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CLENCH, THE CHEVALIER HARRY, was connected with the Masonic in 1869, for which Co. he afterwards proceeded to Plymouth to found a branch. While there he promoted the Western Alliance Fire. After that he was connected with the Western Counties Fire, which afterwards became the Southern and Western Fire. In 1872 he promoted the British Commercial [No. 2], of which we have already given some account. We believe he has more recently changed his residence. CLENDINNING, JOHN, M.D., communicated to the Statis. Journ. in 1838 a paper: On the Relative Frequency of Pulmonary Consumption and Disease of the Heart (vol. i. p. 142). We shall speak of this paper under CONSUMPTION; and under HEART DISEASE. CLERGY, CHILDREN OF THE.-See CLERGY, LONGEVITY OF.
CLERGY, DURATION OF LIFE AMONG.-See CLERGY, LONGEVITY OF. CLERGY INS. Asso.-In 1710 a scheme was set on foot from the Wheatsheaf over against Tom's Coffee House in Russell St., Covent Garden, for an ins. asso. especially adapted to the clergy, and including the risk of being "sent as a missionary by the Corp. of the So. for the Gospel in Foreign Parts." We shall give more details under LIFE INS., HIST. OF. CLERGY AND LAW LIFE ASSU. So.-This co. was projected in 1847 by John King Kent, Gent. But no steps were taken after prov. regis.
CLERGY AND LAW MUTUAL LIFE ASSU. AND LOAN AND REV. INT. So.-An asso. under this title was projected in 1846 by Mr. T. B. Stevens, solicitor, Tamworth. It did not proceed beyond prov. regis.
CLERGY, LONGEVITY OF.-The clergy of Gt. Britain, and we believe of most other countries, are proverbial for longevity. We propose to notice the various obs. which have been made on this subject.
The first recognition of the longevity of the clergy which we have met with occurred in the case of the Berkshire and Counties L. Asso., founded in 1709. In prescribing the conditions of entrance, the prosp. stated, "A clergyman's age may be 65; any other must not exceed the age of 60."
In the 3rd ed. of Dr. Price's Obs. on Rev. Payments, pub. 1773, reference is made to several schemes promoted amongst the clergy and ministers of that period; some details of which we shall give under WIDOWS FUNDS; and although several expressions therein lead to the inference that the learned Doctor knew or suspected something of the superior longevity of the clergy and ministers, he does not make any direct statement thereon. It may be that this was a prudent piece of reserve on his part; for it is clear that, in the case of asso. for the BENEFIT OF WIDOWS, the expected long life of the husband would operate directly in favour of the asso.
In 1824 the Clerical, Medical, and General L. was founded. Although not limited to the clergy, it has a large number of clergymen upon its books; and its mort. has been most remarkably favourable.
In 1829 the Rev. John Hodgson founded the Clergy Mutual Assu. So., being, he says, at that time impressed with the idea, "that duration of life amongst clergymen would, upon experiment being made, be found to be longer than that amongst laymen." This notion was then entirely the result of his own personal observation. He at that period entered upon an inquiry on this subject, the results of which were only completed in 1864, under which date we shall notice them fully.
In 1831 Mr. C. Turner Thackrah pub. the first ed. of his well-known work: The Effects of the Principal Arts, Trades, and Professions, and of Civic States and Habits of Living, on Health and Longevity, etc., etc.; and therein he says:
Ministers of religion have a similar alternation of study and exercise. The latter, however, is too gentle or restricted for muscular men. Their situation, and the ideas attached to it, unfortunately prevent their joining in sports or amusements, which produce a full circulation of the blood, and a full action of the viscera. Hence congestion of the venus system of the bowels is a frequent occurThe individuals of this class who are hard students may be referred to the section of literary men. Clergymen, who preach long, frequently, or with vehemence, as well as orators, actors, public singers, and persons who play much on wind instruments, are subject to pains in the chest, spitting of blood, and diseases of the larynx. Edema of the glottis is particularly mentioned by Merat.
On the founding of the Church of England L. and F. office in 1840, a special reduction was made in the rates of prem. for insuring the lives of the clergy.
In the 6th R. of Reg.-Gen., pub. 1845, Dr. Farr gives a few interesting facts regarding the Clergy, etc. The mean age of 18 English bishops (including two archbishops), whose ages were given in Dodd's Peerage, was found to be 599 years in 1841. As their mean age at consecration was 46.8 years, they had been bishops 13'1 years. The entire 26 bishops (including the archbishops) had been bishops 13.6 years.
The mean age of the Pope and 60 cardinals at the date of their election [Almanach de Gotha, 1845] was 52'4. On 1st Aug., 1864, it was 60 9. They had therefore been cardinals 8.5 years.
