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amalg. Whether these have been all equally advantageous it is not our province to inquire. For the most part they have been judicious. The Asso. is under able and energetic management, with Mr. Messent still at the helm. The new bus. of each successive year testifies that the Asso. enjoys a large share of popular favour. BRITON, MED., AND GEN. MORTALITY EXPERIENCE.-In 1868 this office pub. its mort. experience extending over the five years ending 31st Dec., 1867—including in all 1165 deaths, classified under eleven distinctive causes, as shown in the following table. The ages at death in quinquennial periods are given in the original table-with a supplemental table showing the intensity of the various causes of disease to male and female. The male deaths were 963, the female 202. There is no distinction shown between the mort.
of the diseased lives taken over from the Medical and General and New Equitable, or taken subsequently, and those of the ordinary class-although the sums remaining ins. on the 31st Dec., 1867, were thus apportioned:
The causes of death and proportions of males and females are stated as follows:
The proportion of violent deaths is unusually large: they include drowning, 19; rupture of blood vessels, 3; violence, I; suicide 7; other accidents, 31, total, 61. The deaths from old age were 32.
BRODIE, PATRICK, was Sec. of National Ins. Co. of Scotland from 1844 to 1846.
BROKEN STOWAGE.-That space in a ship which is not filled by her cargo.
Is author of two pamph. which have had a considerable circulation. 1. Life Assurance Explained, pub. 1857. 2. Practical Hints to Life Agents. BROKER.-An agent employed to make bargains and contracts between other persons in matters of trade, commerce, and navigation. Hence insurance-brokers, ship-brokers, stock-brokers, etc. Ins.-brokers occupy a very prominent position in matters of marine ins. In the U.S. a great deal of the F. ins. bus. is transacted through the intervention of brokers; and the practice is increasing in this country. A broker differs in his legal status from an agent; he is strictly a middle man negociating between the parties, and in a legal point of view often representing both; while an agent only represents the person employing him for a given purpose. The subject will be followed up under INS. -BROKERS. BROKERAGE. The per-centage paid to a broker for his trouble in effecting a sale, or in negociating any particular bus. In Marine Ins. the rate of brokerage is 5 p.c. on the premiums. BROKERAGE COMMISSION.-A term used to designate the process of "compounding" the commission allowed to ins. agents. Life ins. agents in Gt. Brit. are usually allowed a commission of 10 p.c. on the first year's prem., and 5 p.c. afterwards, during the continuance of the pol. Most offices will compound this rate of commission by a present payment of 25 p.c., or more, on the first year's prem. In the U.S. it is the regular practice to do so-the brokerage commission ranging up to 35 p.c. The objection to the system is that it offers an inducement to unscrupulous agents to change their offices frequently, and transfer their pol. To meet this, a new scheme has recently been propounded, by Mr. E. W. Bryant, as follows: 20 p.c. Ist year; 10 p.c. 2nd year; and 5 p.c. 3rd year. We regard this as a great improvement. In France and Belgium the
brokerage commission on 7 years' fire pol. frequently absorbs the whole of the first year's prem., and part of the second, which the office has to advance for the bus. We believe this practice, which originated in competition rather than reason, is undergoing some change. The Scot. Widows' Fund is now paying a brokerage commission of but 15 p.c. BROMFIELD, J. COLEY, Man. in Lond. of Southern and Western Ins. Co. Mr. Bromfield has been associated with several ins. enterprises. In 1866-7 he was Sec. of Lond. branch of Scottish Commercial. In 1868 he was connected with Life Ins. Union. In 1869 he founded the INS. EXCHANGE, which was not an ins. asso., but simply intended to be a repository of information connected with ins. associations generally. In 1871 he promoted the Ladies Ins. Co., which did not mature.
BRONCHI. From the Greek, wind-pipe.-Bronchial sound. A natural sound produced by the passage of the air in respiration, and to be heard through the stethoscope. Bronchial tubes are the divisions and sub-divisions of the bronchi which take place as these enter the lungs. The terminations of the bronchial tubes within the lungs are called bronchial cells, or air-cells.
