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BRUUN, W. A., Sec. of Carriage Ins. Co. since 1870. BRYANT, EDWIN W., now or lately Act. of the Ins. Department, State of New York, and one of the most accomplished actuaries in the U. S. In 1861 he became interested in L. ins, and devoted the succeeding five years to studying its principles. In 1866 he became ed. of the Ins. Chronicle of Chicago. In 1867 he became Act. of the Travellers Ins. Co. of Hartford; in 1868 he occupied a similar position with the Connecticut Mut., one of the leading ins. asso. of the U. S. In 1871 he became Consulting Act. of Ins. Department. During the autumn of that year he visited England, first in connexion with his duties in the Ins. Department; and subsequently for the purpose of investigating the mort. experience of the European, in view of a transfer of its connexions to the New York Life. On these occasions Mr. Bryant made the acquaintance of many of the leading ins. authorities on this side.

BRYANT, GEORGE SQUIER, Agent in Bristol for the Scottish Widows', County F., and Accident Ins. Assos., for which he has transacted a considerable bus. of the very best class. BRYDRE, JOHN, was Sec. of General Benefit L. for some years preceding 1849. BRYSON, JAMES, was appointed Superintendent of Glasgow Fire Brigade in 1856, having been for several years previously Assistant Supt. He was called to give evidence before the Select Parl. Committee on Fire Prevention in 1862.

BUBBLE [prob. from Bobbel, Dutch].—A cant term given to a class of projects for raising money on imaginary grounds, much practised in France and England about the years 1719-20-21. The pretence of these schemes was the raising a cap. for retrieving, setting on foot, or carrying on, some promising and useful branch of trade, manufacture, machinery, or the like. To this end proposals were made out, showing the advantages to be derived from the undertaking, and inviting persons to be engaged in it. The sum necessary to manage the affair, together with the profits expected from it, were divided into shares or subs., to be purchased by any disposed to adventure therein. The most remarkable of the class were those that proposed to have books opened and subs. taken at some future time, as soon as the affair should be ripe for execution and for dividing into shares. But in the mean time money was taken by way of prem. to entille persons to be admitted subscribers when the matter was to be laid open. In this way several thousand shares were bespoke in a day, and prems. from one shilling to some pounds paid thereon.-Postlethwayt's Dict.

Defoe, in his Essay on Projects, pub. 1697, says: “And so I have seen shares of jointstocks, and other undertakings, blown up (by the air of great words and the name of some man of credit concerned) to perhaps £100, for one five-hundredth part or share, and yet at last dwindle to nothing." Again:

Some in clandestine companies combine;

Erect new stocks to trade beyond the line;
With air and empty names beguile the town,
And raise new credits first, then cry 'em down;
Divide the empty nothing into shares,
And set the crowd together by the ears.

BUBBLE ACTS.-(1). The 6 Geo. I. c. 18, enacted in 1720, under the circumstances stated in a following art. (2). Repealed in 1825, by 6 Geo. IV. c. 91, which remitted all such projects to the general prohibition of the Common Law. A temporary measure (enabling, not prohibitive) was enacted in 1834, by 4 Geo. IV. c. 94. This again was repealed in 1837 by 1 Vict. c. 72. [LEGISLATION FOR INS. Asso.] BUBBLE INSURANCE PROJECTS.-The first recorded outbreak of Bubble Ins. Projects commenced towards the close of the 17th century, and reached its height about 1720the South-Sea mania period. Lawson, in his Hist. of Banking, gives a list of 185 projects which were put forward in that period, no less than 30 of which had some species of ins. for a pretext. They are all included in the following summary, with some others which he had not noticed :

