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obs. in connexion with disease. This more especially in his Epidemics, Aphorisms, and Airs, Waters, and Places. In this last work we are told:

Whoever desires properly to investigate the art of medicine must do this: First take into consideration the seasons of the year, and how each is capable of operating [on the system]; for they not only do not resemble each other, but differ widely the one from the other in the changes [they bring about], Then the cold and hot winds [must be noted], especially those that are common to all nations, and then those that are peculiar to any particular district.

When we consider how deficient he was in those appliances which modern science has given to us to facilitate our pursuits, we cannot but acknowledge the consummate wisdom and foresight of one who saw the relation between atmospheric change and disease more than two thousand years ago, and who, in the application of his knowledge, was nearly, if not quite, as advanced as our professors of the present day.-Haviland, 1855.

One of the first modern writers who drew attention to the influence of climate upon health was Graunt, who, in his Natural and Political Observations, 1661, reviewing the causes of death, and the proportions resulting therefrom, says: -"The which proportion doth give a measure of the state and disposition of this climate and air as to health; these acute and epidemical diseases happening suddenly and vehemently, upon the like corruptions and alterations in the air!"

Halley, in his famous paper, An Estimate of the Degrees of the Mort. of Mankind, etc., submitted to the Royal So. in 1693, says:

It may be objected that the different salubrity of places does hinder this proposal from being universal; nor can it be denied. But by the number that die, being 1174 p.a. in 34,000, it does appear that about a 30th part die yearly, as Sir Wm. Petty has computed for Lond., and the number that die in infancy is a good argument that the air is but indifferently salubrious; so that by what I can learn, there cannot perhaps be one better place proposed [than Breslau] for a standard. At least it is desired that in imitation hereof, the curious in other cities would attempt something of the same nature, than which nothing perhaps can be more useful.

In 1742 Dr. John Tennent pub., Physical Inquiries discovering the Mode of Translation in the Constitution of Northern Inhabitants going into Southern Climates, etc.

In 1749 Dr. Thomas Short pub. General Chronological Hist. of the Air, Weather, Seasons, Meteors, etc., in Sundry Places and Different Times; while in the following year, in his New Observations on the B. of Mort., etc., he gave an appendix on the same subject. Short may be regarded as one of the first English writers who entered upon a series of obs. in regard to the climate, and its influence upon human health and longevity.

In 1780 Dr. Alexander Wilson pub. Obs. relative to the Influence of Climate on Vegetable and Animal Bodies.

In 1781 Dr. William Falconer pub. Remarks on the Influence of Climate, Situation, Nature of Food, and Way of Life on the Disposition and Temper, Manners, etc., of Mankind. This hardly comes within the scope of our present inquiry.

Early in the present century the well-known Dr. Casper, of Berlin, wrote on the influence of climate upon health. The following is a synopsis of his obs. 1. In Berlin, while the month of Jan. is the least, Dec. is most favourable to health. 2. The greatest number of deaths occur in spring, and the smallest number in summer. 3. Extremes of temperature are dangerous to life. 4. A high barometrical pressure tends to increase, while a low barometrical pressure tends to decrease, the rate of mort. 5. The influence of atmospheric pressure on human life varies in different seasons. 6. No condition of air is so dangerous to life as dry cold; on the contrary, humid cold has the greatest tendency to support life. 7. Of all the seasons of the year the winter gives rise to the greatest number of cases of inflammatory disease, while in the spring they are most fatal, especially cases of pneumonia. 8. Cold winters and warm springs, summer, and autumns increase the danger and fatality attendant on inflammation attacking the brain and respiratory organs, and vice versa. 9. The maximum of mort. from phthisis occurs in spring; and after this season in winter. The maximum mort. from this disease occurs in autumn and summer, 10. Variations in the state of the atmosphere exert but little influence upon the relative number of deaths from phthisis. 11. Nervous fever is most frequent and fatal in autumn; it is less frequent and fatal in spring. 12. The influence of the weather and seasons upon health varies with the different periods of life. 13. This influence is most marked in the ages of infancy and puberty, but is least marked in the first septennial period of existence. 14. From the 20th year upward the winter is most dangerous, and the summer the most favourable season to life and health; and the older the individual, the more striking is this difference.