Dr. Farr arrives at the conclusion that "their life and health is therefore much below the standard of the English T." (No. 1).
In 1846 Dr. Guy, M. D., read before the Statistical So. a paper, On the Duration of Life among the English Gentry, with Add. Obs. on the Duration of Life among the Aristocracy [reprinted in vol. ix. of Statis. Journ., p. 37]. He says therein :-"From the foregoing considerations it is rendered in the highest degree probable, that for the greater part of life the gentry are more healthy than the aristocracy; and professional
persons (chiefly clergymen) more healthy than either of the others." Again, “I may so far anticipate the promised inquiry into the duration of life among the members of the several professions as to state that 1239 deaths among the aristocracy yield an average of 67 59 years; while 950 clergy yield a mean of 68.75 years—a duration of life exceeding that of females, when young adults are included."
In the same year Dr. Guy read before the Brit. Asso. another paper, On the Duration of Life in the Members of the several Professions [paper reprinted vol. ix. Statis. Journ. p. 346]. He says:
The object of the present communication is to turn to account such facts, gleaned from the Ann. Regis., as have not already been employed in a former essay. The facts in question consist of the ages at death of the members of the several professions classified as follows-Army, Navy, Clergy, Lawyers, Medical Men, Fine Arts, Literature and Science; to which are added persons engaged in Trade and Commerce. The ages at death were taken without selection or
exclusion, except of deaths by accident or violence; and, as in the case of all the classes the obituary extended over the same period of 85 years (from 1758 to 1843), and the facts are numerous, it is believed that the average will prove near approximations to the true durations of life. The subject of the essay will be further illustrated by facts derived from other sources.
The number of clergy observed upon was 963. Among these 2 had died at the age of 100; I at 103; I at 105; I at 106; and I at 108. The deaths between 90 and 100 were 39. After various comparisons of the figures before him, the learned writer states: The clergy, it will be seen, attain a higher average, in whatever way the calculation is made, than the members of any other learned profession. They have the advantage of more than one year: an advantage not to be wondered at when it is considered how much larger a proportion of clergymen reside in the country; how much less they are exposed to fatigue and danger of infection than their brethren of the medical profession; and that they do not lead the sedentary life which falls to the lot of the lawyer. When these things are taken into account, the advantage of little more than one year possessed by the clergy will excite some surprise. The still smaller advantage which they claim over the gentry, to which class so large a portion of this profession belong, is still more remarkable, and not undeserving attention.
He found the average age of all the clergy under obs. who died at age 51 and upwards to be 74 04. He returns to the subject again in 1851.
In 1851 Dr. Guy read before the Statis. So. a paper, On the Duration of Life among the Clergy [Statis. Fourn. vol. xiv. p. 289]. The writer refers to his essay read before the Brit. Asso. in 1846, and says:
The essay now referred to was intended to form the intro. to a series of communications in which the duration of life of each profession should be examined by itself, with the aid of new facts drawn from sources other than the Ann. Regis. The present essay is the first submitted to the So. in fulfilment of that intention. The facts which form the staple of it are drawn from four sources. County Histories of Northampton, Cheshire, Berkshire, and Surrey, and the Hist. of Leeds-which histories have already supplied materials for an Essay on the Duration of Life among the English Gentry. 2. The Ann. Regis., which, as has just been stated, supplied the facts for the essay just referred to. 3. Chalmers' Biographical Dict., which, having been pub. between the years 1812 and 1817, affords the requisite data for determining the mean duration of life of professional men up to a comparatively recent period. 4. That portion of the obituaries of the Gent.'s Mag., from 1834 to 1839 inclusive, which is headed "Clergy Deceased."
The learned writer offers some comments upon the peculiar characteristics which may be supposed to have influenced the data obtained from each of these sources. We do not think it necessary to follow him here. The data from the Biographical Dict. included some Dissenting ministers and a few Roman Catholic priests. He then proceeds to say that by means of the facts derived from these sources he had constructed a series of four T. Of these the first exhibits the number of deaths recorded during each year of life; the second the number and per-centage proportion at each quinquennial period; the third the number and per-centage proportion at each decennial period; while the fourth T. shows the mean age at death of all who die after completing their 25th, 30th, 40th, and 50th years respectively. We do not propose to follow the results of these T. A fifth T. was prepared, based upon "the first 1000 deaths occurring between the years 1834 and 1839 inclusive omitting all clergymen not belonging to the Estab. Church." Upon this data Mr. Neison produced the T. which we shall give in our art. CLERGY, MORT. T. For the. Dr. Guy says that out of the above 1000 deaths, 80 were those of clergymen whose lives were spent in cities or large towns:
The average age at death of these 80 clergymen I have compared with the average age attained by other 80 clergymen, whose lives were passed in the rural districts. These latter were taken in the order in which they stood in the T. The following is the result of the comparison: 63°74 65.85
Clergy of Towns and Cities-average age at death
This difference of little more than two years in favour of clergymen resident in the country is founded upon too small a number of facts to be regarded in any other light than as a prob., to be confirmed or weakened by further comparisons to be hereafter instituted.