1. For a General Ins. on Houses and Merchandize, "at the Three Tuns, Swithin's Alley," cap. £2,000,000. 2. For Granting Annu. by way of Survivorship, and providing for Widows, Orphans, etc., at the Rainbow, Cornhill, cap. £1,200,000. 3. For Ins. Houses and Goods from Fire, at Sadlers' Hall, cap. £2,000,000. 4. For Ins. Houses and Goods in Ireland. 5. For securing Goods and Houses from Fire, at the Swan and Rummer, cap. £2,000,000. 6. Friendly So. for Ins. 7. For Ins. Ships and Merchandize, at the Marine Coffee House; cap. £2,000,000. 8. British Ins. Co. 9. For Preventing and Suppressing Thieves and Robbers, and for ins. all persons' Goods from the same, at Cooper's, cap. £2,000,000. 10. Shale's Ins. Co. for Ships. 11. For Ins. Seamen's Wages, at "Sam's Coffee House." 12. Ins. Office for Horses dying natural deaths, stolen, or disabled, Crown Tavern, Smithfield. 13. A Co. for the Ins. of Debts. 14. A rival to the above, for £2,000,000, at Robin's. 15. Ins. Office for all Masters and Mistresses against losses they shall sustain by servants' thefts, etc., 3000 shares of £1000 each, "Devil Tavern." 16. For a General Ins. in any part of England. 17. A Co-partnership for ins. and increasing Children's fortunes, "Fountain Tavern." 18. For carrying on a General ins. from losses by Fire within the Kingdom. 19. Crutchley's Ins. from loss by Garraway's Fishery, "at Jonathan's Coffee House. 20. Mutual Ins. for Ships. 21. Symons' Assu. on Lives. 22. Baker's Second Ed.

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of Ins. on Lives. 23. William Helme's, Exchange Alley, Assu. of Female Chastity. 24. For Ins. against Divorces. 25. Wild's Ins. from Housebreakers. 26. Wild's Ins. from Highwaymen. 27. Codner's Assu. from Lying. 28. Plummer and Petty's Ins. from Death by Drinking Geneva. 29. Rum Ins. 30. Marriage and Widows Assu. Co., "Le Brun's." 31. Office of Assu. and Annu. "for every body, by the same. 32. Whilmore's Lottery Annu. 33. Baker's Annuities. 34. Bele's Bottomry. 35. Freek's Annuities. 36. Tiling of Houses and Ins. them. 37. Widows' Pensions. 38. Overall's Fire Office. 39. John's Coffee House, "for Ships." 40. Annuities on Lives. 41. Marine for Ships. 42. Old Insurance. 43. Rose Office from Fires. 44. For lending Money on Stocks, Annuities, Tallies, etc.

Maitland, in his Hist. of Lond., pub. 1739, includes in his hist. of Bubble Cos. the two following, which, prob. from feelings of delicacy, Lawson has omitted: 45. An Ins. against the Pox. 46. A Co. for assuring of Maidenheads.

Mr. Lawson tells us, what is indeed pretty generally known, viz. that it was the apparent success of the South-Sea scheme which caused most of these romantic and speculative proposals to be submitted to the public, adding:

Persons of rank of both sexes were deeply engaged in these bubbles; avarice prevailing at this time over all consideration, either of dignity or equity; the gentlemen going to taverns and coffee. houses to meet their brokers, and the ladies to their milliners' and haberdashers' shops for the like purpose. Any impudent impostor, whilst the delirium was at its height, needed only to hire a room at some coffee-house, or other house, near the Exchange, for a few hours, and open a subscription book for something relative to commerce, manufactures, plantations, or of some supposed invention newly hatched out of his own brain.-Hist. of Banking.

In a tract., pub. in 1720 (a copy of which is still preserved in the Lond. Institution), entitled, The Battle of the Bubbles, shewing their several Constitutions, Alliances, Policies, and Wars, from their first Sudden Rise to their late Speedy Decay, by a Stander-by, the author, after giving a list of the Bubbles which were floated by actual subs. being obtained, says, "and fifty more whose names would blast the reader's eyes to look on them;" and then he gives a summary, which, while it carries exaggeration on its face, appears to have had reference to the projects so excluded from precise enumeration, and of which he speaks as "abortive," viz, "An hundred offices of Ins. against the Venereal Disease, by what title so ever dignified or distinguished, each to raise £500,000." "Fifty different offices for speedy cure-if the Ins. fails." "As many more to cure Gout, Stone, and all other diseases." "A project to ins. uniformity amongst Protestant dissenters." "Another to ins. it amongst the Orthodox." "Thirty different Insurances of Marriages from Divorce; some of them offering very agreeable securities." "Five Millions rais'd to ins. Divorces on the oath of either party, that what they say is reasonable and true." In our hist. of ANNU. ON LIVES we have stated that a Parl. Committee was appointed on the 22nd Feb., 1720, for the purpose of "inquiring into and examining the several subs. for Fishery Ins., Annu., etc." The committee sat for the first time on 26th Feb. ; and in the Ludlow Postman, or the Weekly Journal-an exceedingly well informed newspaper of the period-we have the following graphic account of what occurred:

The Committee appointed to inquire into the several subs. called Bubbles (of which Mr. Hungerford is Chairman) sat yesterday morning for the first time, and examined into the four Fishery Subs., all of which, except that called the Grand Fishery (wherein several noblemen are concern'd, and were present to speak in defence of the Charter they have obtain'd), I hear appear to be such real bubbles that the Chairman, who is a very facetious gentleman, made this merry observation, namely, That they were in one sense Apostolical fishermen, as designing not to catch fish, but men. It was intimated that most of the projectors would be "presented."

In the Daily Courant, 26th May, [1720], appeared the following:

It is desired that all persons concerned in any subs. taken since the 1st Oct., 1719, calculated for the advantage of Gt. Brit., do meet to-morrow, the 27th inst., at 3 p.m., at the Black Swan Tavern, in Bartholomew-lane, on affairs of the utmost consequence to subscribers.

Coming events cast their shadows before: hence, in Mist's Weekly Journal, and Saturday's Post, of 4th June, 1720, we find the following:

As soon as the news was brought to 'Change-ally that the Parl, had ordered the bill for ins. of ships and merchandize at sea to be ingross'd, a general consternation appeared among all the bubblemongers, insomuch, that who ever could get rid of that sort of traffick, though at any rate, thought himself well off.

The "bill" here spoken of speedily became an Act-the 6 Geo. I. c. 18 (1720), known as the "Bubble Act." But the measure has an add. interest from an ins. point of view, as being that by which the incorporation of the Royal Exchange and Lond. Assu. Corp. was authorized. We intend here to confine ourselves to the clauses relating to "bubbles." Sec. xviii. is as follows:

XVIII. And whereas it is notorious that several undertakings or projects of different kinds have at some time or times since the 24th June, 1718, been publickly contrived and practised, or attempted to be practised, within the City of Lond. and other parts of this kingdom, as also in Ireland, and other His Majesty's dominions, which manifestly tend to the common grievance, prejudice, and inconvenience of great numbers of Your Majesty's subjects in their trade and commerce, and other their affairs; and the persons who contrive or attempt such dangerous and mischievous undertakings or projects, under false pretences of publick good, do presume according to their own devices and schemes to open books for publick subs., and draw in many unwary persons to subscribe therein towards raising great sums of money, whereupon the subscribers or claimants under them do pay small proportions thereof, and such proportions in the whole do amount to very large sums; which dangerous

and mischievous undertakings or projects do relate to several fisheries, and other affairs, wherein the trade, commerce, and welfare of Your Majesty's subjects, or great numbers of them, are concerned or interested: And whereas in many cases the said undertakers or subscribers have since the said 24th June, 1718, presumed to act as if they were corporate bodies, and have pretended to make their shares in stocks transferable or assignable, without any legal authority, either by Act of Parl, or by any charter from the Crown for so doing; and in some cases the undertakers, or subs., since the 24th June, 1718, have acted or pretended to act under some charter or charters formerly granted by the Crown for some particular or special purposes therein expressed, but have used or endeavoured to use the same charters for raising joint-stocks, and for making transfers or assignments, or pretended transfers or assignments, for their own private lucre, which were never intended or designed by the same charters respectively; and in some cases the undertakers or subscribers since the said 24th June, 1718, have acted under some obsolete charter or charters, although the same became void or voidable by non-user or abuser, or for want of making lawful elections, which were necessary for the continuance thereof; and many other unwarrantable practices (too many to enumerate) have been, and daily are, and may hereafter be contrived, set on foot or proceeded upon, to the ruin and destruction of many of Your Majesty's good subjects, if a timely remedy be not provided!

Then it is enacted, that after 24th June, 1720, all undertakings tending to the prejudice of trade, and all subs., etc., thereto, or presuming to act as corporate bodies without lawful authority, and all acting under obsolete charters, etc., shall be deemed illegal and void, and all such undertakings deemed "public nuisances."

