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In 1865 Mr. W. L. Sargant read before the Statistical So. a paper: Inconsistencies of the Census of 1861, with the Reg.-Gen. Reports; and Deficiencies in the Local Registry of Births. The conclusions at which the author arrives will be given in our art. CENSUS, under this date-especially under conclusions numbers 7 and 8.

The births regis. in the U.K., 1865, exclusive of the islands in the Brit. seas, amounted to 1,006,223, and this is below the actual number, as all the births are not regis. in Ireland or England.-Dr. Farr.

More boys are born alive than girls, and the boys dying in greater numbers, the provision of nature brings the sexes nearly to an equality at the age of marriage. Thus of 1000 children born in England 512 are boys, 488 girls; 334 men, 329 women, live to the age of 20. The excess of boys is reduced from 24 to 5; and if there was no emigration and foreign service, the men of the age of 20-40 would exceed the women in number. An unchanging million of ann. births will produce, according to the law of vitality in England, a pop. of 20,426,138 males, 20,432,046 females, large numbers differing quite inconsiderably.-Dr. Farr, 1866.

In 1866 Mr. T. A. Welton read before the Statistical So. of Lond. a paper: Observations on French Pop. Statistics, particularly those of Births, Deaths, and Marriages. The paper is pub. in the Journal of that So. [vol. 29, p. 254]. We can only briefly refer to the interesting facts it presents. He says:

Births appear to be relatively most numerous in the division of Alsace, where marriages are few and late, and least numerous in that of Western Normandy, though marriages are even less numerous than in Alsace they are earlier. Some cause, apart from the custom of the people as to marriage, must exist for such a disparity in the porportion of births. Thus

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Marriages
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A further examination of the birth-rates in the year 1856 does not present less singular results. Thus we find in Britanny and the division of the Adour, higher proportions of births than in Lower Garonne and Upper Seine. Comparative lateness and even paucity of marriages do not seem to be at all incompatible with relatively high birth-rates, and vice versa :

Marriages
per

Proportion of Women
marrying under

Births
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1000 Inhabitants.

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Upper Seine Perplexed by these figures, we may reasonably consult the statistics, in order to ascertain what is usual out of France. We shall find that in the same year (1856) a marriage-rate of 85 in England was co-existent with a birth-rate of 35'0 p. 1000 inhabitants; and that Belgium, with a marriage-rate of 73, had 296 births per 1000 inhabitants. Rather more than 4 births to one marriage were recorded in both these countries. The same may be said of Britanny and Alsace.

He concludes, naturally, that the exceptional circumstances must be looked for in the districts where the birth-rate is low. [MARRIAGES.] [POPULATION.]

In 1866 Mr. Samuel Brown read before the Statistical So. a paper: On the Statistical Progress of the Kingdom of Italy; and the same is pub. in the Journal of that So. [vol. 29, p. 197]. From it we derive the following facts. The births in 1862 were 833,054males, 428,922; females, 404, 132; being 106 to 100. Parma and Piacenza show the highest rate of male births, being 112.5 to 100; and Sicily the lowest, 104'5 to 100. The town pop. shows the highest rate of births, being 4'1 p.c. of the total inhabitants, and rural 37 p. c.-total, 383 p.c. In regard to fecundity of pop., Sicily shows the highest, 4'28 p.c. of the total inhabitants; and Umbria the least, 334 p.c. Dividing the number of births by that of marriages, the town communes give 501 p.c., and the rural 4:58 p.c.-mean for the whole kingdom, 4'71 p.c. By this rule the Marches show the highest rate, 5'59 p.c., and Piedmont the lowest, 4'39 p.c.

But the crowning work of the year 1866 was the pub. by the Belgian Gov. of Bulletin de la Commission Centrale de Statistique, a work prepared by the enlightened Belgian officials, under the supervision of M. Quetelet, to whom we are indebted for its able preface. In the work itself is presented the leading vital statistics of the principal European pop. An able summary of it will be found in the Statistical Journ. [vol. 31, p. 146]. We have here, as in other cases, to limit ourselves to a few of its leading facts.

The regis. of births is not so perfect as one could wish in several countries. In some the civil regis. is still incomplete, and where it is conducted by the religious denominations, some omissions must be expected. In 17 countries the returns of the births in the census year were found to exhibit a little excess over the average of the few years preceding-which might be anticipated from the fact that in most countries the pop. was increasing.

The most remarkable rate of fecundity is shown in Russia; and especially in the single year under obs. [1858], when it was nearly twice as high as in France. The general average may be fairly taken at about 333 in 10,000, or 3 p.c....

In the stillborn the remarkable fact is observed that males exceed the females in the proportion of 1335 to 1000-the excess of males amongst children who die in birth being six times as great as the excess of the males in children born alive. And this result is general, since the limits vary only from 1456 in France to 1254 in the Netherlands: the latter being nearly 5 times as great as the lowest excess of males in children born alive.