From the data before him Dr. Guy drew some other facts of interest. For instance, he says, "The mean age of clergymen born in the 18th century is shown by the T. to be 66.78; while the average age of 60 clergymen who died subsequently to the year 1817, and who were born towards the end of the 18th century, is no less than 70 30. This comparison affords a presumption in favour of a recent improvement in the duration of life among the clergy.' He says:
Another question which the tabular abstracts from the Biographical Dict. afforded me the means
of discussing, though the data are very far from being sufficiently numerous, is the relative durations of life of married and single clergymen. It happened that out of the whole numberof clerical biographies, there were 370 in which the clergymen are stated to have been married; and 31 in which they are stated to have led a single life. The mean results are embodied in the following T.:
An average excess of 5 years in favour of the married clergy, and a difference between the maxima of 16 years, is prob. too large to be attributable wholly to the insufficient number of facts. This T., therefore, may also be placed on record as estab. a prob., to be strengthened or weakened by the results of future inquiries.
In the tabular abstracts taken from Chalmers' Dict. it happened that the archbishops and bishops of the Estab. Church were distinguished from the body of the clergy. “I am therefore in a condition to show the average and greatest ages attained by them; and as I have also extracted from the Art de Vérifier les Dates the ages at death of 42 popes, and of 22 Romish saints, and from Alban Butler's Lives of the Saints the larger number of 141 deaths, I have appended a T. in which these several averages are contrasted." This is the Table:
Saints of Romish Calendar (Butler's Lives)
Dr. Guy says:
The averages in this T. are such as might have been expected. The popes, who for the most part have been elected at very advanced ages, survive by about one year the archbishops of the Established Church, who are appointed at a somewhat earlier period of life. The bishops of the Established Church come next in order, differing however very little from the archbishops. The saints of the Romish calendar attain a lower average age by about three years than the popes, and by about two years than the dignitaries of the Church of England. As, however, the saints of the Romish calendar are of a very mixed class, comprising several of the popes, some few kings, many heads of the monastic orders, and a certain proportion of ascetics, I do not attach any importance to the comparison now made; but allow the results to stand in the T., as possessing a certain amount of interest.
We hope that some day Dr. Guy will return to this very interesting subject.
At the census of 1851 the number of clergymen was found to be 17,320, bearing a proportion of 37 to the entire pop. The number of Dissenting ministers, 6405, being the proportion of 14 to the entire pop. The number of "priests and other religious teachers," 2252-proportion to pop. 05.
Mr. Joel Pinney, in his Influence of Occupation on Health and Life, pub. 1856, says, "The clergy live too inactive for great longevity.
The British Alliance Ins. Co., projected in 1868, had a scheme of "annuities for clergymen," but no details are given of its precise nature. According to all reasoning, from the facts furnished by this art., the annu. to clergymen on their own lives should be less than on almost any other class of lives. That would not constitute a very hopeful "special feature."
In 1870 the Ark Assu. So. of Scotland was founded [called in this work Ark No. 3], and it offers special advantages to "ministers of religion," founded on their marked superiority in duration of life."
In 1864 the Rev. J. Hodgson, the then Sec. of the Clergy Mut., pub. Observations in Reference to the Duration of Life amongst the Clergy of England and Wales; and (in an appendix) amongst the Children of Clergymen, etc. To which was added a supplement by Mr. Samuel Brown, containing (1) A Table of Mort. deduced from observations amongst the clergy for a period of 100 years, 1760 to 1860, made by Mr. Hodgson. The author says:
No sooner was the Clergy Mut. So. estab. than I was awakened to the sense of the importance of ascertaining, by means of unimpeachable data, the duration of life, or in other words, the course which mort. had taken amongst the clergy, in large bodies of them, during a long series of years gone by, with a view of making the results serviceable as experiments to mark out what measures might from time to time be safely adopted by the C. M. Assu. So., for the more effectually carrying out its designs. Nothing of the sort, in respect to the clergy, had ever been attempted before, except upon information of so precarious a character, and upon principles so vague and open to objection, as to make the results altogether unfit for any useful practical purpose. So I entered upon this labour-for labour indeed it has been-commencing upon it in the latter end of the year 1829, and continuing it during hours of leisure up to its completion in the present year; and I now offer the results of it to the notice of those who are able to appreciate the beneficial uses to which they may be applied.