In 1801 there was pub. Eight Meteorological Journals of the Years 1793 to 1800, kept in Lond. by William Bent; to which are added Obs. on the Diseases in the City and its Vicinity. Also an Introduction, including Tables from Eight preceding Journals of the Greatest, Least, and Mean Height of the Barometer and Thermometer in every Month of the Years 1785 to 1792.

In 1813 Dr. James Johnson pub. The Influence of Tropical Climates on European Constitutions a work which has passed through many editions. In 1818 the same author pub. Influence of the Atmosphere on the Health of the Human Frame, with Researches on Gout and Rheumatism.

In 1824 Dr. James Wallace pub. Voyage to India, with Instructions for the Preservation of Health in Indian Climates.

Mr. George Farren said (1829), that the duration of human life should vary according to the influences of different climates, and be affected in individual instances by casual circumstances, is no more a subject of wonder than that plants of different soils shall vary in strength and duration, in season and in beauty.

In 1829 Sir James Clark pub. The Influence of Climate in the Prevention and Cure of Chronic Diseases. [2nd. ed. 1830.] About the same time he also pub. The Sanative Influence of Climate. [4th ed. 1846.] The first-named work contains: (1) a brief account of the conditions of the atmosphere of different countries or districts in reference to the effects upon the health of persons inhabiting them; (2) an enumeration of those diseases which are most decidedly benefited by change of climate, and the peculiar situation most suitable to each. It is no part of our present purpose to enter upon such details. We propose only to deal with the subject under its more general aspects. This writer remarks truly that although the power of different climates to produce as well as to alleviate and cure diseases is well estab. as a matter of fact, yet perhaps there is nothing in general science more unsatisfactory than the manner in which we are able to explain this influence; and certainly there is nothing in physic more difficult than to direct successfully its application.

In 1835 Dr. Robley Dunglison pub. in Philadelphia a work, On the Influence of Atmosphere and Locality, Change of Air, Seasons, Food, Sleep, etc., on Human Health, constituting Elements of Hygiène.

In a paper, On the Sickness and Mort. among the Troops in the West Indies, prepared from official documents by Capt. A. M. Tulloch, and read before Statistical So. in 1838 [Statis. Journ. vol. i. p. 129], there is a good deal of useful information regarding the climate of the several West Indian Isles.

Thus :

The climate of Antigua is principally remarkable for a want of moisture; indeed the average fall of rain is not above 45 inches ann.; a very small quantity, considering the rapid evaporation which takes place under a tropical sun. Even dew is but scanty; and the island often suffers from severe droughts. The rainy season is very uncertain. The island of St. Christopher lies about 50 miles north-west of Antigua. The climate, like that of most mountainous countries within the tropics, is subject to great vicissitudes; the vapour drawn up during the day, descending during the afternoon and evening, causes at these periods a considerable reduction of temperature, particularly from Nov. to April. More rain falls than in the adjacent island of Antigua, especially during Oct., Nov., and Dec.; but we possess no exact measurement of the quantity.

In another section of this paper he deals with Jamaica:

In this island almost any variety of climate may be procured. At a residence 4200 ft. above the level of the sea, the range of the thermometer is from 55° to 65°; in the winter it falls even as low as 44. There the vegetation of the tropics disappears, and is supplanted by that of temperate regions. Showers are common in the interior almost throughout the whole year, but they do not fall with the same violence as in the plains, and the quantity of rain appears to be less. The air is exceedingly humid, and subject to dense fogs. An investigation into the extent of mort. at each station shows that all are by no means equally unhealthy; nay, some approach in salubrity of climate to Gt. Brit.

A table is given illustrative of this fact. the Bahamas and Honduras.

There are also some details of the climate of

In An Account of Algeria, or the French Provinces in Africa, drawn from official documents, which appeared in vol. ii. of Statis. Journ., 1839, we find the following:

The climate on the coast varies little from year to year. There are generally three seasonsthe temperate, which lasts from March to June, when the weather is fine and very agreeable in the neighbourhood of Algiers; the hot from July to Nov., when the ground is dried up, the springs fail, and the whole country is scorched by the sun; and lastly, the rainy season, which prevails from Dec. to Feb., but is frequently interrupted by fine days. Fogs are common in the plain, but not in Algiers. The prevalent winds are from the north and north-west, and the windy season is from Nov. to April. The Simoom, here called Khamsin, is often experienced, and is most frequent in the month of Sept. Many other important details are given.