VOL. I.

21

The following T. of results we compile from the materials of several tables in the work. The year of obs. is generally the "census year ;" where the obs. extend over several years, the "mean" is given:

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Statisticians have calculated that if the pop. of the world amounts to between 1200 and 1300 million persons, the number of deaths in a year would be about 32 millions. Assuming the correctness of this calculation, the deaths each day would be nearly 88,000; 3600 per hour, 60 per minute, and thus every second would carry into eternity one human life from one part of the world or another. But reproduction asserts its superior power; for, on calculating the probable ann. births on the globe, the result shows that whereas 60 persons die per minute, 70 children are born, and thus the increase of the pop. is kept up.—Lancet, 1867. The excess of births over deaths in the U.K. is now more than 1000 per day. In England it is above 250,000 a year; in Scotland, above 40,000; in Ireland it is estimated at nearly 70,000.

Our great store-house of modern information on all subjects connected with the births, marriages, and deaths of our pop., and not only of our own pop., but incidentally of many other pop., consists of the ann. reports of our Reg.-Gen.-supplemented as they are decennially by the reports of the Commissioners of the Census. It is impossible to speak too highly of these several productions, or of him under whose actual (as distinguished from nominal) direction they are—we mean Dr. Farr, and with him we always associate, although we do not always name, his talented staff of assistants. Since these reports have become what they are, we have had little occasion to look beyond them for information. We propose to complete this paper mainly by their aid.

The number of births regis., and the ann. birth-rate to 1000 of pop. respectively, in each of twelve large towns of the U.K. in the year 1867, was as follows: Bristol, 6004 and 364; Birmingham, 13,029 and 380; Liverpool, 19,561 and 39'9; Manchester, 13,365 and 370; Salford, 4517 and 39'4; Sheffield, 9296 and 41'3; Leeds, 10,254 and 44'3; Hull, 4142 and 389; Newcastle-on-Tyne, 4815 and 387; Edinburgh, 6422 and 366; Glasgow, 18,322 and 41°7; Dublin, 8240 and 25'9. The natural increase of pop. by excess of births over deaths during the year was 981 in Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1250 in Salford, 1487 in Hull, 1662 in Edinburgh, 2011 in Manchester, 2283 in Bristol, 3727 in Sheffield, 4008 in Leeds, 4711 in Birmingham, 5050 in Liverpool, and 5779 in Glasgow. The second quarter of 1868, said the Reg.-Gen., is the first time that 200,000 children have been born alive in England and Wales in a quarter of a year. The exact number reached 202,892-2230 a day, 1 a minute, if we might divide a child. The marriages in 1867 had been fewer than in either of the three preceding years, but in 1864, 1865, and 1866, they had been unusually numerous. The death-rate in the second quarter of the year 1868 being lower than in the spring quarter of any year since the national civil registration began, the extraordinary result is presented of no less than 14 of the 40 counties of England having twice as many births as deaths-viz., Kent, Berkshire, Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Northamptonshire, Huntingdonshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Somerset, Staffordshire, Worcestershire, Lincolnshire, and Durham. The same may be said, too, of South Wales, taken as a whole.

In the 30 years 1840-1869 the regis. births in England and Wales (of children born alive) have exceeded the regis. deaths by 6,551,031, averaging 218,368 a year. In the five years 1840-44 the ann. average of this natural increase was 168,771; in the five years 1845-49 it was 158,734, being kept down by the high mort. of the years 1847, 1848, and 1849; in the five years 1850-54 the ann. average was 209,913; in the five years 1855-59, 234,894; in the five years 1860–64, 259,412; in the 5 years 1865-69, 278,481.

The ann. average number of births has increased from 520,058 in the first five years of the 30 years series-i.e. 1840-44, to 766,105 in the last five years-i.e. 1865-69; while the ann. average number of deaths has only advanced from 351,286 in 1840-44 to 487,624 in 1865-69. Thus the regis. births show an increase of above 47 p.c.; the regis. deaths an increase of not quite 39 p.c.

The following T. shows the ann. births in England over a period of 25 years, distinguishing the illegitimate; and also defining the relative proportions of the sexes, both legitimate and illegitimate. The T. is instructive in many respects:

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The theory has heretofore been that the proportion of males in illegitimate births was smaller than in the case of legitimate births. The fact appears to be entirely the other way in England: that is since 1851, further back than which we have no accurate statistics on the subject. We had, however, better place on record the obs. which have been taken of an opposite character. They are none of them very recent, nor can even the date of obs. now be fixed in most of the instances.

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The only two cases in this T. in which the illegitimate males exceed the legitimate are Amsterdam and Frankfort; and in these cases the excess is greater than in any recorded year in the English returns as given above.