The author proceeds to tell us that 4965 clergymen-all of whom were incumbents of livings, and some of whom "are now alive, and remaining such," and 123 clergymenall of whom were Heads of Houses in the University of Oxford, and "some of whom are now alive, and remaining such,"-making together a total of 5088 clergymen,-had been brought under obs., "so as to enable me to ascertain what was the exact duration of life in the case of every one of them whilst under obs." These were collected in 8 groups, in the following order:
I. All those who were incumbents in the several livings in the Diocese of Canterbury
oa 1 June, 1779, being in number 247, and also of all those who subsequently became incumbents of the same livings in regular rotation from 1 January, 1779, to 1 January, 1849, being in number 809-making a total of 1056.
Obs. has been made by me upon these during a term beginning in the case of the 247 incumbents on 1st Jan., 1779, and in the cases of the 809, at the several dates of their appointments to their livings, and ending with regard to 587 who died previously to 1st Jan., 1859, at the dates of their respective deaths; and with regard to the remaining 469, at the dates of their livings becoming vacant otherwise than by death in the cases of those who vacated them previously to 1st Jan., 1859, and on 1st Jan., 1859, in the cases of those who remained incumbents at that date.
2. Incumbents of 522 livings in the Diocese of Lincoln, before its recent dismemberment, all of whom were ordained by Bishops of Lincoln.
My obs. has been made upon these during a term commencing with the several dates of their appointments to their livings between the years 1750 and 1842, and ending with regard to 325 who died previously to 1st Jan., 1857, at the dates of their respective deaths; and with regard to the remaining 197, at the date of their livings becoming vacant otherwise than by death in the cases of those who vacated them previously to 1st Jan., 1857; and on 1st Jan., 1857, in the cases of those who remained incumbents at that date.
3. Contains 772 incumbents of livings in various parts of E. and W., all of whom were Graduates of Oxford, and of whom dispensations to hold two livings were granted by the Archbishop of Canterbury in the years 1760, 1761, 1762, 1763, 1764 and 1776, and in every subsequent year up to 1836:
My obs. has been made upon these during a term commencing with the several dates of their respective dispensations, and ending with regard to 690 who died previously to 1st Jan., 1860, at the dates of their respective deaths; and on 1st Jan., 1860, with regard to the remaining 82 who then remained incumbents, except in the cases of a very few of them who vacated their livings before 1st Jan., 1860, and upon such occasion took no other preferment.
4. Contains 640 incumbents of livings, all of them being Oxford Graduates, and is composed of three smaller groups, viz. (A) 144 incumbents of various livings in the County of Northampton, some of them having been such incumbents on 1 January, 1760, and others having been appointed to their livings at various times subsequently. (B) 430 incumbents of various livings in the Diocese of Lincoln, some of them having been such incumbents on 1 January, 1760, and others having been appointed to other livings at various times subsequently. (C) 66 incumbents appointed to livings in the Diocese of Lincoln during the episcopate of Bishop Lowth:
My obs. has been made upon these 640 incumbents during a term commencing in the case of some on the 1st Jan., 1760, and in the cases of the remainder with the dates of their respective appointments, and ending with regard to 447 who died previous to 1st Jan., 1857, at the dates of their respective deaths; and with regard to the remaining 193, ending at the dates of their livings becoming vacant otherwise than by death, in the cases of those who vacated them previous to 1st Jan., 1857; and ending on 1st Jan., 1857, in the case of those who remained incumbents.
5. Containing 213 incumbents of livings, all of whom were Graduates of Oxford, or had been ordained by Bishops of Lincoln:
My obs. has been made upon these during a term commencing with regard to some of them on 1st Jan., 1829; and with regard to the remainder on 1st Jan., 1836; and ending with regard to 149 who died previous to 1st Jan., 1861, at the dates of their respective deaths; and with regard to the remaining 64, at the dates of their livings becoming vacant otherwise than by death in the cases of their having vacated them previously to 1st Jan., 1861; and on 1st Jan., 1861, in the cases of those who remained incumbents at that date.
6. All those Scholars of Westminster School, being in number 437, who in Phillimore's Hist. of the Scholars of such School are noticed as being incumbents of stated livings-their names and ages at admission into college being specified therein, and the dates of their appointments: such appointments beginning to be made in the early part of the 18th century, and continuing up to the middle of the present:
My obs. has been made upon these from the dates of their respective appointments, during a term commencing with the dates of such appointments, and ending with regard to 320 who died previously to 1st Jan., 1859, at the dates of their respective deaths; and with regard to 117, at the dates of their livings becoming vacant otherwise than by death, in the case of those who vacated them previously to 1st Jan., 1859; and on 1st Jan., 1859, in the case of those who remained incumbents.