It was, however, provided that the Act should not extend to any undertakings, "settled, estab., or practised in point of time," before the said 24th June, 1718; nor should it extend to the South Sea Co.

Immediately after the passing of the Act the King issued a proclamation, embodying the chief provisions of that measure, and concluding as follows:

And whereas we are deeply sensible of the many mischievious consequences that must inevitably ensue from the unwarrantable practices in the said Act mentioned, by ensnaring and defrauding unwary persons to their utter impoverishment and ruin, by taking off the minds of many of our subjects from attending their lawful employments, and by introducing a general neglect of trade and commerce upon which the wealth and prosperity of our kingdom so much depend, etc. And we being determined, for the reasons aforesaid, to cause the said Act to be effectually put in execution; but being also willing and desirous that none of our loving subjects should be ignorant of the same; have, etc., etc.

At a meeting in the Privy Council Chamber at Whitehall, on the 12th July, 1720— present, the Lords Justices in Council, many of the preceding projects were presented, declared to be illegal, and ordered to be abolished accordingly. This was the termination of the first crusade against Bubble Ins. projects.

The Act of 1720 remained in force for more than a century-down to 1825, when, it having been determined to rescind the monopoly given to the two Ins. Corporations under it, it was entirely repealed, by the 6 Geo. IV. c. 91. The act had never applied to Ireland.

In 1836 the era of modern Ins. Bubbles set in, with the launching of the Independent West Middlesex scheme, of which a full hist. will be given under its alphabetical head.

In 1844 was enacted the Joint-Stock Cos. Registration Act., 7 & 8 Vict. c. 110, which furnished considerable facilities for the launching of new projects; and accordingly a very considerable crop was brought forward during the next succeeding years. These will be spoken of more in detail under the names of their several promoters, Mr. Augustus Collingridge, Mr. G. R. H. Denison, and others. This Act was not passed until after a Parl. Com. had sat and collected evidence; and this very Committee in its report gave the best definition we have seen of modern bubble cos., classified under three heads, viz.: 1. Those which, being faulty in their nature, inasmuch as they are founded on unsound calculations, cannot succeed by any possibility. 2. Those which, let their objects be good or bad, are so ill constituted as to render it probable that the miscarriages or failures incident to mismanagement will attend them; and 3. Those which are faulty, or fraudulent in their object, being started for no other purpose than to create shares for the purpose of jobbing in them, or to create, under pretence of carrying on a legitimate bus., the opportunity and means of raising funds, to be shared by the adventurers who start the co.

The proceedings of promoters under the Act of 1844 led to the appointment of a Parl. Committee in 1853; but the Committee reported that the general condition of the then existing Cos. was more satisfactory "than they had been led to believe before they entered upon the inquiry," adding :

No doubt instances of great abuses and flagrant frauds have been disclosed by the witnesses examined, but in general these consisted of an open violation of all law, more akin to swindling than to regular trade, and such as it would be difficult for any legislature to prevent, so long as private persons exercise so little precaution in the conduct of their own affairs.

The fact is Parl. could not stop the promotion of Bubble Ins. enterprises. That was a task reserved for, and accomplished by, a far less pretentious authority, viz. the Post Magazine, and its late fearless and determined editor, Mr. J. Hooper Hartnoll, whose name will always be associated with Ins. Hist. for the services he thus rendered. [LIFE INS., HIST. OF.] [GAMBLING INS.]

BUBONOCELE.-Inguinal hernia; hernia in which a part of the bowel passes through the abdominal ring.-Hoblyn.

BUCENTAUR.-The name of the State Galley in which the Doges of Venice used to proceed to "wed the Adriatic." From the 12th to the 18th century they annually, on Ascension Day, sailed over a portion of the Adriatic, and dropping a ring into the sea, espoused it in the name of the Republic with these words, Desponsamus te, mare, in

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signum veri perpetuique dominii. Byron, in his Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, refers to the discontinuance of this famous custom as follows :

The spouseless Adriatic mourns her lord;
And, annual marriage now no more renew'd,
The Bucentaur lies rotting unrestored,
Neglected garment of her widowhood!