In a letter from Dr. Farr to the Reg.-Gen., pub. in the 2nd R., 1840, is the following: In the diseases regis. in 25 divisions of the kingdom, the influence of cities, occupations, and perhaps climate, may be traced. In investigating the effects of climate, the influences of density, of the ages of the living, of occupation, and of differences of food, must be eliminated. The climate of the Channel is the same as it was at the end of the last century; but the mort. of the crews of vessels in the Channel is prob. not now a third of the mort. at that period. The army reports, drawn up with so much ability by Major Tulloch and Mr. Marshall, exhibit the influence of barracks, as decisively as they do the effects of climate on English soldiers. Climate should always be considered separately, in reference to the indigenous inhabitants and to strangers-the natives either of a similar or of a different climate.

In the Report of a Committee of the Statistical So. of Lond. appointed to collect and Inquire into V. Statis. upon the Sickness and Mort. among the European and Native Troops serving in the Madras Presidency from the Year 1793 to 1838, pub. in the Journ. of the So. 1840 [vol. iii. p. 113], we are told :

As the localities and climate of Moulmein, Penang, Malacca, and Singapore, which, although under the Madras Gov., are entirely separated from the rest of the Presidency, differ very materially from those of Madras, it has been thought proper to separate the returns from those places, extending over a period of 10 years, 1829 to 1838, from those of the Madras Presidency, and to make them the subject of a separate inquiry. It is obvious that no minute account of the climate and local peculiarities of so vast an extent of country can be given until the several stations are separately examined.

In 1842 Dr. S. Forry pub. in N. Y. The Climate of the United States, and its Endemic Influences. This writer declares that "Climate constitutes the aggregate of all the external physical circumstances appertaining to each locality, in its relation to organic nature."

In the Statistical Journal for 1843 [vol. vi. p. 133] there is a paper by Dr. W. A. Guy: An Attempt to Determine the Influence of the Seasons and Weather on Sickness and Mort. The writer says:

The present inquiry was suggested by a striking coincidence obs. in the recently pub. Report of the King's College Hospital for 1842, between the prevalence of sickness in the several seasons and the temperature. This led to an examination of the B. of Mort. for the same year, in which a similar coincidence was observable between the temperature and the number of deaths in the several seasons. A desire to ascertain whether these were mere coincidences, or the general rule of sickness and mort., prompted an examination of the records of sickness and mort. in past years; and the results of this examination are embodied in the present communication.

The inquiry was conducted under two heads :-1. As to the relation subsisting between the seasons and weather, and the amount of sickness and mort. during the year 1842; and 2. A comparison of the results obtained for 1842 with those of former years. After reducing the results of the obs. into tabular form, Dr. Guy remarks:

From the first T. it appeared that besides the coincidence between the temperature and the number of diseases, there was also a coincidence between the dew-point and the amount of sickness. This is at once explained by comparing the temperature and dew-point, which are found to coincide for nine months out of the twelve, and to differ only in those months between which the range of temperature does not exceed three degrees. The one condition of atmosphere, indeed, is closely dependent upon the other; so that the obs. which apply to the one hold good with regard to the other also.

In consequence of this close correspondence between the temperature and the hygrometric state of the air, as indicated by the dew-point, it is obviously possible to attribute the relation which exists between the sickness and those two atmospheric conditions to either of them. It is necessary, therefore, to determine how far the sickness coincides with the hygrometric state of the air. Now the dew-point, taken alone, is not a measure of the quantity of moisture which the air contains; the true measure being the elasticity of vapour at the real atmospheric temperature divided by the elasticity of the dew-point-the quotient expressing the quantity of aqueous vapour contained in the air. There still remains to consider the influence of the seasons and weather on the mort. of the year 1842. From the foregoing considerations, then, it follows that during the year 1842, the atmospheric condition which exercised the most marked influence on sickness and mort. was temperature; and it may be stated generally that the total sickness varied directly, and the mort. tended to vary inversely as the temperature.

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The learned Doctor then extended his inquiries over other years, and, while finding exceptions, considered the foregoing rule estab

In the same vol. of the Statis. Journ., 1843 [vol. vi. p. 240], there is a paper by Sir John Boileau, Bart., Statistics of Nice, in which are many interesting details regarding this now well-known winter resort. "Its climate is supposed to be the mildest on the north coast of the Mediterranean, owing to the gradually increasing lines of hills which shelter it to the north, east, and west, and continue up to the Alps, only opening on the south." In 1843 also Dr. Robert Armstrong pub. The Influence of Climate, and other Agents, on the Human Constitution, with Reference to Disease amongst Seamen.