7. Contains 123 Heads of Houses in the University of Oxford, viz. those who were such on 1st Jan., 1760, and those who severally succeeded to them from time to time until the year 1854. Two or three of these Heads of Houses were laymen. Judge Blackstone was one of these, and died early.
My obs. has been made upon those who were Heads on 1st Jan., 1760, during a term commencing with that date, and upon all others during a term commencing with the dates of their respective appointments, and ending with regard to 109 who died previous to 1st Jan., 1863, at the dates of their respective deaths; and with regard to the remaining 24, on 1st Jan., 1863, at which date they continued to hold their offices.
8. Contains 1325 incumbents of livings, who, upon invitation made by me to the clergy in general, in the public journals and by letter, forwarded to me their names, dates of birth, and the names of their livings.
My obs. has been made upon 1014 of these during a term commencing with the dates at which the information was given, either in the year 1838 or 1839 or 1840, and upon the remaining 311 during a term commencing with May, 1851, and ending, with regard to 495 who died previous to 1st Jan., 1861,
at the dates of their respective deaths; and with regard to the remaining 830, at the dates of their livings becoming vacant otherwise than by death in the cases of those who vacated them previous to 1st Jan., 1861, and on 1st Jan., 1861, in the cases of those who remained incumbents at that date.
We have given these minute details, because the great care indicated therein gives confidence to those who understand the subject; or as the author says:-"As the value of the results of so important an investigation as the present depends entirely upon the accuracy of the information obtained by me whilst following it up, I now proceed to estab. my claim to full confidence in this respect." The information he obtained exists in diocesan regis. and other ecclesiastical offices; and to these he appears to have had ready access. He tells us, "Having had access to the Ordination papers of nearly 2000 clergymen, I made copies of the baptismal regis. found in them." Further information as to the dates of deaths and resignations "was supplied by obituaries in magazines and newspapers, and by communications from friends, as well as by means of the copies of diocesan returns in the Queen Anne's Bounty Office," of which his brother was Sec. In many other ways he vouches for the care he has exercised in the progress of his work.
The most scrupulous care has been taken that no incumbent shall be brought under obs. in more than one group at the same time. If the same incumbent be found in two or more groups, it is to be taken for granted that he was withdrawn from obs. in any one group before he was introduced for obs. into any other. Out of 5088 incumbents under obs., it may be considered that 5000 were distinct individuals.
I cannot too emphatically declare that throughout the whole of my investigation I have been well aware how necessary it was to avoid forming specious conjectures or eluding difficulties, or in any way putting what might be thought a better appearance upon the inquiry, and I have most carefully abstained from anything of the kind. No labour has been spared to trace out a life, a death, or an age; and, except in a very few cases, with success.
Dr. Hodgson, reviewing the results of his labours, finds "that which for various reasons was to be expected has been realized. The average duration of life amongst clergymen is now proved, by decisive evidence, to be longer than amongst large bodies of persons taken indiscriminately." He volunteers a suggestion not to be disregarded:
It is my opinion that the lives observed upon, though of course gathered together without any knowledge of the health or constitution of the parties at the time of their first being brought under observation, are not to be viewed altogether in the light of " unselected." The two facts of their having incumbencies bestowed upon them by patrons, and of their accepting them when offered, warrants the inference that at such time health prevailed amongst them rather than otherwise. At the same time I am bound to say that in former days it was not a very unusual proceeding, for the sake of the sale of an advowson or next presentation, to present an ailing man to a living with a view to the occurrence of a not very remote vacancy. My opinion as above given is strengthened by a somewhat earlier mort. being found, I think, amongst those incumbents and others who are brought under obs. at a particular date during their incumbency, and not at the date of their appointments. These, however, are comparatively few in number.
The following T. embodies all the more important results of Mr. Hodgson's investigations; and also shows in quinquennial divisions the rate of mort. p.c., according to obs. made during the years of age comprehended within such divisions; and also, for the sake of comparison, the rate of mort. p. c. as deduced from the Experience of the Clergy Mut. Assu. So.; the Equitable Assu. So.; and that of the 17 Life Assurance [Experience T. No. 1], as well as that set forth in the Carlisle T. of
Rate of Mort. p.c. according to Mr. Hodg
Rate of Mort.
Assu. So.'s ex-
Rate of Mort.