BRONCHITIS.-Inflammation of the wind-pipe, or of the bronchi. It is called bronchial inflammation; peripneumonia, notha, etc. BRONCHITIS, DEATHS FROM (Class, LOCAL; Order, Diseases of Respiratory Organs).— The deaths from this cause in England show a very considerable increase. For 10 consecutive years they were as follows: 1858, 29,093; 1859, 25,998; 1860, 32, 347; 1861, 30,986; 1862, 32,526; 1863, 32,025; 1864, 38,969; 1865, 36,428; 1866, 41,334; 1867, 40,373; showing a variation from 1509 deaths to each million of the pcp. living in 1858 to 1894 per million in 1864, and 1902 in 1867. Over a period of fifteen years ending 1864 the deaths averaged 1344 per million. For the five years ending 1864 they averaged 1658 per million.
The deaths in 1867 were: Males, 20, 543; Females, 19,830. Of the males, 7263 died under 5; 204 between 5 and 10; 52 between 10 and 15; 59 between 15 and 20; 94 20 and 25; 428 between 25 and 35; 903 between 35 and 45; 1784 between 45 and 55; 3088 between 55 and 65; 3685 between 65 and 75; 2494 between 75 and 85; 473 between 85 and 95; and 16 over 95. Of the females, 6309 died under 5; 209 between 5 and 18; 52 between 10 and 15; 78 between 15 and 20; 119 between 20 and 25; 391 between 25 and 35; 771 between 35 and 45; 1582 between 45 and 55; 2819 between 55 and 65; 4159 between 65 and 75; 2831 between 75 and 85; 536 between 85 and 95; and 24 over 95.
BROOK, THOMAS, was Sec. of Halifax, Bradford, and Keighley Ins. Office, from 1852 during the remainder of its short career.
BROOKE, HENRY JAMES, F. R.S., etc., was for many years Act. and Sec. of the London Life, which he had aided in founding while engaged in mercantile pursuits, and many years before he could have entertained any idea of becoming officially connected with it. In 1828 he pub. Observations on a Pamph. lately pub. by Mr. Morgan, entitled: “A View of the Rise and Progress of the Equitable So." He was at that time Sec. of London Life.
In 1843 Mr. Brooke retired on a liberal annu., and devoted the remainder of his life to scientific pursuits, in some branches of which he had become distinguished. He died in 1857, aged 86. An interesting memoir of him appears in vol. vii. of Assu. Mag., reprinted from Proceedings of the Royal So.
BROOKS, H., was Fire Man. of British Provident [No. 1.] in 1850.
BROOKS, WILLIAM, was Assistant Man. of the Progress Ins. Co. since commencement of 1869. Had been for many years previously in the Northern.
BROOMFIELD, J. J., Assistant Sec. of Phanix F. since 1863.
BROTHERLY SOCIETY OF ANNUITANTS.-This So. was founded and held its meetings at Mr. John Bastows, the sign of the Sir Paul Pindar's Head, in Bishopsgate Without, prior to 1745. In that year it became amalg. with the Amicable So. by means of a formal agreement, to which we refer in our hist. of LIFE INS.
BROWN, A. G., was Man. of Scottish Imperial from 1865 to 1870. Mr. Brown was trained to the bus. of banking.