The following T. shows the proportion of male births to each 1000 female births in various European countries:

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That the seasons affect the fecundity of the pop. appears to be a fact founded upon

incontrovertible proof in England. See the following T. of births regis. in each quarter for the last 32 years. Graunt had remarked upon this fact more than two centuries ago.

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The mothers of all the children that are born in England are between the ages of 15 and 55, and the greater part of them are between the ages of 20 and 40. Nine in ten husbands have children. In England the children born in wedlock to a marriage are 4'3. The birth-rate is sustained at 35 p. 1000 of the pop., while the death-rate is only 23 p. 1000. In France the marriages have been kept up, but the average births to a marriage have been reduced to 31; the birth-rate in the last return, 1853-68, was 26.15 p. 1000 of the pop. ; the death-rate 23'72 p. 1000-difference 2.63 p. 1000. The natural ann. increase was barely o'26 p.c.-Preliminary Report on Census, 1871.

The following is the proportion of children born to the inhabitants of various European countries:

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In the case of England in this table it is one living child. In the other countries stillborn are included.

Illegitimate Births.-In England the per-centage of illegitimate births to the total births had declined from 6.7 in 1847 to 5'9 in 1867; while the number of persons married to

every 100 of the pop. has increased from 1.586 in 1847 to 1672 in 1867. In Scotland, where many of the births regis. as illegitimate are legitmated by subsequent marriage of their mothers, the per-centage of children born out of wedlock to the total births was 8.5 in 1856, and 10'1 in 1866. We have already spoken of the proportion of males and females among illegitimate children.

In the year 1851 the illegitimate births regis. in Lond. were but 4 p.c. of the entire births. In Paris from 1845 to 1853 they were, according to the French census report, 32 out of every 100 births. It does not necessarily follow that Lond. is so much more moral than Paris-it may be that such births are much less frequently regis. in the former than in the latter city.-A. G. Finlaison, 1860.

During the 10 years, 1814-23, the proportion of illegitimate to legitimate births in Geneva was 1275 p.c., or about 1 in 8. In the 10 years 1824-33, they were 7:57, or about 1 in 13; over the entire 20 years they were 10 (999) p.c. In France (as distinguished from Paris) during the period 1815 to 1833 the per-centage was 701. The proportions are always greater in towns than in country.

Statistical investigation has shown that there are many causes which may account for the differences that exist in the proportion of children born out of wedlock in various countries. England stands almost alone among the civilized nations of Europe in refusing legitimation, even at the wish of the parents, to children born out of wedlock. Again, the number of children, born out of wedlock is never exactly known in any country. The following T. shows the proportion of illegitimate births as regis. in various European countries at the periods stated therein:

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In the case of Prussia in the preceding T., the proportion is in relation to of living legitimate children."

100 births

The following remarks, by one of the most able German statistical writers, Dr. Chr. Bernoulli, sums nearly all that remains to be said regarding this unfortunate class :

The proportion of illegitimate children cannot serve as a standard of morality; nevertheless a remarkable frequency of such children is without doubt in many respects a great evil. The invariable fact that the mort. among the illegitimate is far greater than among the legitimate, and that many more of them are stillborn, shows clearly enough how much more unfavourable their position is from the first. Who can doubt that their bringing up is harder and much more difficult? that the existence of a class of men, bound to society by few or no family ties, is not a matter of indifference to the State? The great majority of foundlings are illegitimate, which of itself shows how little, as a general rule, the mothers can or will care for these children. It is beyond doubt that fewer illegitimate children grow up to maturity; that they get through the world with much more trouble than children born in wedlock; that more of them are poor; and that therefore more of them become criminals. Illegitimacy itself is an evil to a man; and the State should seek to diminish the number of these births, and carefully inquire to what circumstances any increase is to be ascribed.

Stillborn.-We have seen from the preceding Tables that many of the Continental countries show the number of stillborn children—that is, of children born dead. No such returns are obtained in England or Scotland, and there are no means of ascertaining what are the numbers of such births, nor consequently their effect in these countries upon the relative proportions of illegitimate and legitimate children. It is sometimes alleged by Continental writers that their regis. would swell up the proportions of illegitimate births considerably. This is of course pure speculation. Yet we could wish that our returns were as complete as those of other countries.

In the year ending 30 June, 1868, there were regis. in Paris 4387 stillborn children. If the same proportion obtained in England, making allowance for difference of pop., they would amount to about 50,000 p.a., or nearly 1000 p. week.

Twin Births.-In the earlier obs. upon twin births many variations occurred. Thus Dr. Merriman quotes obs. which had been made by the following authorities, with the result placed opposite to each name:

...

Dr. Clarke, at the Dublin Lying-in Hospital
Dr. Bland, at the Westminster Dispensary
Professor Boer, at the Vienna Lying-in Hospital
Dr. Denman, at the British Hospital
Dr. Denman, at the Middlesex Hospital...

...

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