BUCHANAN, Prof. A., M.D., University of Glasgow.—He read a paper before the Brit. Asso., at the Glasgow meeting in 1855: On the Physiological Law of Mort., and on certain Deviations from it observed about the Commencement of Adult Life. An abstract of this most interesting paper is given in the Assu. Mag. [vol. vi., p. 67]. One extract will indicate the scope of his inquiry:

Of the external causes which occasion the diversities in the law of mort. in different communities, there are some which may be named conspiring causes, as they act in conjunction with the physiological causes above mentioned, and magnify their effects; while there are others of an interfering kind, that disturb the physiological results. To the latter class belong those causes that operate solely, or with peculiar intensity, at certain periods of life. Thus, a war occasions devastation among the young and strong, and disturbs the normal course of mort. Causes, again, which operate more equably at all ages, are of the conspiring class; for the physiological state of the body, varying with age, assists or resists their action. Thus, the extremes of temperature tell chiefly on the infirm bodies of the young and the old, while persons in the vigour of life resist their influence.

We quote from this paper again under various heads, as LAW OF Mort.; Law of NATURAL DECAY, etc.

In 1856 Mr. John Reid, surgeon, Glasgow, read before the Inst. of Actuaries a paper : On the Progressive Rates of Mort., as occurring in all ages, and on certain Deviations; also on Dr. Buchanan's "" Physiological Law of Mort.," in which some of the views of Dr. Buchanan are refuted.

BUCKETS. The use of Buckets in connexion with the extinguishing of fires dates from the very earliest times. They have been made of metal, leather, wood, indiarubber, canvas. The last two materials were first applied in the U. S. So important did Mr. Braidwood consider the use of buckets in connexion with the prompt extinguishment of fires, that at one period he made a canvas bucket part of the equipment of each fireman. It was folded and suspended to his waist-belt.-Young, Fires, Fire Engines, etc. BUCKLE, H. T., pub. in 1857 his learned work, the History of Civilization, wherein he remarked upon the striking uniformity usually exhibited by classes of phenomena, as births, marriages, deaths; and even in things apparently depending upon mere caprice, as the number of undirected letters ann. sent to the Post Office; or those which appear to depend on the most capricious and irregular causes, such as murders and suicides. He proceeds to draw certain moral conclusions from the fact of this uniformity, viz. the existence of certain moral laws, by which a definite proportion of the community is always impelled to such acts. We quote his remarks under their appropriate heads. BUFFON, COUNT DE, MORTALITY TABLE OF.-In 1749 this famous writer pub. his Natural History, General and Particular, the 2nd vol. of which he devoted to the consideration of the generation, growth, developinent, and ultimate causes of death of the human species. He concludes this part of his labours as follows:

Having thus treated of the history of life and death with regard to the individual, let us now consider both in relation to the whole species. Man dies at every age; and though the duration of his life be longer than that of most animals, yet it is unquestionably more various and uncertain. Attempts have recently been made to ascertain these uncertainties, and by obs, to fix some standard with regard to the mort. of mankind at different periods of life. If these obs. were sufficiently numerous and exact, they would be of great utility in determining the number of people, their increase, the consumption of provisions, etc. Many authors have written with ability on this subject. M. de Parcieux, of the Academy of Sciences, has lately pub. an excellent work for regulating tontines and annu. But as his principal object was to calculate the mort. of annuitants, and as such persons are particularly pitched upon for their apparent strength of constitution, his calculations cannot be applied to mankind in general. For the same reason, his curious T. of mort. of the different orders of religious must be confined to their proper objects. Halley, Graunt, Kersseboom, Simpson, etc., have also given T. of the mort. of the human species. But as their obs. have been limited to the B. of mort. in a few parishes of Lond., Breslau, and other large towns, they can afford little information as to the general mort. of mankind. To make complete T. of this kind, it is necessary to scrutinize the parish regis., not only of Lond., Paris, etc., where there is a perpetual ingress of strangers and egress of natives, but likewise those of the country, that, by comparing the results of both, general conclusions may be formed. M. Dupré de St. Maur, a member of the French Academy, has executed this plan upon 12 parishes in the country of France, and three in Paris. Having obtained his permission to pub. his tables, I do it the more cheerfully, as they are the only calculations by which the prob. of human life in general can be ascertained with any degree of certainty!