BROWN, DONALD, pub. in 1850, dated from "Temporary offices, 79, South Audley-street, Grosvenor-square,' some "Obs. on the Present System of L. Assu.," and "Some Suggestions which I have made with a view to its Improvement." His broadside contains the following suggestions with a view to remedy the defects which he had pointed out :
That the D. of Sett. comprising laws, conditions, provisions, rules and regulations of sos., inst., asso. and cos., estab. for the purpose of granting pol. for life assu., annu. and other provisions, in relation to the assu. shall be of the most favourable character consistent with public safety, and that the pol. issued shall comprehend and embrace all the vicissitudes, changes, and contingencies, pecuniary or otherwise, to which the assu. may become subject during life; and also the pol. shall not only be indisputable, as it has recently been characterized by life assu. cos., subject of course to the supremacy of the law-but a bonâ fide security—no question being left open for future settlement.... To this end he proposed that no breach of the conditions or stipulations of the pol., however serious, should cause its forfeiture; but that an extra prem. should be charged or retained, "equivalent to the increased risk imposed or incurred by the act or omission of the assured." We doubt whether the scheme matured into the formation of an office,
BROWN, GEO. HENRY, was Superintending Director of Achilles Brit. and Foreign Life. BROWN, HENRY, Accountant, pub. in Dublin, in 1844: Tables of Simple Int. at 3p.c. p.a. BROWN, JAMES, Accountant, Edinburgh, pub. in 1835: Report Respecting Division of Profits in the Edinburgh Life Office.
BROWN, J. H., Sec. National Provincial Plate-Glass.
BROWN, SAMUEL, F.I.A.-Mr. Brown has long occupied a foremost rank among the actuaries of Gt. Brit., and his fame extends not only through Europe but to the U.S.; and most deservedly so. Mr. Brown entered the Equitable in 1829, and received his first training in that venerable office. In 1850 he was elected Act. of the Mutual; and in 1855 he was appointed to his present position of Act. to the Guardian, as the successor of Mr. Griffith Davies, who then retired. Mr. Brown has been retained as Consulting Act. by the following asso.: The United Kingdom Provident, in 1863; the Reliance Mut. in 1866; and the Clergy Mut. in 1870.
Mr. Brown was elected President of the Inst. of Act. in 1867, as the successor of Mr. Jellicoe. He retired from that position in 1870. In 1868 he was President of the Sec. of Economic Science and Statistics, at the meeting of the Brit. Asso. at Norwich. But the most conspicuous service rendered by Mr. Brown to the ins. profession remains to be noted in the long series of publications and papers which have proceeded from his pen, during a period compassing nearly a quarter of a century. We shall endeavour to supply a correct chronological hist. of these.
In 1849 he pub. A Few Thoughts on Commission, Division of Profits, Selection of Lives, the Mort. in India, and other Subjects relating to Life Assu., contained in a series of Letters recently pub. in the Post-Mag. under the signature of "Crito." This little book is familiarly known to most persons engaged in the practice of life ins.
In 1850 the Assu. Mag. was estab., and Mr. Brown became an active contributor to its pages. To Vol. I. he contributed the following papers: (1). On a General Method of Approximation to the Value of Annu. and Assu. for Long Terms of Years depending on one or two Lives. (2). On Fires in London during the 17 Years from 1833 to 1849, showing the Numbers which Occurred in Different Trades, and the Principal Causes by which they were Occasioned. (3). French Rates for Ins. against Fire, according to the Nature of Risks and Trades or Occupations. (4). Marine Risks between Lond. and Dungeness, and between the Thames and the Isle of Wight. (5). Sketch of the Recent Progress of the Assu. of Life and Property on the Continent (Part I. France). (6). Increase of Fire Ins. in Gt. Brit. from 1844 to 1850. (7). Prems. for Maritime Assu. Settled by the Assu. Brokers at Paris, Feb. 1850. (8). Casualties to Shipping in the St. George's and Liverpool Channels in 1850.
To Vol. II. he contributed the following: (1). Sketch of the Recent Progress of the Assu. of Life and Property on the Continent (continued)—Life Assurance-Maritime Assurance -Hail Insurance-Accident Assurance-Cattle Assurance. (2). Life Assu. in Gt. Brit. 1849-51, Table Showing the Progress of. (3). On the Uniform Action of Human Will as Exhibited by its Mean Results in Social Statistics. (4). On the Collection of Data in Various Branches of Assu. (5). Summary of Assu. Business of Gt. Brit. and other Countries.
To Vol. III. the following: (1). On the Influence of the Ages of Parents at the Time of Marriage on the Sex of Children, and on the Prolificness of Marriage. (2). Mort. amongst Selected Lives in Germany. (3). Assu. Associations of Germany.