In an exhaustive paper by Mr. J. T. Danson-Some Particulars of the Commercial Progress of the Colonial Dependencies of the U.K. during the 20 Years 1827-46-read before the Statis. So. in 1849 [vol. xii. p. 349], we find the following regarding the climate of the Australian Colonies:

It would appear, from the experience hitherto had, that the continental colonies have a peculiar climate-two or three years increasing drought, followed by one in which no rain falls, occurring at regular intervals of 10 or 12 years. These droughts are succeeded by heavy rains, and a recurrence of the ordinary course of the seasons. Van Dieman's Land is comparatively little affected by this peculiarity of the Australian climate; and New Zealand, still further removed, seems to be wholly exempt from it. The various effects are already visible in the commerce of the several colonies. Not only is N. S. Wales largely dependent upon foreign supplies of grain food, but the colony has experienced severe commercial embarrassments, traceable mainly to the periodical visitations of drought. With the development of the V. Statis. of these Colonies we shall gain some important deductions from these peculiarities of climate.

In 1849 Dr. Julius Jeffereys pub. Remarks on Climate and Affections of the Throat and Lungs.

In 1851 the late Col. Sykes laid before the Statis. So. a paper, Mort. and chief Diseases of the Troops under the Madras Gov., European and Native, from the Year 1842 to 1846 inclusive, compared with the Mort. and Chief Diseases of 1847 [vol. xiv. p. 109], in which the influence of climate is illustrated in a very remarkable manner. The author says:

That these local climatorial influences are important is manifested by the facts that the per-centage mort. for five years amongst Europeans varies from 2'353 p.c. in the Mysore division, to nearly 6 p.c. in the Ceded Districts and Hyderabad Subsidiary Forces and 6'022 p.c. in the Northern Division; and amongst the native troops from o'808 p.c. in Malabar and Canara, 8'937 p.c. in China.

We have not space to follow up the subject, but the paper is well worthy of careful consideration.

In 1851 Dr. Arthur S. Thomson, M.D., read before the Statis. So. A Statistical Account of Auckland, New Zealand, as it was Observed during the Year 1848 [vol. xiv. p. 227]. Some very instructive details are given regarding the influence of climate.

Dr. Farr, in that able paper on the Influence of Elevation on the Fatality of the Cholera,

read before the Statis. So. in 1852, and of which we have already spoken at some length [CHOLERA], says regarding climate:

Long experience alone can ultimately determine what climates are healthy; and every locality must ultimately be judged by the test of such a calculation as has been applied to the districts of E. and W. But analogy justifies the inference from exp., in some cases brief and imperfect, that in parts of Canada, the U.S., South America, New Zealand, the Isles of the Pacific Ocean, and Southern Africa, the English race retains the energy, which it invariably loses in two or three generations on the low tropical lands of the West India Islands, of the West Coast of Africa, and of Southern Asia, where much of the best blood of England has been sacrificed without estab. permanent settlers, making any evident impression on the native pop., or producing any lasting fruits.

In 1853 Dr. J. R. Hubertz, of Copenhagen, read before the Statis. So. of Lond. a paper, Statistics of Mental Diseases in Denmark according to the Census of 1847 [Fourn. vol. xvi. p. 244]. The writer, under the head of "Climate," says:

Till now, it has been a generally received opinion, grounded on the faith of several writers, that mental derangement was less frequent in the south of Europe than in the north. For Italy and Spain, the very low numbers of o'2 persons in 1000 have been quoted, whilst the censuses in the northern countries have given from 1 to 3 or 4 in 1000. But the modes of life, the education, the civil and political institutions, the religion, the manners, in the Northern and Southern people are so different that we should be quite at a loss to what cause to attribute the enormous difference of the numbers, if we did not take the trouble to examine the statistical facts of the different countries.

This he proceeds to do, eliciting some very interesting facts in his progress, and he finally concludes:

But if the sheltered places facing the south prove unfavourable to the procreation and propagation of the disease, they, perhaps, would be those that should have the greatest influence to make it disappear. If we are right in this supposition, the said places should be preferred for estab, intended for the cure of deranged persons.

In 1853 Dr. D. J. T. Francis pub. Change of Climate as a Remedy in Dyspeptic, Pulmonary, and other Chronic Affections.