The concluding italics are ours. They indicate the implicit confidence with which Buffon regarded the table. The 12 country parishes with the number of deaths observed upon in each were as follows:

Clemont

Brinon

Jouy

1391
1141

588

Lestiou
Vandure
St. Agil

223
672

954

Thury 262
St. Amant 748
Montigny 833

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The total deaths in these parishes, 10,805. The 3 parishes in Paris with number of deaths observed upon were St. André, 1728; St. Hippolyte, 2516; St. Nicolas, 8945; total town deaths, 13, 189; giving the grand total of deaths, 23,994. These are all arranged in cols., showing (1) in what year of life the death occurred, (2) the total number of deaths

under 1 year, under 2 years, etc., (3) the number of persons entering into their 2nd, 3rd, and other years. The obs. on the country and town lives are kept distinct. After giving the results in detail, the Count de Buffon says:

Many useful conclusions might be drawn from the above T. of M. Dupré; but I shall confine myself to those which regard the prob. of the duration of life. In the cols. under the years 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and other round numbers, as 25, 35, etc., there are in the country parishes more deaths than in the preceding or subsequent cols. This is owing to the deaths not being justly regis., most country people being unable to ascertain their ages within less than 2 or 3 years. If they die at 58 or 59, they are regis. at 60, and so of other round numbers. But this irregularity gives rise to no great inconvenience, as it can easily be corrected by the manner in which the numbers succeed each other in the tables.

It appears from the T. of the country parishes, that one half of the children die nearly about the end of the fourth year; but from the Paris T. 16 years are necessary to produce the same effect. This great difference proceeds from a general practice of the Parisians, who send their children to be nursed in the country, which necessarily increases the number of deaths during the first years of infancy. In the following calculation I have estimated the prob, of the duration of life, from a combination of both T., which must, therefore, make a very near approach to the truth.

It seems therefore that the table of expectations was actually deduced by the Count de Buffon from the materials supplied, as already stated, by M. Dupré. Here is the table :

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The Count then proceeded to draw deductions from the T. as follows:

From this T. it appears that a new born infant, or a child of o age has an equal chance of living 8 years; that a child of 1 year will live 33 more; that a child of 2 will live 38 more; that a man of 20 years will live 33 and 5 months more; and that a man of 30 years will live 28 more, etc.

It may be further observed (1) that 7 years is the age at which the longest duration of life is to be expected; for there is then an equal chance of surviving 42 years 3 months; (2) that at 12 years onefourth of life is expired, since we have no reason to hope for above 38 or 39 years more; (3) that at 28 or 29, we have lived one-half of our days, since there are only 28 more to be expected; and lastly, that at the age of 50, three-fourths of life are gone, the remaining chance extending only to 16 or 17 years longer.

But these physical truths, however mortifying, may be alleviated by moral considerations. The first 15 years of our existence may be regarded as nothing; everything that passes during this long period is either obliterated from the memory, or has so little connexion with the views and objects which afterwards occupy our attention, that it ceases entirely to be interesting. The train of our ideas, and even the nature of our existence, suffer a total change. We begin not to live, in a moral sense, till after we have learned to arrange our thoughts, to direct them towards futurity, to assume a kind of consistency of character, similar to that state at which we are ultimately destined to arrive. Considering the duration of life in this point of view, which is the only real one, at the age of 25 we have passed one-fourth of our days; at the age of 38 one-half; and at the age of 56 three-fourths.

Several translations of Buffon's works into English have been made. We have here quoted Smellie's 2nd ed., 1785.

In 1753 Kerseboom pub. A view of the relation between the celebrated Dr. Halley's Tables, and the notions of M. de Buffon for estab, a rule for the prob. duration of the life of man.

In 1777 Buffon pub. in the 4th vol. of the Supplement to his Natural History, his famous Essai d' Arithmétique Morale, where it occupies 103 quarto pages. Gouraud says that the Essay was composed about 1760. [PROBABILITIES.] BUGGE, CHEVALIER THOMAS (born 1740), Professor of Astronomy at the University of Copenhagen, and a Fellow of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences. He pub. a treatise on Mathematics. Some notice of his labours may be found in Dr. Price's Rev. Payments [6th ed. vol. 2, p. 439]. He, in conjunction with Prof. Lous, prepared rates for the Danish Estab for. Widows (No. 2).

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