In 1853 he pub. a pamph. : Is the present Competition in Life Assu. Cos. Advantageous to the Public? He also gave evidence before the Select Parl. Committee on Assu. Asso., which sat in this year.
To Vol. IV. of the Assu. Mag. he contributed: (1). Operations of German Fire Ins. Cos., 1852-3. (2). Operations of Riunione Adriatica, 1838-53. (3). On the Sufficiency of the Existing Cose for the Bus. of Life Assu., with a List of the Cos. at the end of 1852, their Guaranteed and Paid-up Share Cap., etc. (4). A Simple Plan of Classifying the Policies of a Life Assu. Co., so as to Possess at any time the Means of Forming a Table of the Mort. Experienced in the Office. (5). M. Quetelet on the Calculation of Tables of Mort. [translated].
To Vol. V. the following: (1). On the Rates of Sickness and Mort. amongst the Members of Friendly Societies in France. (2). New Life Assu. Bus. in Germany [translation]. (3). Frauds in Life Assu. in Germany [extract of a letter by Herr Rath G. Hoff, 1854].
In Vol. VI. the following: (1). Life Assu., Showing Progress in Gt. Brit., 1852-4. (2). On the Origin and Progress of the Calculus of Probabilities. (3). Ins. of Theatres against Fire.
In Vol. VII. the following: (1) Statistics of Fires in Berlin, 1854. (2). French Maritime Losses, Comparison of. (3). On London Fires. (4). On the Progress of Fire Ins. in Gt. Brit. as Compared with other Countries. (5). On the Proportion of Marriages at different Ages of the Sexes [this paper was read before Brit. Asso. same year]. (6). On the Investments of the Funds of Assu. Cos. (7). Progress and Position of Assu. Cos. in Germany, 1855 [translated and abridged from the German of Herr W. Lazarus].
In 1857 he read before the Statistical So. a paper, On the Progress of Fire Ins. in Gl. Brit. as compared with other Countries. [S. Journ., vol. 20.]
In Vol. VIII. of Assu. Mag.: (1). On the Mort. amongst American Assu. Lives. (2). Ins. against Hail, Frost, Inundations, and Mort. of Cattle [translated and abridged from a pamph. by M. Le Hir].
In Vol. X. (1). Investment of Funds of Life Assu. Sos. (2). Report to International Statistical Society, as to the Institute of Actuaries.
In 1863 there was pub., under the joint superintendence of Mr. Brown, Mr. Peter Hardy, and Colonel J. T. Smith, F.R.S., New Tables of Mort., deduced from the 50 Years' Experience of the Madras Military Fund, 1808 to 1858; with an Introductory Letter, by Colonel J. T. Smith, F.R.S., F.I.A., etc., Act. to the Institution.
In the same year Mr. Brown contributed to Vol. XI. of the Assu. Mag. a paper, On the Rates of Mort. and Marriage amongst Europeans in India.
In 1864 he contributed to Vol. XI. of Assu. Mag. a paper, On the Present Position of Friendly Sos. in England and Wales; and in the same year, to Vol. XII., a paper, On the Rates of Mort. and Marriage amongst Europeans in India. [This paper was read before Brit. Ásso. in the same year.]
In 1865 he completed a Report on the Bengal Civil Fund, and also a Report on the Bengal Medical Retiring Fund. These were printed for private distribution among the members of the Funds.
In 1867 he contributed to Vol. XIII. of Assu. Mag. the following papers : (1). Eighth Census of U.S. in 1860. (2). On the Mort. of the U.S. of America, as Deduced from the
In Vol. XV. of Assu. Mag. will be found extracts from Mr. Brown's address before the Brit. Asso. (1868), so far as it treated of ins. topics.
Mr. Brown was one of the Committee appointed by the Inst. of Actuaries to superintend the collection of the data for and preparation of the Experience Tables (No. 2), pub. in 1869. He prepared the able introduction to the vol.
In 1871 he contributed to Vol. XVI. of Assu. Mag. a paper, On the Rate of Mort. amongst the Natives compared with that of Europeans in India.
