to come; reciprocally submitting all differences as well concerning damages as premiums
to the decision of the Chamber of Ins. and averages of this city; choosing in case of our dwelling out
of the jurisdiction of the same for Domicilium citandi et executandi, the habitation of the sec. of the
said Chamber for the time being: all in good faith, without fraud or deceit; and we have received for
the premium... Done at Amsterdam, etc.

This branch of Ins. we shall treat of at large under CAPTIVITY INS.
Regarding Fire Ins. the ordin. is very brief :

XVIII. Ins. against fire on rope-yards, sugar-houses, still-houses, mills and other edifices, effects, and utensils thereto belonging, as well in this country as abroad; as also on houses and warehouses, shall be permitted to be made by policy for one year. [FIRE INS. HIST. OF.]

The following is the form of pol. provided under this sec. :

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FIRE POLICY.-We, the underwritten, do ins. you, or whom else it may concern, wholly or partly, friend or foe, viz., each for the sum here by us underwritten, on the structure, building, etc., called the standing and situated with the house and utensils, moreover the household furniture, goods, wares and merchandizes of whatsoever quality or nature they may be, none excepted, as already are in, or on the aforesaid or during the whole space of this ins. shall be brought therein (and the insured shall be at liberty at any time to house so many goods, and to deliver them out again as he shall please), against fire and all danger of fire; moreover against all damage which on account of fire may happen either by tempest, fire, wind, own fire, negligence and fault of own servants, or of neighbours, whether those nearest, or further off; all external accidents and misfortunes, thought of and not thought of, in what manner soever the damage by fire might happen; for the space of twelve months, commencing with the and ending the... both at twelve of

the clock at noon: valuing specially and voluntarily the said structure, building, house, etc., with all its utensils and household furniture at the sum of and the goods, wares, and merchandizes at the sum of and it shall not prejudice whether all


and thus together at the sum of

this be worth, or has cost, more or less. And the insured, or whom else it may concern, in case of damage or hurt, shall need to give no proof nor account of the value, as we know it is impossible to be done; but the producing this pol. shall suffice. And in case it should happen that the said structure, building, house, utensils and household furniture, and the goods, wares, and merchandizes, the whole, or part, are burnt or suffer damage on that account, we do hereby promise punctually to pay and satisfy without any exception, within the space of three months after the fire shall have happened, due notice having been given to us, each his whole sum underwritten, or else in proportion to the damages suffered, without deduction. Provided that in case of a partial loss all that shall be found to be saved and preserved shall be deducted, after the deduction of the charges paid for the saving and preserving; and concerning which the insured shall be believed on his oath, without our alleging anything against it, provided there be paid to us in ready cash, for the consideration of this ins. per hundred, under obligation and submission of our persons and goods present and to come, renouncing as persons of honour all cavils and exceptions contrary to these presents; reciprocally submitting all differences as well concerning the damages as premiums to the decision of the Chamber of Ins. and averages in this city; and choosing in case of our dwelling without the jurisdiction of the said city, for Domicilium citandi et executandi, the habitation of the sec. of the said Chamber for the time being. Done at Amsterdam, etc.

Under such a policy now-a-days they would be done at Amsterdam, etc.! Anything better calculated to promote fraud it would be impossible to conceive. The policy is clearly founded upon the principle of "valued policies," well understood in Marine Ins. (although even there often employed for fraudulent purposes), but totally inapplicable to Fire Ins. [VALUED POLICIES.]

Sec. xix. of the ordin. relates to the Ins. of Bottomry Bonds, and would open up, if fully discussed here, many considerations which will develope themselves as we proceed. It will suffice, for the moment, to say, that for centuries the ecclesiastics launched their anathemas against the lending of money for gain: which they designated as the "high crime of usury." The Jews (most prob.) devised a system of loan into which the element of marine risk entered, and lifted the transaction out of the prohibitions of usury: this by means of BOTTOMRY BONDS,—an early form of Marine Ins., which we shall discuss very fully under its proper head. The Hollanders-who have for generations been adepts at every species of financial speculation ever devised by man-finally circumvented the ecclesiastics by adopting the plan of ins. the money advanced on Bottomry. We must now pass on. [BOTTOMRY.]

The following clauses show how completely the bus. of ins. was intended to be brought under the control of the Chamber of Ins. :

LIX. No book-printers, booksellers, or other persons in this city shall be permitted to print or sell policies without stamps, on penalty of 300 gilders.

LX. No insurers or insured shall underwrite, or cause to be underwrote, but on pol. furnished with a proper stamp, and signed by the sec. of the Chamber of Ins., who shall have three stivers for the same; on penalty of 300 gilders, over and above the penalty enacted by the general edict and ordin. concerning the small stamps against the defrauders of the public revenue.

The form of Marine Ins. pol. provided was as follows: MARINE POLICY (SHIP).-We, underwritten, do assure you,. wholly or partly, friend or foe, none excepted, viz., each for the sum here by us underwritten, from

or whom it else may concern,

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