In a paper read before the Brit. Asso. Meeting at Glasgow, 1855, by Mr. Robert Clarke, Surgeon, Colonial Med. Service, Short Notes of the Prevailing Diseases of the Colony of Sierra Leone, etc., there occurs the following suggestive passage:

Although Sierra Leone can no longer be justly called "the White Man's Grave," it must not be supposed that the climate has in any degree changed. That the mort. has diminished is unquestionable, but for this several causes may be assigned. The style and comfort of the houses occupied

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by Europeans are improved; they dress in a manner better suited to the vicissitudes of the climate, a greater degree of temperance prevails, and the general use of quinine has considerably shortened and reduced the amount of illness and mort.

This paper is worthy of further consideration than we have space to give to it.

In 1855 Mr. Alfred Haviland, surgeon, pub. Climate, Weather and Disease; being a Sketch of the opinions of the most celebrated ancient and modern writers with regard to the Influence of Climate and Weather in producing Disease. The author says:

In studying climate we study man; for in tracing its effects in all their variety on the human frame and mind, we make ourselves acquainted with his laws, customs, psychical and physical capabilities, vices, virtues, and all that appertains to that protean animal. We find it in one region depressing, and in another elevating his various attributes; here it seems to endue his person with capacity for excessive delight, there it blunts his nerves and reduces his psychical sensibility; in one region it is an element in the cause of slavery, in another does it invigorate man, and stimulate him to stand up for his own freedom, and to obtain redress for others. In an analysis of its power we are struck with the relation that it bears to the diseases and morals of nations: with the former from the earliest periods has it been associated, and the great Hippocrates drew a graphic description of its influence in moulding the latter.


The climatic laws that regulate or seem to influence the features and growth of man in different latitudes, is a subject fraught with interest and difficulty; and it is only when we regard the vastness of the subject that we feel convinced how few our chances are of ever being able to grasp it. From the ephemeral change which takes place in the persons of individuals on account of the diurnal variations of the weather, to the indelible mark estamped upon large families by the permanent climatie influence under which they have lived for a lengthened period, there is a chain of phenomena so long that it is impossible for us to view all its links at once: many are evident, and have long been observed, whilst others prob. will for ever remain hidden, like the subterranean courses of those vast rivers which lose themselves in the trackless desert.

In the Comptes Rendus of the French Academy of Sciences for Feb. 1855, M. Junod has examined the influence of the relative positions of different quarters of great cities on the health and comfort of the inhabitants. He refers to the well-known fact that in nearly all the capitals of Europe, the opulent classes, or those who possess the largest choice in the selection of sites for habitations, always reside towards the western quarters of the cities. This peculiarity of capitals is not of modern growth, but is connected almost with their foundation. The palaces and the dwellings of the affluent seem, as it were, to spontaneously group themselves towards the most agreeable and salubrious districts. This is considered by those who have made the subject a study to be a result of the application of the principles of climatology. (See 1860.)

In 1855 Dr. James Ranold Martin, M.D., pub. The Influence of Tropical Climates on European Constitutions, including Practical Obs. on the Nature and Treatment of the Diseases of Europeans on their return from Tropical Climates.

In the same year Mr. Nicholas Whittey, of Truro, pub. a pamp. Peculiarity of the Climate of the South-west of England.

In a paper read before the Social Science Congress in 1860, by Prof. H. Hennessy, F.R.S., On the Influence of Climate on the Sanitary Conditions of different Quarters of large Towns, the writer, taking up the fact referred to by M. Junod in 1855, of which we have already spoken, says:

Such a law induces us to inquire for its origin among natural causes, and it thus suggests the utility of examining the general conditions of large towns as to climate. These conditions are twofoldfirst, such as the town possesses in common with the country in which it is situated; and secondly, those which are promoted by the physical influence it directly exercises upon the atmosphere by which it is interpenetrated. Here we have nothing to say with reference to the first class of conditions, except in so far as they influence the second. Thus the law of distribution of the dwellings of the affluent is intimately connected with a general peculiarity of the atmosphere in Europe. It depends on the fact that westerly winds are more prevalent than those blowing from other quarters. Great towns are usually surrounded by highly-cultivated, well-drained rural districts: and hence the winds encountering the suburbs from the outside generally bring pure air. The air emerging from the town towards the country must have received more or less of the emanations which are always abundantly given off in large cities. M. Junod ascribes the law to which he called attention, not so much to the direct action of the winds as to the influence of variations of atmospheric pressure by which they are accompanied. From this view I am compelled to dissent. I would ascribe a

more active part to the influence of ascending and descending currents of the atmosphere itself. We cannot pursue the subject. Many suggestions are given possessing great interest. An abstract of the paper is pub. in the Trans. of the Asso., 1860.