In add. to the preceding, Mr. Brown has contributed many papers to various learned sos. on other subjects, more especially on Decimal Coinage and Uniform Weights and Measures; while his Reports on the various International Statistical Congresses are full of interest and instruction. He gave evidence before the Parl. Committee on Assu Asso. in 1853. He has now in course of preparation, Report on Bengal Military and Orphans So. Also R. on Bombay Civil Fund. We trust that Mr. Brown may be spared for many years to pursue his enlightened and beneficent labours. Each of the preceding papers is noticed under its proper head.
BROWN, THOMAS, Sec. of Glasgow Annu. So., which position he has occupied since 1845. BROWN, WALTER, Sec. of Manchester branch of Scottish Widows since 1871. Mr. Brown had previously been Sec. of Scottish National from 1858. On leaving Edinburgh for his present appointment in 1871, he received a handsome testimonial.
BROWN, WILLIAM, pub. in 1678 [? 1674], The Entering Clerks Vade Mecum. Being an exact Collection of Precedents for Declarations and Pleadings in most Actions; especially such as are brought for, or against, Heirs, Executors, or Administrators, Executrixes, Administratrixes, and their Husbands, in Personal Actions, with variety of Actions upon Bills of Exchange, Pollicies of Assurance, etc., etc. [2nd ed., 1695.] Among the precedents are two which appear to relate to ins. The first, to Birth Ins., viz. on a bond "to be paid at the birth of the plaintiff's first child, or within one month then next following after request made to defendant." The next, upon a pol. of marine ins. BROWNE, CHARLES, was Sec. of Whittington from 1855 to 1859.
BROWNE, CHARLES ROUSE, Assistant Sec. of Westminster Fire since 1869. He entered the office in 1850, and has passed through the various departments of the office. He represents the fourth generation of his family in the management of this most successful office.
BROWNE, E. W., Man. and Sec. of Scottish branch of Briton Life since 1872. Mr. Browne had been for some years previously connected with the Scottish bus. of the same office.
BROWNE, GEORGE, became Sec. of Westminster Fire in 1768, and retired from that position in 1792. Mr. Browne was consulted by Lord North regarding the imposition of the duty upon F. ins.; and by his advice, based upon his practical knowledge of the bus. of F. ins., the duty was levied in a very much less inconvenient manner than had been originally contemplated.
BROWNE, GEO. HOWE, son of the preceding, became Sec. of Westminster Fire in 1792, and retired from that position in 1838.
BROWNE, WILLIAM MEREDITH, Sec. of Westminster F. since 1838, having been Assistant Sec. in 1831. Mr. Browne was one of the founders of the Mutual L. in 1834, but never took office in the so. In 1839 he founded the Westminster and General L., and became its Act. In 1869, after 30 years of service, he retired from the active duties of this last position, and became Consulting Act.
In 1832 the London Fire Engine Estab. was formed. Mr. Browne became its Hon. Sec., and remained in that position down to 1865, when the Fire Police of the metropolis
was most properly undertaken by the Metropolitan Board of Works. For this lengthened service Mr. Browne not only deserved well of all the ins. offices supporting the estab., but also of the entire metropolis, whose safety was in the keeping of this voluntary organization.
Mr. Browne gave evidence before the Select Parl. Committee of 1862, on fires in the metropolis; but as that evidence chiefly related to the formation and management of the then Lond. Fire Engine Estab., which has since passed over to the Board of Works, there is no necessity to reproduce it here, except on one or two special points, thus:"Do you consider that the brigade was formed for any general objects of police as connected with the protection of life and property, or merely with the view of protecting the property in which the ins. cos. were directly interested?" Answer—“ Merely_with the view of protecting the ins. cos., certainly." And he added, that to make the Estab. sufficient for the protection of the metropolis, there should be at least double the force they then had. Mr. Browne's advice has been or is being adopted. [LOND. FIRE ENGINE ESTAB.]
BROWNELL, WILLIAM, was, about 1843, Sec. of Sheffield F. Office.
BRUGES, now a city in Belgium, but was for several centuries the capital of Flanders; and became during the 13th and 14th centuries almost the commercial metropolis of the world. It joined the Hanseatic League in 1349. The Chronicle of Flanders asserts that on the demand of the inhabitants of this city, in 1310, the Count of Flanders permitted the estab. of a Chamber of Ins., by which the merchants were enabled to insure their merchandize exposed to risk on the sea or otherwise, by means of a certain small sum p.c., as is still practised. But in order that an estab. so useful to merchants should not be dissolved as soon as formed, he prescribed different laws and forms which the assurers as well as the merchants should be bound to observe. Some of the best authorities on the subject, as Pardessus and Reddie, do not regard the authenticity of this portion of the Chronicle as established. It is certain that no Ins. Ordin. for Bruges is now known; but this may be explained in the fact that the regulations were so analagous to the Roles d'Oleron as clearly to have been either drawn from them, or, as other writers have affirmed, adopted into them. We do not intend to pursue the subject here, as it must be again considered under Hanseatic League, and other heads. [DAMME, ORdin. OF.] [FLANDERS.] [NETHERLANDS.] [PORTUGAL.] BRUNE, HERR R. (Berlin).—He pub. in 1837 a very complete Table of Mort. for both male and female lives, which he had constructed from the records of a Prussian So. for making provisions for widows. The Table threw considerable light on the duration of life in Germany, and has since been very generally adopted by ins. asso. in that country. We shall give the Table and some account of it under GERMAN MORT. TABles. BRUNSWICK LIFE ASSU. So., founded in 1855, with an authorized cap. of £100,000, in 10,000 shares of £10 [power to increase to one million], "for ordinary and declined lives, loans, endowments, and annu." The prosp. said:
Until a comparatively recent period life assu. appears to have been considered as adapted only to the means and requirements of the wealthier classes of society, and consequently its chief powers and usefulness remained dormant, and the mass of the people of this country continued totally ignorant of the many ways in which it might be applied for their advantage.
In the application of the general principles of life assu., it behoves every newly formed so. to endeavour to benefit by the experience of past results, and to propose a system for transacting bus. even more advantageous to the public than those adopted by its predecessors.
Then there follows anenumeration of the “advantages," as "half-credit assu.," forfeiture of pol." after four prems. paid, “surrender values' after five premis. paid, "deposits of money," and "loan department." Next, under "acclimatized lives," the following:
This office ins. this class of lives at a moderate add. on the English prems., and much below the rates usually required for foreign pol. With but few exceptions, no distinction has hitherto been made between those going for the first time to reside abroad in climates considered prejudicial to health and those who by a long residence have become acclimatized.
Under "annuities," there was the following:
A more equitable system than has usually been followed with regard to annu. is observed by this So. The constitution and health of the proposed annuitant has, in most cases, not been duly considered; it is obviously unfair that the same annu. should be allowed to the healthy as to the invalid, where each sinks the same amount, and no distinction is made in favour of the person whose expectation of life is positively abridged. Such a system is wholly opposed to the principles of life assu., and has therefore been departed from in this So. . . . In each case the state of the constitution and general health of the proposed annuitant will be taken into consideration in calculating the amount of annu. to be granted.
Rates of prem. had "been specially calculated for this So." Among the Directors was Mr. Thomas A. Pott; while the Sec. was Mr. J. F. Quartly; and the Consulting Act. Mr. Thomas Walker, B.A. In 1857 the bus. of the So. was trans. to the Briton. BRUSSELS.-We observe that some writers speak of the Ins. or Marine Ordin. of Brusselsas for instance Emerigon, who speaks of the Loix Carolines, from the fact that the Ordin. of 1551 was promulgated by the Emperor Charles V. We have spoken of these Ordin. under their proper head, ANTWERP. We observe mention made of a later Ordin. than we have there noted, viz. one promulgated by Philip II. in 1565, but this would only be a later ed. of the Ordin. there named. [BELGIUM.]