In 1862 Dr. R. E. Scoresby-Jackson, M.D., pub. Medical Climatology; or a Topographical and Meteorological Description of the Localities resorted to in Winter and Summer by Invalids of Various Classes, both at Home and Abroad.

In 1863 there was printed in the Trans. of the Royal So. of Edin. [vol. xxiii.] a paper by Dr. R. E. Scoresby-Jackson, M.D., On the Influence of Weather upon Disease and Mort. This is a most exhaustive paper, and will have to be mentioned under other heads, as DISEASES, etc. The author says:

The influence of weather upon disease and mort. has been acknowledged as a potent external force in every age, from that eminently speculative and credulous period when physicians professed to receive their diagnostic as well as their therapeutic inspirations from the stars, down to our own day. And yet there is perhaps no question in the whole cycle of medical sciences which has made slower progress than the one we have now to consider. People believe that the weather affects them. They speak of its influence sometimes commendingly, more frequently with censure, on the most trivial occasions; and beyond a few commonplace ideas, the result of careless observation, or perhaps acquired only traditionally, they seldom seek a closer acquaintance with the subject. Our language teems with medico-meteorological apophthegms, but they are notoriously vague. The words which are most commonly employed to signify the state of the weather at any given time possess a value relative only to the sensations of the individuals uttering. The general and convertible termsbitter, raw, cold, severe, bleak, inclement, or fine and bracing-convey no definite idea of the condition of the weather; nay, it is quite possible that wand the same place, and point of time. hear these several expressions used by different persons with reference to the weather of one As a matter of purely medical inquiry, the influence of weather is also too frequently neglected. I speak relatively to the amount of labour bestowed upon other branches of medical science. Sir C. Dilke, in his Greater Britain, pub. 1868, gives a remarkable instance of the influence of climate in the case of California, and he only confirms the testimony of many others:

The peculiarity of climate carries with it great advantages. It is never too hot, never too cold, to work-a fact which of itself secures a grand future for San Francisco. The effect upon national type is marked. At a San Franciscan ball you see English faces, not American. Even the lean Western men and hungry Yankees become plump and rosy in this temple of the winds. The high metallic ring of the New England voice is not found in San Francisco. As for old men, California must have been that fabled province of Cathay, the virtues of which were such that whatever a man's age when he entered it, he never grew older by a day.

In regard to the climate of Australia, this same writer says:

The Australians boast that they possess the Grecian climate; and every young face in the Sydney
crowd showed me that their sky is not more like that of the Peloponnesus than they are like the old
Melbourne is the finest climate in the world for healthy men.

Dr. Guy, in his useful little work, Public Health, pub. 1870, speaks of the effect on pop. of the "Combination of temperature, moisture, movement and state of air, which we call weather; or when we sum up their prevailing character for long periods of timeClimate,"-adding:

And every year we have some atmospheric element which neither thermometer nor barometer, neither rain nor wind gauge, nor measure of moisture, nor test of ozone, can reveal to us, but only our records of sickness and death. One year it is such as favours small-pox, the next perhaps it will promote scarlet-fever, or measles, or hooping-cough, or it will, so to speak, select from several forms of fever that one which shall fill the beds of our fever hospitals. This condition of air of which disease itself is the only test and measure was once called pestilence, but is now known as its epidemic constitution. And this, whenever it acts on the pop. with such energy that the disease which it favours affects large numbers of persons, that disease is called epidemic. But this epidemic constitution, be it understood, is not its true and direct cause, but only its predisposing cause. The exciting cause is some poison taken into the body, of which more presently.

The preceding must be regarded as merely an outline of the many ramifications which the subject of Climate assumes. Inquiries were branching out in many directions during the first half of the present century. During the last 20 years the subject has received more rapid development; and there is now hardly a sea-side or inland health resort in the UK., the peculiar feature of which, in the matter of climate, has not been made the subject of medical investigation, or to which certain remedial qualities are not assigned.

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